Browsing by Author "Albrecht, Martin"
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- ItemControl of phase formation of (AlxGa1 - X)2O3thin films on c-plane Al2O3(Bristol : IOP Publ., 2020) Hassa, Anna; Wouters, Charlotte; Kneiß, Max; Splith, Daniel; Sturm, Chris; von Wenckstern, Holger; Albrecht, Martin; Lorenz, Michael; Grundmann, MariusIn this paper, the growth of orthorhombic and monoclinic (Al x Ga1 - x )2O3 thin films on (00.1) Al2O3 by tin-assisted pulsed laser deposition is investigated as a function of oxygen pressure p(O2) and substrate temperature Tg. For certain growth conditions, defined by Tg = 580°C and p(O2) = 0.016 mbar, the orthorhombic ?-polymorph is stabilized. For Tg = 540°C and p(O2) = 0.016 mbar, the ?-, and the ß-, as well as the spinel ?-polymorph coexist, as illustrated by XRD 2?-?-scans. Further employed growth parameters result in thin films with a monoclinic ß-gallia structure. For all polymorphs, p(O2) and Tg affect the formation and desorption of volatile suboxides, and thereby the growth rate and the cation composition. For example, low oxygen pressures lead to low growth rates and enhanced Al incorporation. This facilitates the structural engineering of polymorphic, ternary (Al,Ga)2O3 via selection of the relevant process parameters. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of a ? - (Al0.13Ga0.87)2O3 thin film reveal a more complex picture compared to that derived from x-ray diffraction measurements. Furthermore, this study presents the possibility of controlling the phase formation, as well as the Al-content, of thin films based on the choice of their growth conditions. © 2020 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.
- ItemExciton emission of quasi-2D InGaN in GaN matrix grown by molecular beam epitaxy([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2017) Ma, Dingyu; Rong, Xin; Zheng, Xiantong; Wang, Weiying; Wang, Ping; Schulz, Tobias; Albrecht, Martin; Metzner, Sebastian; Müller, Mathias; August, Olga; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jürgen; Jin, Peng; Li, Mo; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Xuelin; Xu, Fujun; Qin, Zhixin; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo; Wang, XinqiangWe investigate the emission from confined excitons in the structure of a single-monolayer-thick quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) Inx Ga1-x N layer inserted in GaN matrix. This quasi-2D InGaN layer was successfully achieved by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and an excellent in-plane uniformity in this layer was confirmed by cathodoluminescence mapping study. The carrier dynamics have also been investigated by time-resolved and excitation-power-dependent photoluminescence, proving that the recombination occurs via confined excitons within the ultrathin quasi-2D InGaN layer even at high temperature up to ∼220 K due to the enhanced exciton binding energy. This work indicates that such structure affords an interesting opportunity for developing high-performance photonic devices.
- ItemFree-standing millimetre-long Bi2Te3 sub-micron belts catalyzed by TiO2 nanoparticles(New York, NY [u.a.] : Springer, 2016) Schönherr, Piet; Zhang, Fengyu; Kojda, Danny; Mitdank, Rüdiger; Albrecht, Martin; Fischer, Saskia F.; Hesjedal, ThorstenPhysical vapour deposition (PVD) is used to grow millimetre-long Bi2Te3 sub-micron belts catalysed by TiO2 nanoparticles. The catalytic efficiency of TiO2 nanoparticles for the nanostructure growth is compared with the catalyst-free growth employing scanning electron microscopy. The catalyst-coated and catalyst-free substrates are arranged side-by-side, and overgrown at the same time, to assure identical growth conditions in the PVD furnace. It is found that the catalyst enhances the yield of the belts. Very long belts were achieved with a growth rate of 28 nm/min. A ∼1-mm-long belt with a rectangular cross section was obtained after 8 h of growth. The thickness and width were determined by atomic force microscopy, and their ratio is ∼1:10. The chemical composition was determined to be stoichiometric Bi2Te3 using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Temperature-dependent conductivity measurements show a characteristic increase of the conductivity at low temperatures. The room temperature conductivity of 0.20 × 10(5) S m (-1) indicates an excellent sample quality.
- ItemHeteroepitaxial growth of T-Nb2O5 on SrTiO3(Basel : MDPI, 2018) Boschker, Jos E.; Markurt, Toni; Albrecht, Martin; Schwarzkopf, JuttaThere is a growing interest in exploiting the functional properties of niobium oxides in general and of the T-Nb2O5 polymorph in particular. Fundamental investigations of the properties of niobium oxides are, however, hindered by the availability of materials with sufficient structural perfection. It is expected that high-quality T-Nb2O5 can be made using heteroepitaxial growth. Here, we investigated the epitaxial growth of T-Nb2O5 on a prototype perovskite oxide, SrTiO3. Even though there exists a reasonable lattice mismatch in one crystallographic direction, these materials have a significant difference in crystal structure: SrTiO3 is cubic, whereas T-Nb2O5 is orthorhombic. It is found that this difference in symmetry results in the formation of domains that have the T-Nb2O5 c-axis aligned with the SrTiO3 <001>s in-plane directions. Hence, the number of domain orientations is four and two for the growth on (100)s- and (110)s-oriented substrates, respectively. Interestingly, the out-of-plane growth direction remains the same for both substrate orientations, suggesting a weak interfacial coupling between the two materials. Despite challenges associated with the heteroepitaxial growth of T-Nb2O5, the T-Nb2O5 films presented in this paper are a significant improvement in terms of structural quality compared to their polycrystalline counterparts.
- ItemHigh-mobility 4 μm MOVPE-grown (100) β-Ga2O3 film by parasitic particles suppression(Bristol : IOP Publ., 2023) Chou, Ta-Shun; Seyidov, Palvan; Bin Anooz, Saud; Grüneberg, Raimund; Rehm, Jana; Tran, Thi Thuy Vi; Fiedler, Andreas; Tetzner, Kornelius; Galazka, Zbigniew; Albrecht, Martin; Popp, AndreasIn this work, we comprehensively investigate the development of unwanted parasitic particles in the MOVPE chamber while growing μm level films. The density of the parasitic particles is found to be pronounced at film thicknesses starting from >1.5 to 2 μm. These particles seem to induce structural defects such as twin lamellae, thereby harming the electrical properties of the grown film. The origin of the parasitic particle is attributed to the parasitic reactions within the chamber triggered by the promoted gas-phase reactions during the growth process, which can be largely reduced by increasing the total gas flow and decreasing the showerhead distance to the susceptor. A film thickness of up to 4 μm has been achieved after minimizing the density of parasitic particles. Thereby, RT Hall measurements reveal carrier mobilities of 160 cm2V−1s−1 at carrier concentrations of 5.7 × 1016cm−3
- ItemMelt Growth and Physical Properties of Bulk LaInO3 Single Crystals(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Galazka, Zbigniew; Irmscher, Klaus; Ganschow, Steffen; Zupancic, Martina; Aggoune, Wahib; Draxl, Claudia; Albrecht, Martin; Klimm, Detlef; Kwasniewski, Albert; Schulz, Tobias; Pietsch, Mike; Dittmar, Andrea; Grueneberg, Raimund; Juda, Uta; Schewski, Robert; Bergmann, Sabine; Cho, Hyeongmin; Char, Kookrin; Schroeder, Thomas; Bickermann, MatthiasLarge bulk LaInO3 single crystals are grown from the melt contained within iridium crucibles by the vertical gradient freeze (VGF) method. The obtained crystals are undoped or intentionally doped with Ba or Ce, and enabled wafer fabrication of size 10 × 10 mm2. High melting point of LaInO3 (≈1880 °C) and thermal instability at high temperatures require specific conditions for bulk crystal growth. The crystals do not undergo any phase transition up to 1300 °C, above which a noticeable thermal decomposition takes place. The good structural quality of the crystals makes them suitable for epitaxy. The onset of strong optical absorption shows orientation-dependent behavior due to the orthorhombic symmetry of the LaInO3 crystals. Assuming direct transitions, optical bandgaps of 4.35 and 4.39 eV are obtained for polarizations along the  and the ,  crystallographic directions, respectively. There is an additional weak absorption in the range between 2.8 and 4 eV due to oxygen vacancies. Density-functional-theory calculations support the interpretation of the optical absorption data. Cathodoluminescence spectra show a broad, structured emission band peaking at ≈2.2 eV. All bulk crystals are electrically insulating. The relative static dielectric constant is determined at a value of 24.6 along the  direction.
- ItemPolarity Control in Group-III Nitrides beyond Pragmatism(College Park, Md. [u.a.] : American Physical Society, 2016) Mohn, Stefan; Stolyarchuk, Natalia; Markurt, Toni; Kirste, Ronny; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Collazo, Ramón; Courville, Aimeric; Di Felice, Rosa; Sitar, Zlatko; Vennéguès, Philippe; Albrecht, MartinControlling the polarity of polar semiconductors on nonpolar substrates offers a wealth of device concepts in the form of heteropolar junctions. A key to realize such structures is an appropriate buffer-layer design that, in the past, has been developed by empiricism. GaN or ZnO on sapphire are prominent examples for that. Understanding the basic processes that mediate polarity, however, is still an unsolved problem. In this work, we study the structure of buffer layers for group-III nitrides on sapphire by transmission electron microscopy as an example. We show that it is the conversion of the sapphire surface into a rhombohedral aluminum-oxynitride layer that converts the initial N-polar surface to Al polarity. With the various AlxOyNz phases of the pseudobinary Al2O3-AlN system and their tolerance against intrinsic defects, typical for oxides, a smooth transition between the octahedrally coordinated Al in the sapphire and the tetrahedrally coordinated Al in AlN becomes feasible. Based on these results, we discuss the consequences for achieving either polarity and shed light on widely applied concepts in the field of group-III nitrides like nitridation and low-temperature buffer layers.
- ItemSingle-photon emission from isolated monolayer islands of InGaN(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2020) Sun, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Ping; Wang, Tao; Chen, Ling; Chen, Zhaoying; Gao, Kang; Aoki, Tomoyuki; Li, Mo; Zhang, Jian; Schulz, Tobias; Albrecht, Martin; Ge, Weikun; Arakawa, Yasuhiko; Shen, Bo; Holmes, Mark; Wang, XinqiangWe identify and characterize a novel type of quantum emitter formed from InGaN monolayer islands grown using molecular beam epitaxy and further isolated via the fabrication of an array of nanopillar structures. Detailed optical analysis of the characteristic emission spectrum from the monolayer islands is performed, and the main transmission is shown to act as a bright, stable, and fast single-photon emitter with a wavelength of ~400 nm. © 2020, The Author(s).
- ItemSuppression of particle formation by gas-phase pre-reactions in (100) MOVPE-grown β -Ga2O3films for vertical device application(Melville, NY : American Inst. of Physics, 2023) Chou, Ta-Shun; Seyidov, Palvan; Bin Anooz, Saud; Grüneberg, Raimund; Pietsch, Mike; Rehm, Jana; Tran, Thi Thuy Vi; Tetzner, Kornelius; Galazka, Zbigniew; Albrecht, Martin; Irmscher, Klaus; Fiedler, Andreas; Popp, AndreasThis work investigated the metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of (100) β-Ga2O3 films with the aim of meeting the requirements to act as drift layers for high-power electronic devices. A height-adjustable showerhead achieving a close distance to the susceptor (1.5 cm) was demonstrated to be a critical factor in increasing the stability of the Ga wetting layer (or Ga adlayer) on the surface and reducing parasitic particles. A film thickness of up to 3 μm has been achieved while keeping the root mean square below 0.7 nm. Record carrier mobilities of 155 cm2 V-1 s-1 (2.2 μm) and 163 cm2 V-1 s-1 (3 μm) at room temperature were measured for (100) β-Ga2O3 films with carrier concentrations of 5.7 × 1016 and 7.1 × 1016 cm-3, respectively. Analysis of temperature-dependent Hall mobility and carrier concentration data revealed a low background compensating acceptor concentration of 4 × 1015 cm-3.
- ItemUltra-wide bandgap, conductive, high mobility, and high quality melt-grown bulk ZnGa2O4 single crystals(Melville, NY : AIP Publ., 2019) Galazka, Zbigniew; Ganschow, Steffen; Schewski, Robert; Irmscher, Klaus; Klimm, Detlef; Kwasniewski, Albert; Pietsch, Mike; Fiedler, Andreas; Schulze-Jonack, Isabelle; Albrecht, Martin; Schröder, Thomas; Bickermann, MatthiasTruly bulk ZnGa2O4 single crystals were obtained directly from the melt. High melting point of 1900 ± 20 °C and highly incongruent evaporation of the Zn- and Ga-containing species impose restrictions on growth conditions. The obtained crystals are characterized by a stoichiometric or near-stoichiometric composition with a normal spinel structure at room temperature and by a narrow full width at half maximum of the rocking curve of the 400 peak of (100)-oriented samples of 23 arcsec. ZnGa2O4 is a single crystalline spinel phase with the Ga/Zn atomic ratio up to about 2.17. Melt-grown ZnGa2O4 single crystals are thermally stable up to 1100 and 700 °C when subjected to annealing for 10 h in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres, respectively. The obtained ZnGa2O4 single crystals were either electrical insulators or n-type semiconductors/degenerate semiconductors depending on growth conditions and starting material composition. The as-grown semiconducting crystals had the resistivity, free electron concentration, and maximum Hall mobility of 0.002–0.1 Ωcm, 3 × 1018–9 × 1019 cm−3, and 107 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively. The semiconducting crystals could be switched into the electrically insulating state by annealing in the presence of oxygen at temperatures ≥700 °C for at least several hours. The optical absorption edge is steep and originates at 275 nm, followed by full transparency in the visible and near infrared spectral regions. The optical bandgap gathered from the absorption coefficient is direct with a value of about 4.6 eV, close to that of β-Ga2O3. Additionally, with a lattice constant of a = 8.3336 Å, ZnGa2O4 may serve as a good lattice-matched substrate for magnetic Fe-based spinel films.
- ItemVerbundprojekt: Effiziente, kostengünstige InGaN-Lichtquellen auf Silizium-Substraten für die Allgemeinbeleuchtung, Teilvorhaben: Elektronenmikroskopische Charakterisierung und Modellierung von Versetzungsprozessen von InGaN-Lichtquellen auf Si-Substraten : Schlussbericht ; Laufzeit des Vorhabens: 01.02.2009 - 31.01.2012(Hannover : Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB), 2012) Albrecht, Martin; Schulz, Tobias; Markurt, Toni; Remmele, Thilo[no abstract available]