Browsing by Author "Büchner, Bernd"
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- ItemAdsorption characteristics of Er3N@C80on W(110) and Au(111) studied via scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy(Frankfurt, M. : Beilstein-Institut zur Förderung der Chemischen Wissenschaften, 2017-5-23) Schimmel, Sebastian; Sun, Zhixiang; Baumann, Danny; Krylov, Denis; Samoylova, Nataliya; Popov, Alexey; Büchner, Bernd; Hess, ChristianWe performed a study on the fundamental adsorption characteristics of Er3N@C80 deposited on W(110) and Au(111) via room temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. Adsorbed on W(110), a comparatively strong bond to the endohedral fullerenes inhibited the formation of ordered monolayer islands. In contrast, the Au(111)-surface provides a sufficiently high mobility for the molecules to arrange in monolayer islands after annealing. Interestingly, the fullerenes modify the herringbone reconstruction indicating that the molecule–substrate interaction is of considerable extent. Investigations concerning the electronic structure of Er3N@C80/Au(111) reveals spatial variations dependent on the termination of the Au(111) at the interface.
- ItemAutocorrected off-axis holography of two-dimensional materials(College Park, ML : American Physical Society, 2020) Kern, Felix; Linck, Martin; Wolf, Daniel; Alem, Nasim; Arora, Himani; Gemming, Sibylle; Erbe, Artur; Zettl, Alex; Büchner, Bernd; Lubk, AxelThe reduced dimensionality in two-dimensional materials leads to a wealth of unusual properties, which are currently explored for both fundamental and applied sciences. In order to study the crystal structure, edge states, the formation of defects and grain boundaries, or the impact of adsorbates, high-resolution microscopy techniques are indispensable. Here we report on the development of an electron holography (EH) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique, which facilitates high spatial resolution by an automatic correction of geometric aberrations. Distinguished features of EH beyond conventional TEM imaging are gap-free spatial information signal transfer and higher dose efficiency for certain spatial frequency bands as well as direct access to the projected electrostatic potential of the two-dimensional material. We demonstrate these features with the example of h-BN, for which we measure the electrostatic potential as a function of layer number down to the monolayer limit and obtain evidence for a systematic increase of the potential at the zig-zag edges.
- ItemAxion Mie theory of electron energy loss spectroscopy in topological insulators(Amsterdam : SciPost Foundation, 2021) Schultz, Johannes; Nogueira, Flavio S.; Büchner, Bernd; van den Brink, Jeroen; Lubk, AxelElectronic topological states of matter exhibit novel types of responses to electromagnetic fields. The response of strong topological insulators, for instance, is characterized by a so-called axion term in the electromagnetic Lagrangian which is ultimately due to the presence of topological surface states. Here we develop the axion Mie theory for the electromagnetic response of spherical particles including arbitrary sources of fields, i.e., charge and current distributions. We derive an axion induced mixing of transverse magnetic and transverse electric modes which are experimentally detectable through small induced rotations of the field vectors. Our results extend upon previous analyses of the problem. Our main focus is on the experimentally relevant problem of electron energy loss spectroscopy in topological insulators, a technique that has so far not yet been used to detect the axion electromagnetic response in these materials.
- ItemBidirectional quantitative force gradient microscopy(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2015) Reiche, Christopher F.; Vock, Silvia; Neu, Volker; Schultz, Ludwig; Büchner, Bernd; Mühl, ThomasDynamic operation modes of scanning force microscopy based on probe resonance frequency detection are very successful methods to study force-related properties of surfaces with high spatial resolution. There are well-recognized approaches to measure vertical force components as well as setups sensitive to lateral force components. Here, we report on a concept of bidirectional force gradient microscopy that enables a direct, fast, and quantitative real space mapping of force component derivatives in both the perpendicular and a lateral direction. It relies solely on multiple-mode flexural cantilever oscillations related to vertical probe excitation and vertical deflection sensing. Exploring this concept we present a cantilever-based sensor setup and corresponding quantitative measurements employing magnetostatic interactions with emphasis on the calculation of mode-dependent spring constants that are the foundation of quantitative force gradient studies.
- ItemCarbon cage isomers and magnetic Dy⋯Dy interactions in Dy2O@C88 and Dy2C2@C88 metallofullerenes(Cambridge : RSC, 2022) Yang, Wei; Velkos, Georgios; Sudarkova, Svetlana; Büchner, Bernd; Avdoshenko, Stanislav M.; Liu, Fupin; Popov, Alexey A.; Chen, NingThree isomers of Dy2O@C88 and two isomers of Dy2C2@C88 were synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, and DFT calculations. Both types of clusterfullerenes feature 4-fold electron transfer to the carbon cage, thus resulting in the same carbon cage isomers identified as C1(26), Cs(32), and D2(35). The studies of Dy⋯Dy superexchange interactions in Dy2O and Dy2C2 clusters revealed that the O2− bridge favors antiferromagnetic coupling whereas the acetylide group C22− supports ferromagnetic coupling of Dy magnetic moments. The strength of the coupling showed a considerable variability in different cage isomers. All metallofullerenes exhibited slow relaxation of magnetization and magnetic hysteresis. In Dy2O@C88 isomers the hysteresis remained open up to 7-9 K, while in Dy2C2@C88 the hysteresis loops were closed already at 2.5 K. This study demonstrated that both the endohedral bridge between metal atoms and the fullerene cage play an important role in magnetic interactions and relaxation of magnetization.
- ItemCarbon nanotubes filled with ferromagnetic materials(Basel : MDPI, 2010) Weissker, Uhland; Hampel, Silke; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Büchner, BerndCarbon nanotubes (CNT) filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods for their synthesis and discuss the influence of selected growth parameters. In addition we evaluate possible growth mechanisms involved in their formation. Moreover we show their identified structural and magnetic properties. On the basis of these properties we present different application possibilities. Some selected examples reveal the high potential of these materials in the field of medicine and nanotechnology.
- ItemCeria/silicon carbide core–shell materials prepared by miniemulsion technique(Frankfurt, M. : Beilstein-Institut zur Förderung der Chemischen Wissenschaften, 2011) Borchardt, Lars; Oschatz, Martin; Frind, Robert; Kockrick, Emanuel; Lohe, Martin R.; Hauser, Christoph P.; Weiss, Clemens K.; Landfester, Katharina; Büchner, Bernd; Kaskel, StefanFor the first time we present the synthesis of CeO2/Si(O)C core–shell particles prepared by the miniemulsion technique. The Si(O)C core was obtained by means of a polycarbosilane precursor (SMP10), which was subsequently functionalized with ceria and pyrolyzed to the ceramic. The size of these particles could easily be adjusted by varying the surfactants and the surfactant concentration, or by the addition of comonomers. Hence particle sizes ranged from 100 to 1000 nm, tunable by the preparation conditions. All materials were characterized by photon cross correlation spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and elemental mapping investigations. Furthermore, first catalytic tests were carried out by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) of methane, and the activity of this material in lowering the onset temperature of methane combustion by 262 K was documented.
- ItemCharge transfer characteristics of F6TCNNQ–gold interface(Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley, 2020) Kuhrt, Robert; Hantusch, Martin; Knupfer, Martin; Büchner, BerndThe metal–organic interface between polycrystalline gold and hexafluorotetracyanonaphthoquinodimethane (F6TCNNQ) was investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy with the focus on the charge transfer characteristics from the metal to the molecule. The valence levels, as well as the core levels of the heterojunction, indicate a full electron transfer and a change in the chemical environment. The changes are observed in the first F6TCNNQ layers, whereas for further film growth, only neutral F6TCNNQ molecules could be detected. New occupied states below the Fermi level were observed in the valence levels, indicating a lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) occupation due to the charge transfer. A fitting of the spectra reveals the presence of a neutral and a charged F6TCNNQ molecules, but no further species were present.
- ItemCharge transfer from and to manganese phthalocyanine: bulk materials and interfaces(Frankfurt, M. : Beilstein-Institut zur Förderung der Chemischen Wissenschaften, 2017-8-4) Rückerl, Florian; Waas, Daniel; Büchner, Bernd; Knupfer, Martin; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Haidu, Francisc; Hahn, Torsten; Kortus, JensManganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) is a member of the family of transition-metal phthalocyanines, which combines interesting electronic behavior in the fields of organic and molecular electronics with local magnetic moments. MnPc is characterized by hybrid states between the Mn 3d orbitals and the π orbitals of the ligand very close to the Fermi level. This causes particular physical properties, different from those of the other phthalocyanines, such as a rather small ionization potential, a small band gap and a large electron affinity. These can be exploited to prepare particular compounds and interfaces with appropriate partners, which are characterized by a charge transfer from or to MnPc. We summarize recent spectroscopic and theoretical results that have been achieved in this regard.
- ItemChirality coupling in topological magnetic textures with multiple magnetochiral parameters([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2023) Volkov, Oleksii M.; Wolf, Daniel; Pylypovskyi, Oleksandr V.; Kákay, Attila; Sheka, Denis D.; Büchner, Bernd; Fassbender, Jürgen; Lubk, Axel; Makarov, DenysChiral effects originate from the lack of inversion symmetry within the lattice unit cell or sample’s shape. Being mapped onto magnetic ordering, chirality enables topologically non-trivial textures with a given handedness. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a static 3D texture characterized by two magnetochiral parameters being magnetic helicity of the vortex and geometrical chirality of the core string itself in geometrically curved asymmetric permalloy cap with a size of 80 nm and a vortex ground state. We experimentally validate the nonlocal chiral symmetry breaking effect in this object, which leads to the geometric deformation of the vortex string into a helix with curvature 3 μm−1 and torsion 11 μm−1. The geometric chirality of the vortex string is determined by the magnetic helicity of the vortex texture, constituting coupling of two chiral parameters within the same texture. Beyond the vortex state, we anticipate that complex curvilinear objects hosting 3D magnetic textures like curved skyrmion tubes and hopfions can be characterized by multiple coupled magnetochiral parameters, that influence their statics and field- or current-driven dynamics for spin-orbitronics and magnonics.
- ItemChromium Trihalides CrX3 (X = Cl, Br, I): Direct Deposition of Micro- and Nanosheets on Substrates by Chemical Vapor Transport(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2019) Grönke, Martin; Buschbeck, Benjamin; Schmidt, Peer; Valldor, Martin; Oswald, Steffen; Hao, Qi; Lubk, Axel; Wolf, Daniel; Steiner, Udo; Büchner, Bernd; Hampel, SilkeThe experimental observation of intrinsic ferromagnetism in single layered chromium trihalides CrX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) has gained outstanding attention recently due to their possible implementation in spintronic devices. However, the reproducible preparation of highly crystalline chromium(III) halide nanolayers without stacking faults is still an experimental challenge. As chromium trihalides consist of adjacent layers with weak interlayer coupling, the preparation of ultrathin CrX3 nanosheets directly on substrates via vapor transport proves as an advantageous synthesis technique. It is demonstrated that vapor growth of ultrathin highly crystalline CrX3 micro- and nanosheets succeeds directly on yttrium stabilized zirconia substrates in a one-step process via chemical vapor transport (CVT) in temperature gradients of 100 K (600 °C → 500 °C for CrCl3 and 650 °C → 550 °C for CrBr3 or CrI3) without a need for subsequent delamination. Due to simulation results, optimization of synthesis conditions is realized and phase pure CrX3 nanosheets with thicknesses ≤25 nm are obtained via short term CVT. The nanosheets morphology, crystallinity, and phase purity are analyzed by several techniques, including microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopy. Furthermore, a potential subsequent delamination technique is demonstrated to give fast access to CrX3 monolayers using the example of CrCl3. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
- ItemCrystal Growth of the Quasi-2D Quarternary Compound AgCrP2S6 by Chemical Vapor Transport(2021) Selter, Sebastian; Shemerliuk, Yuliia; Büchner, Bernd; Aswartham, SaicharanWe report optimized crystal growth conditions for the quarternary compound AgCrP2S6 by chemical vapor transport. Compositional and structural characterization of the obtained crystals were carried out by means of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. AgCrP2S6 is structurally closely related to the M2P2S6 family, which contains several compounds that are under investigation as 2D magnets. As-grown crystals exhibit a plate-like, layered morphology as well as a hexagonal habitus. AgCrP2S6 crystallizes in monoclinic symmetry in the space group P2/a (No. 13). The successful growth of large high-quality single crystals paves the way for further investigations of low dimensional magnetism and its anisotropies in the future and may further allow for the manufacturing of few-layer (or even monolayer) samples by exfoliation.
- ItemCurcumin and Graphene Oxide Incorporated into Alginate Hydrogels as Versatile Devices for the Local Treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma(Basel : MDPI, 2022) Madeo, Lorenzo Francesco; Sarogni, Patrizia; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Vittorio, Orazio; Voliani, Valerio; Curcio, Manuela; Shai-Hee, Tyler; Büchner, Bernd; Mertig, Michael; Hampel, SilkeWith the aim of preparing hybrid hydrogels suitable for use as patches for the local treatment of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)-affected areas, curcumin (CUR) was loaded onto graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, which were then blended into an alginate hydrogel that was crosslinked by means of calcium ions. The homogeneous incorporation of GO within the polymer network, which was confirmed through morphological investigations, improved the stability of the hybrid system compared to blank hydrogels. The weight loss in the 100–170 °C temperature range was reduced from 30% to 20%, and the degradation of alginate chains shifted to higher temperatures. Moreover, GO enhanced the stability in water media by counteracting the de-crosslinking process of the polymer network. Cell viability assays showed that the loading of CUR (2.5% and 5% by weight) was able to reduce the intrinsic toxicity of GO towards healthy cells, while higher amounts were ineffective due to the antioxidant/prooxidant paradox. Interestingly, the CUR-loaded systems were found to possess a strong cytotoxic effect in SCC cancer cells, and the sustained CUR release (~50% after 96 h) allowed long-term anticancer efficiency to be hypothesized.
- ItemDiscovery, Crystal Growth, and Characterization of Garnet Eu2PbSb2Zn3O12(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Morrow, Ryan; Sturza, Mihai I.; Ray, Rajyavardhan; Himcinschi, Cameliu; Kern, Jonas; Schlender, Philipp; Richter, Manuel; Wurmehl, Sabine; Büchner, BerndSingle crystal specimens of previously unknown garnet Eu2PbSb2Zn3O12 were grown in a reactive PbO:PbF2 flux medium. The crystals were characterized by a combination of X-ray crystallography, magnetization measurements, and the optical techniques of Raman, photoluminescence, and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The material exhibits Van Vleck paramagnetism associated with the J = 0 state of Eu3+, which was possible to accurately fit to a theoretical model. Band structure calculations were performed and compared to the experimental band gap of 1.98 eV. The crystals demonstrate photoluminescence associated with the 4f 6 configuration of the Eu3+ ions sitting at the distorted 8-coordinate garnet A site. The title compound represents a unique quinary contribution to a relatively unexplored area of rare earth bearing garnet crystal chemistry. © 2020 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
- ItemDisorder-induced coupling of Weyl nodes in WTe2(2020) Sykora, Steffen; Schoop, Johannes; Graf, Lukas; Shipunov, Grigory; Morozov, Igor V.; Aswartham, Saicharan; Büchner, Bernd; Hess, Christian; Giraud, Romain; Dufouleur, JosephThe finite coupling between Weyl nodes due to residual disorder is investigated by magnetotransport studies in WTe2. The anisotropic scattering of quasiparticles is evidenced from classical and quantum transport measurements. A theoretical approach using the real band structure is developed in order to calculate the dependence of the scattering anisotropy with the correlation length of the disorder. A comparison between theory and experiments reveals a short correlation length in WTe2 (ξ∼5 nm). This result implies a significant coupling between Weyl nodes and other bands. Our study thus shows that a finite intercone scattering rate always exists in weakly disordered type-II Weyl semimetals, such as WTe2, which strongly suppresses topologically nontrivial properties.
- ItemElastoresistivity of Heavily Hole-Doped 122 Iron Pnictide Superconductors(Lausanne : Frontiers Media, 2022) Hong, Xiaochen; Sykora, Steffen; Caglieris, Federico; Behnami, Mahdi; Morozov, Igor; Aswartham, Saicharan; Grinenko, Vadim; Kihou, Kunihiro; Lee, Chul-Ho; Büchner, Bernd; Hess, ChristianNematicity in heavily hole-doped iron pnictide superconductors remains controversial. Sizeable nematic fluctuations and even nematic orders far from magnetic instability were declared in RbFe2As2 and its sister compounds. Here, we report a systematic elastoresistance study of a series of isovalent- and electron-doped KFe2As2 crystals. We found divergent elastoresistance on cooling for all the crystals along their  direction. The amplitude of elastoresistivity diverges if K is substituted with larger ions or if the system is driven toward a Lifshitz transition. However, we conclude that none of them necessarily indicates an independent nematic critical point. Instead, the increased nematicity can be associated with another electronic criticality. In particular, we propose a mechanism for how elastoresistivity is enhanced at a Lifshitz transition.
- ItemElectronic properties of molecular solids: The peculiar case of solid picene(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2010) Roth, Friedrich; Gatti, Matteo; Cudazzo, Pierluigi; Grobosch, Mandy; Mahns, Benjamin; Büchner, Bernd; Rubio, Angel; Knupfer, MartinRecently, a new organic superconductor, K-intercalated picene, with high transition temperatures Tc (up to 18 K) has been discovered. We have investigated the electronic properties of an undoped relative of this superconductor, solid picene, using a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. Our results provide deep insights into the occupied and unoccupied electronic states.
- ItemEmploying electro-mechanical analogies for co-resonantly coupled cantilever sensors(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Körner, Julia; Reiche, Christopher F.; Büchner, Bernd; Mühl, Thomas; Gerlach, GeraldUnderstanding the behaviour of mechanical systems can be facilitated and improved by employing electro-mechanical analogies. These analogies enable the use of network analysis tools as well as purely analytical treatment of the mechanical system translated into an electric circuit. Recently, we developed a novel kind of sensor set-up based on two coupled cantilever beams with matched resonance frequencies (co-resonant coupling) and possible applications in magnetic force microscopy and cantilever magnetometry. In order to analyse the sensor's behaviour in detail, we describe it as an electric circuit model. Starting from a simplified coupled harmonic oscillator model with neglected damping, we gradually increase the complexity of the system by adding damping and interaction elements. For each stage, various features of the coupled system are discussed and compared to measured data obtained with a co-resonant sensor. Furthermore, we show that the circuit model can be used to derive sensor parameters which are essential for the evaluation of measured data. Finally, the much more complex circuit representation of a bending beam is discussed, revealing that the simplified circuit model of a coupled harmonic oscillator is a very good representation of the sensor system.
- ItemEndohedral metal-nitride cluster ordering in metallofullerene-NiII(OEP) complexes and crystals : A theoretical study(Cambridge : RSC Publ., 2019) Dubrovin, Vasilii; Gan, Li-Hua; Büchner, Bernd; Popov, Alexey A.; Avdoshenko, Stanislav M.The ordering of endohedral clusterfullerenes Sc3N@C80 and YSc2N@C80 co-crystallized with Ni(OEP) and isolated complexes with Ni(OEP) have been investigated theoretically. Having used multiple orientations of M3N clusters inside the cages with Fibonacci sampling, we describe the effect of intermolecular interactions on the orientation of the endohedral cluster. © the Owner Societies.
- ItemEnergy-level alignment at interfaces between manganese phthalocyanine and C60(Frankfurt, M. : Beilstein-Institut zur Förderung der Chemischen Wissenschaften, 2017-4-25) Waas, Daniel; Rückerl, Florian; Knupfer, Martin; Büchner, BerndWe have used photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the energy-level alignment at organic heterojunctions made of manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) and the fullerene C60. We show that this energy-level alignment depends upon the preparation sequence, which is explained by different molecular orientations. Moreover, our results demonstrate that MnPc/C60 interfaces are hardly suited for application in organic photovoltaic devices, since the energy difference of the two lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs) is rather small.