Browsing by Author "Bocola, Marco"
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- Item2-Methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) boosts as detergent-substitute the performance of ß-barrel hybrid catalyst for phenylacetylene polymerization(Frankfurt, M. : Beilstein-Institut zur Förderung der Chemischen Wissenschaften, 2017) Kinzel, Julia; Sauer, Daniel F.; Bocola, Marco; Arlt, Marcus; Mirzaei Garakani, Tayebeh; Thiel, Andreas; Beckerle, Klaus; Polen, Tino; Okuda, Jun; Schwaneberg, UlrichCovering hydrophobic regions with stabilization agents to solubilize purified transmembrane proteins is crucial for their application in aqueous media. The small molecule 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) was used to stabilize the transmembrane protein Ferric hydroxamate uptake protein component A (FhuA) utilized as host for the construction of a rhodium-based biohybrid catalyst. Unlike commonly used detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate or polyethylene polyethyleneglycol, MPD does not form micelles in solution. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed the effect and position of stabilizing MPD molecules. The advantage of the amphiphilic MPD over micelle-forming detergents is demonstrated in the polymerization of phenylacetylene, showing a ten-fold increase in yield and increased molecular weights.
- ItemAre Directed Evolution Approaches Efficient in Exploring Nature’s Potential to Stabilize a Lipase in Organic Cosolvents?(Basel : MDPI, 2017) Markel, Ulrich; Zhu, Leilei; Frauenkron-Machedjou, Victorine; Zhao, Jing; Bocola, Marco; Davari, Mehdi; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Schwaneberg, UlrichDespite the significant advances in the field of protein engineering, general design principles to improve organic cosolvent resistance of enzymes still remain undiscovered. Previous studies drew conclusions to engineer enzymes for their use in water-miscible organic solvents based on few amino acid substitutions. In this study, we conduct a comparison of a Bacillus subtilis lipase A (BSLA) library—covering the full natural diversity of single amino acid substitutions at all 181 positions of BSLA—with three state of the art random mutagenesis methods: error-prone PCR (epPCR) with low and high mutagenesis frequency (epPCR-low and high) as well as a transversion-enriched Sequence Saturation Mutagenesis (SeSaM-Tv P/P) method. Libraries were searched for amino acid substitutions that increase the enzyme’s resistance to the water-miscible organic cosolvents 1,4-dioxane (DOX), 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Our analysis revealed that 5%–11% of all possible single substitutions (BSLA site-saturation mutagenesis (SSM) library) contribute to improved cosolvent resistance. However, only a fraction of these substitutions (7%–12%) could be detected in the three random mutagenesis libraries. To our knowledge, this is the first study that quantifies the capability of these diversity generation methods generally employed in directed evolution campaigns and compares them to the entire natural diversity with a single substitution. Additionally, the investigation of the BSLA SSM library revealed only few common beneficial substitutions for all three cosolvents as well as the importance of introducing surface charges for organic cosolvent resistance—most likely due to a stronger attraction of water molecules. © 2017 by the authors.
- ItemCaLB Catalyzed Conversion of ε-Caprolactone in Aqueous Medium. Part 1: Immobilization of CaLB to Microgels(Basel : MDPI, 2016) Engel, Stefan; Höck, Heidi; Bocola, Marco; Keul, Helmut; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Möller, MartinThe enzymatic ring-opening polymerization of lactones is a method of increasing interest for the synthesis of biodegradable and biocompatible polymers. In the past it was shown that immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase B (CaLB) and the reaction medium play an important role in the polymerization ability especially of medium ring size lactones like ε-caprolactone (ε-CL). We investigated a route for the preparation of compartmentalized microgels based on poly(glycidol) in which CaLB was immobilized to increase its esterification ability. To find the ideal environment for CaLB, we investigated the acceptable water concentration and the accessibility for the monomer in model polymerizations in toluene and analyzed the obtained oligomers/polymers by NMR and SEC. We observed a sufficient accessibility for ε-CL to a toluene like hydrophobic phase imitating a hydrophobic microgel. Comparing free CaLB and Novozym® 435 we found that not the monomer concentration but rather the solubility of the enzyme, as well as the water concentration, strongly influences the equilibrium of esterification and hydrolysis. On the basis of these investigations, microgels of different polarity were prepared and successfully loaded with CaLB by physical entrapment. By comparison of immobilized and free CaLB, we demonstrated an effect of the hydrophobicity of the microenvironment of CaLB on its enzymatic activity.
- ItemComparison of Candida antarctica Lipase B Variants for Conversion of ε-Caprolactone in Aqueous Medium-Part 2(Basel : MDPI, 2018) Höck, Heidi; Engel, Stefan; Weingarten, Simone; Keul, Helmut; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Möller, Martin; Bocola, MarcoEnzyme-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of lactones is a method of increasing interest for the synthesis of polyesters. In the present work, we investigated which changes in the structure of Candida antarctica lipase B (CaLB) shift the catalytic equilibrium between esterification and hydrolysis towards polymerization. Therefore, we present two concepts: (i) removing the glycosylation of CaLB to increase the surface hydrophobicity; and (ii) introducing a hydrophobic lid adapted from Pseudomonas cepacia lipase (PsCL) to enhance the interaction of a growing polymer chain to the elongated lid helix. The deglycosylated CaLB (CaLB-degl) was successfully generated by site-saturation mutagenesis of asparagine 74. Furthermore, computational modeling showed that the introduction of a lid helix at position Ala148 was structurally feasible and the geometry of the active site remained intact. Via overlap extension PCR the lid was successfully inserted, and the variant was produced in large scale in Pichia pastoris with glycosylation (CaLB-lid) and without (CaLB-degl-lid). While the lid variants show a minor positive effect on the polymerization activity, CaLB-degl showed a clearly reduced hydrolytic and enhanced polymerization activity. Immobilization in a hydrophobic polyglycidol-based microgel intensified this effect such that a higher polymerization activity was achieved, compared to the “gold standard” Novozym® 435.
- ItemConsensus model of a cyanobacterial light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase in its pigment-free apo-form and photoactive ternary complex(London : Springer Nature, 2019) Schneidewind, Judith; Krause, Frank; Bocola, Marco; Stadler, Andreas Maximilian; Davari, Mehdi D.; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Krauss, UlrichPhotosynthetic organisms employ two different enzymes for the reduction of the C17 = C18 double bond of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), yielding the chlorophyll precursor chlorophyllide. First, a nitrogenase-like, light-independent (dark-operative) Pchlide oxidoreductase and secondly, a light-dependent Pchlide oxidoreductase (LPOR). For the latter enzyme, despite decades of research, no structural information is available. Here, we use protein structure modelling, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with multi-wavelength analytical ultracentrifugation (MWA-AUC) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments to derive a consensus model of the LPOR apoprotein and the substrate/cofactor/LPOR ternary complex. MWA-AUC and SAXS experiments independently demonstrate that the apoprotein is monomeric, while ternary complex formation induces dimerization. SAXS-guided modelling studies provide a full-length model of the apoprotein and suggest a tentative mode of dimerization for the LPOR ternary complex, supported by published cross-link constraints. Our study provides a first impression of the LPOR structural organization.
- ItemElectron transfer pathways in a light, oxygen, voltage (LOV) protein devoid of the photoactive cysteine([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2017) Kopka, Benita; Magerl, Kathrin; Savitsky, Anton; Davari, Mehdi D.; Röllen, Katrin; Bocola, Marco; Dick, Bernhard; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Krauss, UlrichBlue-light absorption by the flavin chromophore in light, oxygen, voltage (LOV) photoreceptors triggers photochemical reactions that lead to the formation of a flavin-cysteine adduct. While it has long been assumed that adduct formation is essential for signaling, it was recently shown that LOV photoreceptor variants devoid of the photoactive cysteine can elicit a functional response and that flavin photoreduction to the neutral semiquinone radical is sufficient for signal transduction. Currently, the mechanistic basis of the underlying electron- (eT) and proton-transfer (pT) reactions is not well understood. We here reengineered pT into the naturally not photoreducible iLOV protein, a fluorescent reporter protein derived from the Arabidopsis thaliana phototropin-2 LOV2 domain. A single amino-acid substitution (Q489D) enabled efficient photoreduction, suggesting that an eT pathway is naturally present in the protein. By using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, steady-state UV/Vis, transient absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we investigate the underlying eT and pT reactions. Our study provides strong evidence that several Tyr and Trp residues, highly conserved in all LOV proteins, constitute the eT pathway for flavin photoreduction, suggesting that the propensity for photoreduction is evolutionary imprinted in all LOV domains, while efficient pT is needed to stabilize the neutral semiquinone radical.