Browsing by Author "Berendts, Stefan"
Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
Results Per Page
- ItemInvestigating the electrochemical stability of Li7La3Zr2O12 solid electrolytes using field stress experiments(London [u.a.] : RSC, 2021) Smetaczek, Stefan; Pycha, Eva; Ring, Joseph; Siebenhofer, Matthäus; Ganschow, Steffen; Berendts, Stefan; Nenning, Andreas; Kubicek, Markus; Rettenwander, Daniel; Limbeck, Andreas; Fleig, JürgenCubic Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) garnets are among the most promising solid electrolytes for solid-state batteries with the potential to exceed conventional battery concepts in terms of energy density and safety. The electrochemical stability of LLZO is crucial for its application, however, controversial reports in the literature show that it is still an unsettled matter. Here, we investigate the electrochemical stability of LLZO single crystals by applying electric field stress via macro- and microscopic ionically blocking Au electrodes in ambient air. Induced material changes are subsequently probed using various locally resolved analysis techniques, including microelectrode electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and microfocus X-ray diffraction (XRD). Our experiments indicate that LLZO decomposes at 4.1–4.3 V vs. Li+/Li, leading to the formation of Li-poor phases like La2Zr2O7 beneath the positively polarized electrode. The reaction is still on-going even after several days of polarization, indicating that no blocking interfacial layer is formed. The decomposition can be observed at elevated as well as room temperature and suggests that LLZO is truly not compatible with high voltage cathode materials.
- ItemIon dynamics in Al-Stabilized Li7La3Zr2O12 single crystals – Macroscopic transport and the elementary steps of ion hopping(Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2020) Posch, Patrick; Lunghammer, Sarah; Berendts, Stefan; Ganschow, Steffen; Redhammer, Günther J.; Wilkening, Alexandra; Lerch, Martin; Gadermaier, Bernhard; Rettenwander, Daniel; Wilkening, H. Martin R.Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) garnet-type ceramics are considered as very promising candidates for solid electrolytes and have been extensively studied in the past few years. Several studies report on an increase in ionic conductivity by doping with ions, such as Al3+ and Ga3+, to stabilize the cubic modification of LLZO. Unfortunately, so far ion dynamics have mainly been studied using powdered samples. Such studies may suffer from chemical heterogeneities concerning Al distribution. Here, we took advantage of Al-stabilized LLZO single crystals to throw light on the elementary steps of ion hopping. We used 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-lattice relaxation measurements and conductivity spectroscopy to probe dynamic parameters from both a microscopic and macroscopic point of view. At 293 K the total conductivity turned out to be 0.082 mS cm−1, which is remarkably good for LLZO exhibiting an Al-content of only 0.37 wt%. Most importantly, 7Li NMR spin-lock transients revealed two overlapping diffusion-induced processes. Overall, activation energies from spin-lock NMR excellently agree with that from conductivity measurements; both techniques yield values around 0.36 eV. The corresponding diffusion coefficients deduced from NMR and conductivity measurements almost coincide. The magnetic spin fluctuations sensed by NMR provide an in-depth look at the elementary jump processes, which can barely be revealed by macroscopic impedance spectroscopy providing average values. In particular, we were able to precisely measure the local hopping barrier (0.20 eV) characterizing forward-backward jumps between the sites 24d and 96h. © 2019 The Author(s)
- ItemLithium metal penetration induced by electrodeposition through solid electrolytes: Example in single-crystal Li6La3ZrTaO12 garnet(Pennington, NJ : Electrochemical Society, 2018) Swamy, Tushar; Park, Richard; Sheldon, Brian W.; Rettenwander, Daniel; Porz, Lukas; Berendts, Stefan; Uecker, Reinhard; Carter, W. Craig; Chiang, Yet-MingSolid electrolytes potentially enable rechargeable batteries with lithium metal anodes possessing higher energy densities than today’s lithium ion batteries. To do so the solid electrolyte must suppress instabilities that lead to poor coulombic efficiency and short circuits. In this work, lithium electrodeposition was performed on single-crystal Li6La3ZrTaO12 garnets to investigate factors governing lithium penetration through brittle electrolytes. In single crystals, grain boundaries are excluded as paths for lithium metal propagation. Vickers microindentation was used to introduce surface flaws of known size. However, operando optical microscopy revealed that lithium metal penetration propagates preferentially from a different, second class of flaws. At the perimeter of surface current collectors smaller in size than the lithium source electrode, an enhanced electrodeposition current density causes lithium filled cracks to initiate and grow to penetration, even when large Vickers defects are in proximity. Modeling the electric field distribution in the experimental cell revealed that a 5-fold enhancement in field occurs within 10 micrometers of the electrode edge and generates high local electrochemomechanical stress. This may determine the initiation sites for lithium propagation, overriding the presence of larger defects elsewhere.