Browsing by Author "Bachmatiuk, Alicja"
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- ItemAdvances and Trends in Chemically Doped Graphene(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Ullah, Sami; Shi, Qitao; Zhou, Junhua; Yang, Xiaoqin; Ta, Huy Q.; Hasan, Maria; Ahmad, Nasir Mahmood; Fu, Lei; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Rümmeli, Mark H.Chemically doped graphene materials are fascinating because these have different desirable attributes with possible synergy. The inert and gapless nature of graphene can be changed by adding a small number of heteroatoms to substitute carbon in the lattice. The doped material may display superior catalytic activities; durable, fast, and selective sensing; improved magnetic moments; photoresponses; and activity in chemical reactions. In the current review, recent advances are covered in chemically doped graphene. First, the different types of heteroatoms, their bonding configurations, and briefly their properties are discussed. This is followed by the description of various synthesis and analytical methods essential for assessing the characteristics of heterographene with specific focus on the selected graphene materials of different dopants (particularly, single dopants, including N, B, S, P, first three halogens, Ge, and Ga, and codopants, such as N/O), and more importantly, up-to-date applications enabled by the intentional doping. Finally, outlook and perspectives section review the existing challenges, future opportunities, and possible ways to improve the graphitic materials. The goal is to update and inspire the readers to establish novel doped graphene with valuable properties and for current and futuristic applications. © 2020 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemApplications of Carbon Nanotubes in the Internet of Things Era(Berlin ; Heidelberg [u.a.] : Springer, 2021) Pang, Jinbo; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Yang, Feng; Liu, Hong; Zhou, Weijia; Rümmeli, Mark H.; Cuniberti, GianaurelioThe post-Moore's era has boosted the progress in carbon nanotube-based transistors. Indeed, the 5G communication and cloud computing stimulate the research in applications of carbon nanotubes in electronic devices. In this perspective, we deliver the readers with the latest trends in carbon nanotube research, including high-frequency transistors, biomedical sensors and actuators, brain-machine interfaces, and flexible logic devices and energy storages. Future opportunities are given for calling on scientists and engineers into the emerging topics.
- ItemCrystal structure, synthesis and characterization of different chromium-based two-dimensional compounds(Riyadh : Saudi Chemical Soc., 2023) Hasan, Maria; Ta, Huy Q.; Ullah, Sami; Yang, Xiaoqin; Luo, Jingping; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Gemming, Thomas; Trzebicka, Barbara; Mahmood, Azhar; Zeng, Mengqi; Fu, Lei; Liu, Lijun; Rümmeli, Mark H.The field of two dimensional (2D) materials experienced a surge of discoveries after the isolation of graphene. Among these, the transition metal compounds of Molybdenum and tungsten have been the most extensively studied materials after graphene. More recently, their group member chromium has only recently come to the limelight after the discovery of its exciting magnetic properties. As such the body of work surrounding 2D chromium-based materials is growing. Here, we present an up-to-date summary of the chromium 2D materials showing the latest advances in their experimental synthesis, characterization and the applications of 2D Chromium-based compounds. Finally, we conclude with a perspective on the future of 2D chromium-based materials. We believe that this study will be helpful to understand the field of chromium-based 2D compounds.
- ItemCVD growth of large area smooth-edged graphene nanomesh by nanosphere lithography(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2013) Wang, Min; Fu, Lei; Gan, Lin; Zhang, Chaohua; Rümmeli, Mark; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Fang, Ying; Liu, ZhongfanCurrent etching routes to process large graphene sheets into nanoscale graphene so as to open up a bandgap tend to produce structures with rough and disordered edges. This leads to detrimental electron scattering and reduces carrier mobility. In this work, we present a novel yet simple direct-growth strategy to yield graphene nanomesh (GNM) on a patterned Cu foil via nanosphere lithography. Raman spectroscopy and TEM characterizations show that the as-grown GNM has significantly smoother edges than post-growth etched GNM. More importantly, the transistors based on as-grown GNM with neck widths of 65-75 nm have a near 3-fold higher mobility than those derived from etched GNM with the similar neck widths.
- ItemDual‐Salt Electrolyte Additives Enabled Stable Lithium Metal Anode/Lithium–Manganese‐Rich Cathode Batteries(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Zhou, Junhua; Lian, Xueyu; Shi, Qitao; Liu, Yu; Yang, Xiaoqin; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Liu, Lijun; Sun, Jingyu; Yang, Ruizhi; Choi, Jin-Ho; Rummeli, Mark H.Although lithium (Li) metal anode/lithium–manganese-rich (LMR) cathode batteries have an ultrahigh energy density, the highly active Li metal and structural deterioration of LMR can make the usage of these batteries difficult. Herein, a multifunctional electrolyte containing LiBF4 and LiFSI dual-salt additives is designed, which enables the superior cyclability of Li/LMR cells with capacity retentions of ≈83.4%, 80.4%, and 76.6% after 400 cycles at 0.5, 1, and 2 C, respectively. The dual-salt electrolyte can form a thin, uniform, and inorganic species-rich solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI). In addition, it alleviates the bulk Li corrosion and enhances the structural sustainability of LMR cathode. Moreover, the electrolyte design strategy provides insights to develop other high-voltage lithium metal batteries (HVLMBs) to enhance the cycle stability.
- ItemElectron Beam-Induced Reduction of Cuprite(Basel : MDPI, 2022) Siudzinska, Anna; Gorantla, Sandeep M.; Serafinczuk, Jaroslaw; Kudrawiec, Robert; Hommel, Detlef; Bachmatiuk, AlicjaCu-based materials are used in various industries, such as electronics, power generation, and catalysis. In particular, monolayered cuprous oxide (Cu2O) has potential applications in solar cells owing to its favorable electronic and magnetic properties. Atomically thin Cu2O samples derived from bulk cuprite were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Two voltages, 80 kV and 300 kV, were explored for in situ observations of the samples. The optimum electron beam parameters (300 kV, low-current beam) were used to prevent beam damage. The growth of novel crystal structures, identified as Cu, was observed in the samples exposed to isopropanol (IPA) and high temperatures. It is proposed that the exposure of the copper (I) oxide samples to IPA and temperature causes material nucleation, whereas the consequent exposure via e-beams generated from the electron beam promotes the growth of the nanosized Cu crystals.
- ItemFacile production of ultra-fine silicon nanoparticles(London : Royal Society Publishing, 2020) Tokarska, Klaudia; Shi, Qitao; Otulakowski, Lukasz; Wrobel, Pawel; Ta, Huy Quang; Kurtyka, Przemyslaw; Kordyka, Aleksandra; Siwy, Mariola; Vasylieva, Margaryta; Forys, Aleksander; Trzebick, Barbara; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Rümmeli, Mark H.A facile procedure for the synthesis of ultra-fine silicon nanoparticles without the need for a Schlenk vacuum line is presented. The process consists of the production of a (HSiO1.5)n sol–gel precursor based on the polycondensation of low-cost trichlorosilane (HSiCl3), followed by its annealing and etching. The obtained materials were thoroughly characterized after each preparation step by electron microscopy, Fourier transform and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray dispersion spectroscopy, diffraction methods and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The data confirm the formation of ultra-fine silicon nanoparticles with controllable average diameters between 1 and 5 nm depending on the etching time.
- ItemGraphene transfer methods: A review(New York, NY [u.a.] : Springer, 2021) Ullah, Sami; Yang, Xiaoqin; Ta, Huy Q.; Hasan, Maria; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Tokarska, Klaudia; Trzebicka, Barbara; Fu, Lei; Rummeli, Mark H.Graphene is a material with unique properties that can be exploited in electronics, catalysis, energy, and bio-related fields. Although, for maximal utilization of this material, high-quality graphene is required at both the growth process and after transfer of the graphene film to the application-compatible substrate. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is an important method for growing high-quality graphene on non-technological substrates (as, metal substrates, e.g., copper foil). Thus, there are also considerable efforts toward the efficient and non-damaging transfer of quality of graphene on to technologically relevant materials and systems. In this review article, a range of graphene current transfer techniques are reviewed from the standpoint of their impact on contamination control and structural integrity preservation of the as-produced graphene. In addition, their scalability, cost- and time-effectiveness are discussed. We summarize with a perspective on the transfer challenges, alternative options and future developments toward graphene technology.
- ItemGraphene-Like ZnO: A Mini Review(Basel : MDPI, 2016) Ta, Huy Q.; Zhao, Liang; Pohl, Darius; Pang, Jinbo; Trzebicka, Barbara; Rellinghaus, Bernd; Pribat, Didier; Gemming, Thomas; Liu, Zhongfan; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Rümmeli, Mark H.The isolation of a single layer of graphite, known today as graphene, not only demonstrated amazing new properties but also paved the way for a new class of materials often referred to as two-dimensional (2D) materials. Beyond graphene, other 2D materials include h-BN, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), silicene, and germanene, to name a few. All tend to have exciting physical and chemical properties which appear due to dimensionality effects and modulation of their band structure. A more recent member of the 2D family is graphene-like zinc oxide (g-ZnO) which also holds great promise as a future functional material. This review examines current progress in the synthesis and characterization of g-ZnO. In addition, an overview of works dealing with the properties of g-ZnO both in its pristine form and modified forms (e.g., nano-ribbon, doped material, etc.) is presented. Finally, discussions/studies on the potential applications of g-ZnO are reviewed and discussed.
- ItemHydrophilic non-precious metal nitrogen-doped carbon electrocatalysts for enhanced efficiency in oxygen reduction reaction(Cambridge : Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015) Hao, Guang-Ping; Sahraie, Nastaran Ranjbar; Zhang, Qiang; Krause, Simon; Oschatz, Martin; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Strasser, Peter; Kaskel, StefanExploring the role of surface hydrophilicity of non-precious metal N-doped carbon electrocatalysts in electrocatalysis is challenging. Herein we discover an ultra-hydrophilic non-precious carbon electrocatalyst, showing enhanced catalysis efficiency on both gravimetric and areal basis for oxygen reduction reaction due to a high dispersion of active centres.
- ItemIn Situ Fabrication of Freestanding Single-Atom-Thick 2D Metal/Metallene and 2D Metal/ Metallene Oxide Membranes: Recent Developments(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Ta, Huy Q.; Mendes, Rafael G.; Liu, Yu; Yang, Xiaoqin; Luo, Jingping; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Gemming, Thomas; Zeng, Mengqi; Fu, Lei; Liu, Lijun; Rümmeli, Mark H.In recent years, two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted a lot of research interest as they exhibit several fascinating properties. However, outside of 2D materials derived from van der Waals layered bulk materials only a few other such materials are realized, and it remains difficult to confirm their 2D freestanding structure. Despite that, many metals are predicted to exist as 2D systems. In this review, the authors summarize the recent progress made in the synthesis and characterization of these 2D metals, so called metallenes, and their oxide forms, metallene oxides as free standing 2D structures formed in situ through the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM (STEM) to synthesize these materials. Two primary approaches for forming freestanding monoatomic metallic membranes are identified. In the first, graphene pores as a means to suspend the metallene or metallene oxide and in the second, electron-beam sputtering for the selective etching of metal alloys or thick complex initial materials is employed to obtain freestanding single-atom-thick 2D metal. The data show a growing number of 2D metals/metallenes and 2D metal/ metallene oxides having been confirmed and point to a bright future for further discoveries of these 2D materials.
- ItemIn Situ N-Doped Graphene and Mo Nanoribbon Formation from Mo2Ti2C3 MXene Monolayers(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Mendes, Rafael Gregorio; Ta, Huy Quang; Yang, Xiaoqin; Li, Wei; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Choi, Jin-Ho; Gemming, Thomas; Anasori, Babak; Lijun, Liu; Fu, Lei; Liu, Zhongfan; Rümmeli, Mark HermannSince the advent of monolayered 2D transition metal carbide and nitrides (MXenes) in 2011, the number of different monolayer systems and the study thereof have been on the rise. Mo2Ti2C3 is one of the least studied MXenes and new insights to this material are of value to the field. Here, the stability of Mo2Ti2C3 under electron irradiation is investigated. A transmission electron microscope (TEM) is used to study the structural and elemental changes in situ. It is found that Mo2Ti2C3 is reasonably stable for the first 2 min of irradiation. However, structural changes occur thereafter, which trigger increasingly rapid and significant rearrangement. This results in the formation of pores and two new nanomaterials, namely, N-doped graphene membranes and Mo nanoribbons. The study provides insight into the stability of Mo2Ti2C3 monolayers against electron irradiation, which will allow for reliable future study of the material using TEM. Furthermore, these findings will facilitate further research in the rapidly growing field of electron beam driven chemistry and engineering of nanomaterials. © 2020 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
- ItemIn Situ Observations of Freestanding Single-Atom-Thick Gold Nanoribbons Suspended in Graphene(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Zhao, Liang; Ta, Huy Q.; Mendes, Rafael G.; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Rummeli, Mark H.Bulk gold's attributes of relative chemical inertness, rarity, relatively low melting point and its beautiful sheen make it a prized material for humans. Recordings suggest it was the first metal employed by humans dating as far back to the late Paleolithic period ≈40 000 BC. However, at the nanoscale gold is expected to present new and exciting properties, not least in catalysis. Moreover, recent studies suggest a new family of single-atom-thick two-dimensional (2D) metals exist. This work shows single-atom-thick freestanding gold membranes and nanoribbons can form as suspended structures in graphene pores. Electron irradiation is shown to lead to changes to the graphene pores which lead to dynamic changes of the gold membranes which transition to a nanoribbon. The freestanding single-atom-thick 2D gold structures are relatively stable to electron irradiation for extended periods. The work should advance the development of 2D gold monolayers significantly. © 2020 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
- ItemIn Situ Room Temperature Electron-Beam Driven Graphene Growth from Hydrocarbon Contamination in a Transmission Electron Microscope(Basel : MDPI, 2018-5-26) Rummeli, Mark H.; Pan, Yumo; Zhao, Liang; Gao, Jing; Ta, Huy Q.; Martinez, Ignacio G.; Mendes, Rafael G.; Gemming, Thomas; Fu, Lei; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Liu, ZhongfanThe excitement of graphene (as well as 2D materials in general) has generated numerous procedures for the fabrication of graphene. Here we present a mini-review on a rather less known, but attractive, in situ means to fabricate graphene inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This is achieved in a conventional TEM (viz. no sophisticated specimen holders or microscopes are required) and takes advantage of inherent hydrocarbon contamination as a carbon source. Both catalyst free and single atom catalyst approaches are reviewed. An advantage of this technique is that not only can the growth process be imaged in situ, but this can also be achieved with atomic resolution. Moreover, in the future, one can anticipate such approaches enabling the growth of nano-materials with atomic precision.
- ItemIn-situ quasi-instantaneous e-beam driven catalyst-free formation of crystalline aluminum borate nanowires(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Gonzalez-Martinez, Ignacio G.; Gemming, Thomas; Mendes, Rafael; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Bezugly, Viktor; Kunstmann, Jens; Eckert, Jürgen; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Rümmeli, Mark H.The catalyst-assisted nucleation and growth mechanisms for many kinds of nanowires and nanotubes are pretty well understood. At times, though, 1D nanostructures form without a catalyst and the argued growth modes have inconsistencies. One such example is the catalyst-free growth of aluminium borate nanowires. Here we develop an in-situ catalyst-free room temperature growth route for aluminium nanowires using the electron beam in a transmission electron microscope. We provide strong experimental evidence that supports a formation process that can be viewed as a phase transition in which the generation of free-volume induced by the electron beam irradiation enhances the atomic mobility within the precursor material. The enhanced atomic mobility and specific features of the crystal structure of Al5BO9 drive the atomic rearrangement that results in the large scale formation of highly crystalline aluminium borate nanowires. The whole formation process can be completed within fractions of a second. Our developed growth mechanism might also be extended to describe the catalyst-free formation of other nanowires.
- ItemLarge-Area Single-Crystal Graphene via Self-Organization at the Macroscale(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Ta, Huy Quang; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Mendes, Rafael Gregorio; Perello, David J.; Zhao, Liang; Trzebicka, Barbara; Gemming, Thomas; Rotkin, Slava V.; Rümmeli, Mark H.In 1665 Christiaan Huygens first noticed how two pendulums, regardless of their initial state, would synchronize. It is now known that the universe is full of complex self-organizing systems, from neural networks to correlated materials. Here, graphene flakes, nucleated over a polycrystalline graphene film, synchronize during growth so as to ultimately yield a common crystal orientation at the macroscale. Strain and diffusion gradients are argued as the probable causes for the long-range cross-talk between flakes and the formation of a single-grain graphene layer. The work demonstrates that graphene synthesis can be advanced to control the nucleated crystal shape, registry, and relative alignment between graphene crystals for large area, that is, a single-crystal bilayer, and (AB-stacked) few-layer graphene can been grown at the wafer scale. © 2020 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemMicroscopic insight into the bilateral formation of carbon spirals from a symmetric iron core(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2013) Shiozawa, Hidetsugu; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Stangl, Andreas; Cox, David C.; Silva, S. Ravi P.; Rümmeli, Mark; Pichler, ThomasMirrored carbon-spirals have been produced from pressured ferrocene via the bilateral extrusion of the spiral pairs from an iron core. A parametric plot of the surface geometry displays the fractal growth of the conical helix made with the logarithmic spiral. Electron microscopy studies show the core is a crystalline cementite which grows and transforms its shape from spherical to biconical as it extrudes two spiralling carbon arms. In a cross section along the arms we observe graphitic flakes arranged in a herringbone structure, normal to which defects propagate. Local-wave-pattern analysis reveals nanoscale defect patterns of two-fold symmetry around the core. The data suggest that the bilateral growth originates from a globular cementite crystal with molten surfaces and the nano-defects shape emerging hexagonal carbon into a fractal structure. Understanding and knowledge obtained provide a basis for the controlled production of advanced carbon materials with designed geometries.
- ItemOn the Catalytic Activity of Sn Monomers and Dimers at Graphene Edges and the Synchronized Edge Dependence of Diffusing Atoms in Sn Dimers(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Yang, Xiaoqin; Ta, Huy Q.; Hu, Huimin; Liu, Shuyuan; Liu, Yu; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Luo, Jinping; Liu, Lijun; Choi, Jin-Ho; Rummeli, Mark H.In this study, in situ transmission electron microscopy is performed to study the interaction between single (monomer) and paired (dimer) Sn atoms at graphene edges. The results reveal that a single Sn atom can catalyze both the growth and etching of graphene by the addition and removal of C atoms respectively. Additionally, the frequencies of the energetically favorable configurations of an Sn atom at a graphene edge, calculated using density functional theory calculations, are compared with experimental observations and are found to be in good agreement. The remarkable dynamic processes of binary atoms (dimers) are also investigated and is the first such study to the best of the knowledge. Dimer diffusion along the graphene edges depends on the graphene edge termination. Atom pairs (dimers) involving an armchair configuration tend to diffuse with a synchronized shuffling (step-wise shift) action, while dimer diffusion at zigzag edge terminations show a strong propensity to collapse the dimer with each atom diffusing in opposite directions (monomer formation). Moreover, the data reveals the role of C feedstock availability on the choice a single Sn atom makes in terms of graphene growth or etching. This study advances the understanding single atom catalytic activity at graphene edges. © 2021 The Authors. Advanced Functional Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemPhosphorus‐Based Composites as Anode Materials for Advanced Alkali Metal Ion Batteries(Hoboke, NJ : Wiley, 2020) Zhou, Junhua; Shi, Qitao; Ullah, Sami; Yang, Xiaoqin; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Yang, Ruizhi; Rummeli, Mark H.Alkaline metal ion batteries, such as lithium‐ion batteries have been increasingly adopted in consumer electronics, electric vehicles, and large power grids because of their high energy density, power density and working voltage, and long cycle life. Phosphorus‐based materials including phosphorus anodes and metal phosphides with high theoretical capacity, natural abundance, and environmental friendliness show great potential as negative electrodes for alkaline metal ion batteries. In this review, based on the understanding of the storage mechanism of alkali metal ions, the scientific challenges are discussed, the preparation methods and solutions to address these challenges are summarized, the application prospects are demonstrated, and finally possible future research directions of phosphorus‐based materials are provided.
- ItemRapid synthesis of pristine graphene inside a transmission electron microscope using gold as catalyst([London] : Macmillan, 2019) Gonzalez-Martinez, Ignacio G.; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Gemming, Thomas; Trzebicka, Barbara; Liu, Zhongfan; Rummeli, Mark H.Multiple methods with distinctive strengths and drawbacks have been devised so far to produce graphene. However, they all need post-synthesis transfer steps to characterize the product. Here we report the synthesis of pristine graphene inside the transmission electron microscope using gold as catalyst and self-removing substrate without employing a specialized specimen holder. The process occurs at room temperature and takes place within milliseconds. The method offers the possibility of precise spatial control for graphene production and immediate characterization. Briefly, the irradiating electrons generate secondary electrons leading to surface charging if the gold particles reside on a poorly conducting support. At a critical charge density, the particle ejects ions mixed with secondary electrons (plasma) causing the particle to shrink. Simultaneously, hydrocarbon contamination within the electron microscope is cracked, thus providing carbon for the growth of graphene on the particle’s surface. The Technique is potentially attractive for the manufacture of in situ graphene-based devices. © 2019, The Author(s).