Browsing by Author "Appelhans, Dietmar"
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- ItemConstruction of Eukaryotic Cell Biomimetics: Hierarchical Polymersomes-in-Proteinosome Multicompartment with Enzymatic Reactions Modulated Protein Transportation(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Wen, Ping; Wang, Xueyi; Moreno, Silvia; Boye, Susanne; Voigt, Dagmar; Voit, Brigitte; Huang, Xin; Appelhans, DietmarThe eukaryotic cell is a smart compartment containing an outer permeable membrane, a cytoskeleton, and functional organelles, presenting part structures for life. The integration of membrane-containing artificial organelles (=polymersomes) into a large microcompartment is a key step towards the establishment of exquisite cellular biomimetics with different membrane properties. Herein, an efficient way to construct a hierarchical multicompartment composed of a hydrogel-filled proteinosome hybrid structure with an outer homogeneous membrane, a smart cytoskeleton-like scaffold, and polymersomes is designed. Specially, this hybrid structure creates a micro-environment for pH-responsive polymersomes to execute a desired substance transport upon response to biological stimuli. Within the dynamic pH-stable skeleton of the protein hydrogels, polymersomes with loaded PEGylated insulin biomacromolecules demonstrate a pH-responsive reversible swelling-deswelling and a desirable, on-demand cargo release which is induced by the enzymatic oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid. This stimulus responsive behavior is realized by tunable on/off states through protonation of the polymersomes membrane under the enzymatic reaction of glucose oxidase, integrated in the skeleton of protein hydrogels. The integration of polymersomes-based hybrid structure into the proteinosome compartment and the stimuli-response on enzyme reactions fulfills the requirements of eukaryotic cell biomimetics in complex architectures and allows mimicking cellular transportation processes.
- ItemContinuous Flow Synthesis of Azoxybenzenes by Reductive Dimerization of Nitrosobenzenes with Gel‐Bound Catalysts(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH Verl., 2021) Schmiegel, Carsten J.; Berg, Patrik; Obst, Franziska; Schoch, Roland; Appelhans, Dietmar; Kuckling, DirkIn the search for a new synthetic pathway for azoxybenzenes with different substitution patterns, an approach using a microfluidic reactor with gel-bound proline organocatalysts under continuous flow is presented. Herein the formation of differently substituted azoxybezenes by reductive dimerization of nitrosobenzenes within minutes at mild conditions in good to almost quantitative yields is described. The conversion within the microfluidic reactor is analyzed and used for optimizing and validating different parameters. The effects of the different functionalities on conversion, yield, and reaction times are analyzed in detail by NMR. The applicability of this reductive dimerization is demonstrated for a wide range of differently substituted nitrosobenzenes. The effects of these different functionalities on the structure of the obtained azoxyarenes are analyzed in detail by NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Based on these results, the turnover number and the turnover frequency were determined.
- ItemDendritic glycopolymers based on dendritic polyamine scaffolds: view on their synthetic approaches, characteristics and potential for biomedical applications(London : Soc., 2014) Appelhans, Dietmar; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara; Janaszewska, Anna; Lazniewska, Joanna; Voit, BrigitteIn this review we highlight the potential for biomedical applications of dendritic glycopolymers based on polyamine scaffolds. The complex interplay of the molecular characteristics of the dendritic architectures and their specific interactions with various (bio)molecules are elucidated with various examples. A special role of the individual sugar units attached to the dendritic scaffolds and their density is identified, which govern ionic and H-bond interactions, and biological targeting, but to a large extent are also responsible for the significantly reduced toxicity of the dendritic glycopolymers compared to their polyamine scaffolds. Thus, the application of dendritic glycopolymers in drug delivery systems for gene transfection but also as therapeutics in neurodegenerative diseases has great promise.
- ItemEffects of dendritic core-shell glycoarchitectures on primary mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts obtained from different human donors(London : Biomed Central, 2015) Lautenschläger, Stefan; Striegler, Christin; Dakischew, Olga; Schütz, Iris; Szalay, Gabor; Schnettler, Reinhard; Heiß, Christian; Appelhans, Dietmar; Lips, Katrin S.The biological impact of novel nano-scaled drug delivery vehicles in highly topical therapies of bone diseases have to be investigated in vitro before starting in vivo trials. Highly desired features for these materials are a good cellular uptake, large transport capacity for drugs and a good bio-compatibility. Essentially the latter has to be addressed as first point on the agenda. We present a study on the biological interaction of maltose-modified poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI-Mal) on primary human mesenchymal stem cell, harvested from reaming debris (rdMSC) and osteoblasts obtained from four different male donors. PEI-Mal-nanoparticles with two different molecular weights of the PEI core (5000 g/mol for PEI-5k-Mal-B and 25,000 g/mol for PEI-25k-Mal-B) have been administered to both cell lines. As well dose as incubation-time dependent effects and interactions have been researched for concentrations between 1 μg/ml to 1 mg/ml and periods of 24 h up to 28 days. Studies conducted by different methods of microscopy as light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, transmission-electron-microscopy and quantitative assays (LDH and DC-protein) indicate as well a good cellular uptake of the nanoparticles as a particle- and concentration-dependent impact on the cellular macro- and micro-structure of the rdMSC samples. In all experiments PEI-5k-Mal-B exhibits a superior biocompatibility compared to PEI-25k-Mal-B. At higher concentrations PEI-25k-Mal-B is toxic and induces a directly observable mitochondrial damage. The alkaline phosphatase assay (ALP), has been conducted to check on the possible influence of nanoparticles on the differentiation capabilities of rdMSC to osteoblasts. In addition the production of mineralized matrix has been shown by von-Kossa stained samples. No influence of the nanoparticles on the ALP per cell has been detected. Additionally, for all experiments, results are strongly influenced by a large donor-to-donor variability of the four different rdMSC samples. To summarize, while featuring a good cellular uptake, PEI-5k-Mal-B induces only minimal adverse effects and features clearly superior biocompatibility compared to the larger PEI-25k-Mal-B.
- ItemHydrogel microvalves as control elements for parallelized enzymatic cascade reactions in microfluidics(Basel : MDPI, 2020) Obst, Franziska; Beck, Anthony; Bishayee, Chayan; Mehner, Philipp J.; Richter, Andreas; Voit, Brigitte; Appelhans, DietmarCompartmentalized microfluidic devices with immobilized catalysts are a valuable tool for overcoming the incompatibility challenge in (bio) catalytic cascade reactions and high-throughput screening of multiple reaction parameters. To achieve flow control in microfluidics, stimuli-responsive hydrogel microvalves were previously introduced. However, an application of this valve concept for the control of multistep reactions was not yet shown. To fill this gap, we show the integration of thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm) microvalves (diameter: 500 and 600 µm) into PDMS-on-glass microfluidic devices for the control of parallelized enzyme-catalyzed cascade reactions. As a proof-of-principle, the biocatalysts glucose oxidase (GOx), horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and myoglobin (Myo) were immobilized in photopatterned hydrogel dot arrays (diameter of the dots: 350 µm, amount of enzymes: 0.13-2.3 µg) within three compartments of the device. Switching of the microvalves was achieved within 4 to 6 s and thereby the fluid pathway of the enzyme substrate solution (5 mmol/L) in the device was determined. Consequently, either the enzyme cascade reaction GOx-HRP or GOx-Myo was performed and continuously quantified by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The functionality of the microvalves was shown in four hourly switching cycles and visualized by the path-dependent substrate conversion. © 2020 by the authors.
- ItemHydrogel patterns in microfluidic devices by do-it-yourself UV-photolithography suitable for very large-scale integration(Basel : MDPI, 2020) Beck, Anthony; Obst, Franziska; Busek, Mathias; Grünzner, Stefan; Mehner, Philipp J.; Paschew, Georgi; Appelhans, Dietmar; Voit, Brigitte; Richter, AndreasThe interest in large-scale integrated (LSI) microfluidic systems that perform highthroughput biological and chemical laboratory investigations on a single chip is steadily growing. Such highly integrated Labs-on-a-Chip (LoC) provide fast analysis, high functionality, outstanding reproducibility at low cost per sample, and small demand of reagents. One LoC platform technology capable of LSI relies on specific intrinsically active polymers, the so-called stimuli-responsive hydrogels. Analogous to microelectronics, the active components of the chips can be realized by photolithographic micro-patterning of functional layers. The miniaturization potential and the integration degree of the microfluidic circuits depend on the capability of the photolithographic process to pattern hydrogel layers with high resolution, and they typically require expensive cleanroom equipment. Here, we propose, compare, and discuss a cost-efficient do-it-yourself (DIY) photolithographic set-up suitable to micro-pattern hydrogel-layers with a resolution as needed for very large-scale integrated (VLSI) microfluidics. The achievable structure dimensions are in the lower micrometer scale, down to a feature size of 20 µm with aspect ratios of 1:5 and maximum integration densities of 20,000 hydrogel patterns per cm. Furthermore, we demonstrate the effects of miniaturization on the efficiency of a hydrogel-based microreactor system by increasing the surface area to volume (SA:V) ratio of integrated bioactive hydrogels. We then determine and discuss a correlation between ultraviolet (UV) exposure time, cross-linking density of polymers, and the degree of immobilization of bioactive components. © 2020 by the authors.
- ItemIn situ identification and G4-PPI-His-Mal-dendrimer-induced reduction of early-stage amyloid aggregates in Alzheimer’s disease transgenic mice using synchrotron-based infrared imaging([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2021) Benseny-Cases, Núria; Álvarez-Marimon, Elena; Aso, Ester; Carmona, Margarita; Klementieva, Oxana; Appelhans, Dietmar; Ferrer, Isidre; Cladera, JosepAmyloid plaques composed of Aβ amyloid peptides and neurofibrillary tangles are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer Disease. In situ identification of early-stage amyloid aggregates in Alzheimer’s disease is relevant for their importance as potential targets for effective drugs. Synchrotron-based infrared imaging is here used to identify early-stage oligomeric/granular aggregated amyloid species in situ in the brain of APP/PS1 transgenic mice for the first time. Also, APP/PS1 mice show fibrillary aggregates at 6 and 12 months. A significant decreased burden of early-stage aggregates and fibrillary aggregates is obtained following treatment with poly(propylene imine) dendrimers with histidine-maltose shell (a neurodegenerative protector) in 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice, thus demonstrating their putative therapeutic properties of in AD models. Identification, localization, and characterization using infrared imaging of these non-fibrillary species in the cerebral cortex at early stages of AD progression in transgenic mice point to their relevance as putative pharmacological targets. No less important, early detection of these structures may be useful in the search for markers for non-invasive diagnostic techniques.
- ItemLight-Driven Proton Transfer for Cyclic and Temporal Switching of Enzymatic Nanoreactors(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Moreno, Silvia; Sharan, Priyanka; Engelke, Johanna; Gumz, Hannes; Boye, Susanne; Oertel, Ulrich; Wang, Peng; Banerjee, Susanta; Klajn, Rafal; Voit, Brigitte; Lederer, Albena; Appelhans, DietmarTemporal activation of biological processes by visible light and subsequent return to an inactive state in the absence of light is an essential characteristic of photoreceptor cells. Inspired by these phenomena, light-responsive materials are very attractive due to the high spatiotemporal control of light irradiation, with light being able to precisely orchestrate processes repeatedly over many cycles. Herein, it is reported that light-driven proton transfer triggered by a merocyanine-based photoacid can be used to modulate the permeability of pH-responsive polymersomes through cyclic, temporally controlled protonation and deprotonation of the polymersome membrane. The membranes can undergo repeated light-driven swelling-contraction cycles without losing functional effectiveness. When applied to enzyme loaded-nanoreactors, this membrane responsiveness is used for the reversible control of enzymatic reactions. This combination of the merocyanine-based photoacid and pH-switchable nanoreactors results in rapidly responding and versatile supramolecular systems successfully used to switch enzymatic reactions ON and OFF on demand.
- ItemLong-Term Retarded Release for the Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib through Temperature-Sensitive Dendritic Glycopolymers as Drug Delivery System from Calcium Phosphate Bone Cement(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Lai, Thu Hang; Keperscha, Bettina; Qiu, Xianping; Voit, Brigitte; Appelhans, DietmarFor the local treatment of bone defects, highly adaptable macromolecular architectures are still required as drug delivery system (DDS) in solid bone substitute materials. Novel DDS fabricated by host–guest interactions between β-cyclodextrin-modified dendritic glycopolymers and adamantane-modified temperature-sensitive polymers for the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BZM) is presented. These DDS induce a short- and long-term (up to two weeks) retarded release of BZM from calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC) in comparison to a burst release of the drug alone. Different release parameters of BZM/DDS/CPC are evaluated in phosphate buffer at 37 °C to further improve the long-term retarded release of BZM. This is achieved by increasing the amount of drug (50–100 µg) and/or DDS (100–400 µg) versus CPC (1 g), by adapting the complexes better to the porous bone cement environment, and by applying molar ratios of excess BZM toward DDS with 1:10, 1:25, and 1:100. The temperature-sensitive polymer shells of BZM/DDS complexes in CPC, which allow drug loading at room temperature but are collapsed at body temperature, support the retarding long-term release of BZM from DDS/CPC. Thus, the concept of temperature-sensitive DDS for BZM/DDS complexes in CPC works and matches key points for a local therapy of osteolytic bone lesions.
- ItemMatrix metalloproteinase-1 decorated polymersomes, a surface-active extracellular matrix therapeutic, potentiates collagen degradation and attenuates early liver fibrosis(New York, NY [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2021) Geervliet, Eline; Moreno, Silvia; Baiamonte, Luca; Booijink, Richell; Boye, Susanne; Wang, Peng; Voit, Brigitte; Lederer, Albena; Appelhans, Dietmar; Bansal, RuchiLiver fibrosis affects millions of people worldwide and is rising vastly over the past decades. With no viable therapies available, liver transplantation is the only curative treatment for advanced diseased patients. Excessive accumulation of aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, mostly collagens, produced by activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), is a hallmark of liver fibrosis. Several studies have suggested an inverse correlation between collagen-I degrading matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) serum levels and liver fibrosis progression highlighting reduced MMP-1 levels are associated with poor disease prognosis in patients with liver fibrosis. We hypothesized that delivery of MMP-1 might potentiate collagen degradation and attenuate fibrosis development. In this study, we report a novel approach for the delivery of MMP-1 using MMP-1 decorated polymersomes (MMPsomes), as a surface-active vesicle-based ECM therapeutic, for the treatment of liver fibrosis. The storage-stable and enzymatically active MMPsomes were fabricated by a post-loading of Psomes with MMP-1. MMPsomes were extensively characterized for the physicochemical properties, MMP-1 surface localization, stability, enzymatic activity, and biological effects. Dose-dependent effects of MMP-1, and effects of MMPsomes versus MMP-1, empty polymersomes (Psomes) and MMP-1 + Psomes on gene and protein expression of collagen-I, MMP-1/TIMP-1 ratio, migration and cell viability were examined in TGFβ-activated human HSCs. Finally, the therapeutic effects of MMPsomes, compared to MMP-1, were evaluated in vivo in carbon-tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced early liver fibrosis mouse model. MMPsomes exhibited favorable physicochemical properties, MMP-1 surface localization and improved therapeutic efficacy in TGFβ-activated human HSCs in vitro. In CCl4-induced early liver fibrosis mouse model, MMPsomes inhibited intra-hepatic collagen-I (ECM marker, indicating early liver fibrosis) and F4/80 (marker for macrophages, indicating liver inflammation) expression. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an innovative approach of MMP-1 delivery, using surface-decorated MMPsomes, for alleviating liver fibrosis.
- ItemMultivalent Protein-Loaded pH-Stable Polymersomes: First Step toward Protein Targeted Therapeutics(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Moreno, Silvia; Boye, Susanne; Ajeilat, Hane George Al; Michen, Susanne; Tietze, Stefanie; Voit, Brigitte; Lederer, Albena; Temme, Achim; Appelhans, DietmarSynthetic platforms for mimicking artificial organelles or for designing multivalent protein therapeutics for targeting cell surface, extracellular matrix, and tissues are in the focus of this study. Furthermore, the availability of a multi-functionalized and stimuli-responsive carrier system is required that can be used for sequential in situ and/or post loading of different proteins combined with post-functionalization steps. Until now, polymersomes exhibit excellent key characteristics to fulfill those requirements, which allow specific transport of proteins and the integration of proteins in different locations of polymeric vesicles. Herein, different approaches to fabricate multivalent protein-loaded, pH-responsive, and pH-stable polymersomes are shown, where a combination of therapeutic action and targeting can be achieved, by first choosing two model proteins such as human serum albumin and avidin. Validation of the molecular parameters of the multivalent biohybrids is performed by dynamic light scattering, cryo-TEM, fluorescence spectroscopy, and asymmetrical flow-field flow fractionation combined with light scattering techniques. To demonstrate targeting functions of protein-loaded polymersomes, avidin post-functionalized polymersomes are used for the molecular recognition of biotinylated cell surface receptors. These versatile protein-loaded polymersomes present new opportunities for designing sophisticated biomolecular nanoobjects in the field of (extracellular matrix) protein therapeutics.
- ItemNanoparticles for Directed Immunomodulation: Mannose-Functionalized Glycodendrimers Induce Interleukin-8 in Myeloid Cell Lines(Columbus, Ohio : American Chemical Society, 2021) Jatczak-Pawlik, Izabela; Gorzkiewicz, Michał; Studzian, Maciej; Zinke, Robin; Appelhans, Dietmar; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara; Pułaski, ŁukaszNew therapeutic strategies for personalized medicine need to involve innovative pharmaceutical tools, for example, modular nanoparticles designed for direct immunomodulatory properties. We synthesized mannose-functionalized poly(propyleneimine) glycodendrimers with a novel architecture, where freely accessible mannose moieties are presented on poly(ethylene glycol)-based linkers embedded within an open-shell maltose coating. This design enhanced glycodendrimer bioactivity and led to complex functional effects in myeloid cells, with specific induction of interleukin-8 expression by mannose glycodendrimers detected in HL-60 and THP-1 cells. We concentrated on explaining the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon, which turned out to be different in both investigated cell lines: in HL-60 cells, transcriptional activation via AP-1 binding to the promoter predominated, while in THP-1 cells (which initially expressed less IL-8), induction was mediated mainly by mRNA stabilization. The success of directed immunomodulation, with synthetic design guided by assumptions about mannose-modified dendrimers as exogenous regulators of pro-inflammatory chemokine levels, opens new possibilities for designing bioactive nanoparticles. © 2021 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.
- ItemNovel Application of Polymer Networks Carrying Tertiary Amines as a Catalyst Inside Microflow Reactors Used for Knoevenagel Reactions(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH Verl., 2020) Berg, Patrik; Obst, Franziska; Simon, David; Richter, Andreas; Appelhans, Dietmar; Kuckling, DirkA novel application is described for utilizing hydrogel dots as organocatalyst carriers inside microfluidic reactors. Tertiary amines were covalently immobilized in the hydrogel dots. Due to the diffusion of reactants within the swollen hydrogel dots, the accessible amount of catalysts inside a microfluidic reactor chamber can be increased compared to the accessible amount of surface-bound catalysts. To perform fast Knoevenagel reactions, important flow parameters had to be validated to optimize the reactor performance while keeping the dimensions of the reactor chamber constant; e.g. the height of the hydrogel dots had to be adjusted to the invariable dimensions of the reactor chamber, or an adjustment of organocatalysts in the hydrogel dots had to be validated to achieve the highest conversion rate during a certain residence time. To characterize the conversion, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and UV/Vis-spectroscopy were utilized as an offline and online method, respectively. With suitable hydrogel dots, the influence of different flow parameters (e.g., operating flow rate and reactant concentration) on the selected model reactions in the microfluidic reactor was investigated. Finally, a variety of reactants were screened with the optimized flow parameters. With these results, the turnover frequency was determined for the Knoevenagel reactions in a microfluidic reactor, and the results were compared with published data that were determined by other synthetic approaches. © 2020 The Authors published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemPhoto-Cross-Linked Dual-Responsive Hollow Capsules Mimicking Cell Membrane for Controllable Cargo Post-Encapsulation and Release(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2016) Liu, Xiaoling; Appelhans, Dietmar; Wei, Qiang; Voit, BrigitteMultifunctional and responsive hollow capsules are ideal candidates to establish highly sophisticated compartments mimicking cell membranes for controllable bio-inspired functions. For this purpose pH and temperature dual-responsive and photo-cross-linked hollow capsules, based on silica-templated layer-by-layer approach by using poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-blockpolymethacrylate) and polyallylamine, have been prepared to use them for the subsequent and easily available post-encapsulation process of proteinlike macromolecules at room temperature and pH 7.4 and their controllable release triggered by stimuli. The uptake and release properties of the hollow capsules for cargos are highly affected by changes in the external stimuli temperature (25, 37, or 45 °C) and internal stimuli pH of the phosphate-containing buffer solution (5.5 or 7.4), by the degree of photo-cross-linking, and the size of cargo. The photo-cross-linked and dual stimuli-responsive hollow capsules with different membrane permeability can be considered as attractive material for mimicking cell functions triggered by controllable uptake and release of different up to 11 nm sized biomolecules.
- ItemPoly(propylene imine) dendrimers and amoxicillin as dual-action antibacterial agents(Basel : MDPI, 2015) Wrońska, Natalia; Felczak, Aleksandra; Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Poszepczyńska, Martyna; Różalska, Sylwia; Bryszewska, Maria; Appelhans, Dietmar; Lisowska, KatarzynaBesides acting as antimicrobial compounds, dendrimers can be considered as agents that improve the therapeutic effectiveness of existing antibiotics. In this work we present a new approach to using amoxicillin (AMX) against reference strains of common Gram-negative pathogens, alone and in combination with poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers, or derivatives thereof, in which 100% of the available hydrogen atoms are substituted with maltose (PPI 100%malG3). The concentrations of dendrimers used remained in the range non-toxic to eukaryotic cells. The results indicate that PPI dendrimers significantly enhance the antibacterial effect of amoxicillin alone, allowing antibiotic doses to be reduced. It is important to reduce doses of amoxicillin because its widespread use in medicine could lead to the development of bacterial resistance and environmental pollution. This is the first report on the combined antibacterial activity of PPI surface-modified maltose dendrimers and amoxicillin.
- ItemPoly(propylene imine) dendrimers with histidine-maltose shell as novel type of nanoparticles for synapse and memory protection(Basel : MDPI, 2019) Aso, Ester; Martinsson, Isak; Appelhans, Dietmar; Effenberg, Christiane; Benseny-Cases, Nuria; Cladera, Josep; Gouras, Gunnar; Ferrer, Isidre; Klementieva, OxanaPoly(propylene imine) dendrimers have been shown to be promising 3-dimensional polymers for the use in the pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Our aims of this study were first, to synthesize a novel type of dendrimer with poly(propylene imine) core and maltose-histidine shell (G4HisMal) assessing if maltose-histidine shell can improve the biocompatibility and the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, and second, to investigate the potential of G4HisMal to protect Alzheimer disease transgenic mice from memory impairment. Our data demonstrate that G4HisMal has significantly improved biocompatibility and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier in vivo. Therefore, we suggest that a maltose-histidine shell can be used to improve biocompatibility and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier of dendrimers. Moreover, G4HisMal demonstrated properties for synapse and memory protection when administered to Alzheimer disease transgenic mice. Therefore, G4HisMal can be considered as a promising drug candidate to prevent Alzheimer disease via synapse protection. © 2019 The Authors
- ItemReconstitution properties of biologically active polymersomes after cryogenic freezing and a freeze-drying process(London : RSC Publishing, 2018) Ccorahua, Robert; Moreno, Silvia; Gumz, Hannes; Sahre, Karin; Voit, Brigitte; Appelhans, DietmarReconstitution of biologically active polymersomes from the frozen or solid state into any fluid state is still a challenging issue for the design of new biological experiments and for the formulation of therapeutic agents. To gain knowledge about the reconstitution of pH-responsive and photo-crosslinked polymersomes, surface-functionalized and enzyme-containing polymersomers were cryogenically frozen (-20 °C) or freeze-dried with inulin as the lyoprotectant (0.1% w/v) and stored for a defined time period. Reconstituting those polymersomes in solution by thawing or a re-dispersing process revealed their original physical properties as well as their function as a pH-switchable enzymatic nanoreactor.
- ItemSugar-Modified Poly(propylene imine) Dendrimers Stimulate the NF-κB Pathway in a Myeloid Cell Line(Dordrecht [u.a.] : Springer Science + Business Media B.V, 2016) Jatczak-Pawlik, Izabela; Gorzkiewicz, Michal; Studzian, Maciej; Appelhans, Dietmar; Voit, Brigitte; Pulaski, Lukasz; Klajnert-Maculewicz, BarbaraPurpose: Fourth-generation poly(propylene imine) dendrimers fully surface-modified by maltose (dense shell, PPI-m DS) were shown to be biocompatible in cellular models, which is important for their application in drug delivery. We decided to verify also their inherent bioactivity, including immunomodulatory activity, for potential clinical applications. We tested their effects on the THP-1 monocytic cell line model of innate immunity effectors. Methods: To estimate the cytotoxicity of dendrimers the reasazurin assay was performed. The expression level of NF-κB targets: IGFBP3, TNFAIP3 and TNF was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Measurement of NF-κB p65 translocation from cytoplasm to nucleus was conducted with a high-content screening platform and binding of NF-κB to a consensus DNA probe was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The cytokine assay was performed to measure protein concentration of TNFalpha and IL-4. Results: We found that PPI-m DS did not impact THP-1 viability and growth even at high concentrations (up to 100 μM). They also did not induce expression of genes for important signaling pathways: Jak/STAT, Keap1/Nrf2 and ER stress. However, high concentrations of 4th generation PPI-m DS (25–100 μM), but not their 3rd generation counterparts, induced nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB protein and its DNA-binding activity, leading to NF-κB-dependent increased expression of mRNA for NF-κB targets: IGFBP3, TNFAIP3 and TNF. However, no increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion was detected. Conclusion: We conclude that maltose-modified PPI dendrimers of specific size could exert a modest immunomodulatory effect, which may be advantageous in clinical applications (e.g. adjuvant effect in anti-cancer vaccines).
- ItemSynergistic effects of anionic/cationic dendrimers and levofloxacin on antibacterial activities(Basel : MDPI, 2019) Wrońska, Natalia; Majoral, Jean Pierre; Appelhans, Dietmar; Bryszewska, Maria; Lisowska, KatarzynaDespite the numerous studies on dendrimers for biomedical applications, the antibacterial activity of anionic phosphorus dendrimers has not been explored. In our research, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of modified polycationic and polyanionic dendrimers in combination with levofloxacin (LVFX) against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Proteus hauseri ATCC 15442) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538) bacteria. In the case of Gram-negative bacteria, we concluded that a combination of dendrimers and antibiotic gave satisfactory results due to a synergistic effect. The use of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, such as LVFX, not only caused resistance in disease-causing microorganisms but also increased environmental pollution. Therefore, reduction of drug dosage is of general interest. © 2019 by the authors.
- ItemTargeted delivery of TLR3 agonist to tumor cells with single chain antibody fragment-conjugated nanoparticles induces type I-interferon response and apoptosis([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2019) Schau, Isabell; Michen, Susanne; Hagstotz, Alexander; Janke, Andreas; Schackert, Gabriele; Appelhans, Dietmar; Temme, AchimApplication of Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists is a promising approach to treat cancer. In particular, nucleic acid-based TLR agonists such as short ssRNA and dsRNA molecules, which activate endosomal TLRs, can be delivered to tumors by use of nanoparticle delivery systems. However, such delivery systems bear unspecific side effects and poor pharmacokinetics. To overcome these limitations we developed a system for targeted delivery of a 50 bp dsRNA TLR3 agonist (Riboxxol) to treat PSCA-positive tumor cells, which consists of neutravidin conjugated to mono-biotinylated dsRNA and to humanized mono-biotinylated anti-PSCA single chain antibody derivative scFv(h-AM1)-BAP. The assembly of the components resulted in the formation of nanoparticle-like immunoconjugates designated Rapid Inducer of Cellular Inflammation and Apoptosis (RICIA). Anti-PSCA-RICIA exclusively delivered Riboxxol to PSCA-positive tumor cells as well as subcutaneous tumors. Uptake of anti-PSCA-RICIA induced a type I-interferon response and apoptosis in HEK-Blue hTLR3/PSCA reporter cells and PSCA-positive HT1376 bladder cancer cells in vitro. No such effects were observed when using RICIA coupled to an unspecific control antibody or when using Riboxxol alone. Treatment of HT1376 xenografts in immune-deficient hosts with targeted delivery of TLR3 agonist did not induce adverse effects and only modestly inhibited tumor growth when compared to controls. These results suggest promising activation of innate immune response and apoptosis upon selective delivery of TLR3 agonists in tumor cells. Yet, further studies using syngeneic and orthotopic tumor models are needed to fully exploit the potential of RICIA immunoconjugates. © 2019, The Author(s).