Browsing by Author "Bauer, Petra"
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- ItemThe analysis of arabidopsis nicotianamine synthase mutants reveals functions for nicotianamine in seed iron loading and iron deficiency responses(Rockville, MD : American Society of Plant Biologists, 2009) Fink-Straube, Claudia; Klatte, Marco; Schuler, Mara; Wirtz, Markus; Hell, Rüdiger; Bauer, PetraNicotianamine chelates and transports micronutrient metal ions in plants. It has been speculated that nicotianamine is involved in seed loading with micronutrients. A tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant (chloronerva) and a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) transgenic line have been utilized to analyze the effects of nicotianamine loss. These mutants showed early leaf chlorosis and had sterile flowers. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has four NICOTIANAMINE SYNTHASE (NAS) genes. We constructed two quadruple nas mutants: one had full loss of NAS function, was sterile, and showed a chloronerva-like phenotype (nas4x-2); another mutant, with intermediate phenotype (nas4x-1), developed chlorotic leaves, which became severe upon transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase and upon iron (Fe) deficiency. Residual nicotianamine levels were sufficient to sustain the life cycle. Therefore, the nas4x-1 mutant enabled us to study late nicotianamine functions. This mutant had no detectable nicotianamine in rosette leaves of the reproductive stage but low nicotianamine levels in vegetative rosette leaves and seeds. Fe accumulated in the rosette leaves, while less Fe was present in flowers and seeds. Leaves, roots, and flowers showed symptoms of Fe deficiency, whereas leaves also showed signs of sufficient Fe supply, as revealed by molecular-physiological analysis. The mutant was not able to fully mobilize Fe to sustain Fe supply of flowers and seeds in the normal way. Thus, nicotianamine is needed for correct supply of seeds with Fe. These results are fundamental for plant manipulation approaches to modify Fe homeostasis regulation through alterations of NAS genes.
- ItemComparative Transcriptomics of Lowland Rice Varieties Uncovers Novel Candidate Genes for Adaptive Iron Excess Tolerance(Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2021) Kar, Saradia; Mai, Hans-Jörg; Khalouf, Hadeel; Abdallah, Heithem Ben; Flachbart, Samantha; Fink-Straube, Claudia; Bräutigam, Andrea; Xiong, Guosheng; Shang, Lianguang; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Bauer, PetraIron (Fe) toxicity is a major challenge for plant cultivation in acidic waterlogged soil environments, where lowland rice is a major staple food crop. Only few studies have addressed the molecular characterization of excess Fe tolerance in rice, and these highlight different mechanisms for Fe tolerance. Out of 16 lowland rice varieties, we identified a pair of contrasting lines, Fe-tolerant Lachit and -susceptible Hacha. The two lines differed in their physiological and morphological responses to excess Fe, including leaf growth, leaf rolling, reactive oxygen species generation and Fe and metal contents. These responses were likely due to genetic origin as they were mirrored by differential gene expression patterns, obtained through RNA sequencing, and corresponding gene ontology term enrichment in tolerant vs. susceptible lines. Thirty-five genes of the metal homeostasis category, mainly root expressed, showed differential transcriptomic profiles suggestive of an induced tolerance mechanism. Twenty-two out of these 35 metal homeostasis genes were present in selection sweep genomic regions, in breeding signatures, and/or differentiated during rice domestication. These findings suggest that Fe excess tolerance is an important trait in the domestication of lowland rice, and the identified genes may further serve to design the targeted Fe tolerance breeding of rice crops.
- ItemDissection of iron signaling and iron accumulation by overexpression of subgroup Ib bHLH039 protein(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2017) Naranjo-Arcos, Maria Augusta; Maurer, Felix; Meiser, Johannes; Pateyron, Stephanie; Fink-Straube, Claudia; Bauer, PetraIron is an essential growth determinant for plants, and plants acquire this micronutrient in amounts they need in their environment. Plants can increase iron uptake in response to a regulatory transcription factor cascade. Arabidopsis thaliana serves as model plant to identify and characterize iron regulation genes. Here, we show that overexpression of subgroup Ib bHLH transcription factor bHLH039 (39Ox) caused constitutive iron acquisition responses, which resulted in enhanced iron contents in leaves and seeds. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that 39Ox plants displayed simultaneously gene expression patterns characteristic of iron deficiency and iron stress signaling. Thereby, we could dissect iron deficiency response regulation. The transcription factor FIT, which is required to regulate iron uptake, was essential for the 39Ox phenotype. We provide evidence that subgroup Ib transcription factors are involved in FIT transcriptional regulation. Our findings pose interesting questions to the feedback control of iron homeostasis.
- ItemNatural variation in physiological responses of tunisian hedysarum carnosum under iron deficiency(Lausanne : Frontiers Media, 2018) Abdallah, Heithem Ben; Mai, Hans Jörg; Slatni, Tarek; Fink-Straube, Claudia; Abdelly, Chedly; Bauer, PetraIron (Fe) is an essential element for plant growth and development. The cultivation of leguminous plants has generated strong interest because of their growth even on poor soils. Calcareous and saline soils with poor mineral availability are wide-spread in Tunisia. In an attempt to select better forage crops adapted to Tunisian soils, we characterized Fe deficiency responses of three different isolates of Hedysarum carnosum, an endemic Tunisian extremophile species growing in native stands in salt and calcareous soil conditions. H. carnosum is a non-model crop. The three isolates, named according to their habitats Karkar, Thelja, and Douiret, differed in the expression of Fe deficiency symptoms like morphology, leaf chlorosis with compromised leaf chlorophyll content and photosynthetic capacity and leaf metal contents. Across these parameters Thelja was found to be tolerant, while Karkar and Douiret were susceptible to Fe deficiency stress. The three physiological and molecular indicators of the iron deficiency response in roots, Fe reductase activity, growth medium acidification and induction of the IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER1 homolog, indicated that all lines responded to -Fe, however, varied in the strength of the different responses. We conclude that the individual lines have distinct adaptation capacities to react to iron deficiency, presumably involving mechanisms of whole-plant iron homeostasis and internal metal distribution. The Fe deficiency tolerance of Thelja might be linked with adaptation to its natural habitat on calcareous soil.
- ItemStructure-property relationships in mechanically stimulated Sorghum bicolor stalks(Berlin : de Gruyter, 2014) Lemloh, Marie-Louise; Pohl, Anna; Zeiger, Marco; Bauer, Petra; Weiss, Ingrid M.; Schneider, Andreas S.Mechanical properties of plants and underlying structure-property relationships are important for agricultural purposes as well as for biomimetic concepts. In this study, the effect of mechanical stimulation on morphology and bending properties of the stalk was investigated for Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae), a widely used drought-tolerant biomass grass. An experimental set-up allowing for defined growth and mechanical perturbation (flexing) during a defined growth period was designed. Mechanical properties of individual internodes of the stalk were determined by three-point bending tests. We found that the three investigated lines showed differences in their general bending strength in the non-stimulated condition. However, similar high range of bending strength values was measured for all plant lines after they underwent the mechanical stimulation procedure. The anatomy of internode cross-sections was examined to evaluate structure-property relationships. An increased thickness of the outer sclerenchymatous tissue was observed for internodes with higher bending strength values. Dried internodes fail under lower strains but showed higher bending strength. These findings show that mechanosensitivity in sorghum is dependent on genetic as well as environmental factors. The experimental system presented here offers new straight-forward possibilities for S. bicolor line selection for applications requiring mechanical strength of the stalk.