Browsing by Author "Chen, Y."
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- ItemAnalyzing the causes and spatial pattern of the European 2003 carbon flux anomaly using seven models(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2008) Vetter, M.; Churkina, G.; Jung, M.; Reichstein, M.; Zaehle, S.; Bondeau, A.; Chen, Y.; Ciais, P.; Feser, F.; Freibauer, A.; Geyer, R.; Jones, C.; Papale, D.; Tenhunen, J.; Tomelleri, E.; Trusilova, K.; Viovy, N.; Heimann, M.Globally, the year 2003 is associated with one of the largest atmospheric CO2 rises on record. In the same year, Europe experienced an anomalously strong flux of CO2 from the land to the atmosphere associated with an exceptionally dry and hot summer in Western and Central Europe. In this study we analyze the magnitude of this carbon flux anomaly and key driving ecosystem processes using simulations of seven terrestrial ecosystem models of different complexity and types (process-oriented and diagnostic). We address the following questions: (1) how large were deviations in the net European carbon flux in 2003 relative to a short-term baseline (1998–2002) and to longer-term variations in annual fluxes (1980 to 2005), (2) which European regions exhibited the largest changes in carbon fluxes during the growing season 2003, and (3) which ecosystem processes controlled the carbon balance anomaly . In most models the prominence of 2003 anomaly in carbon fluxes declined with lengthening of the reference period from one year to 16 years. The 2003 anomaly for annual net carbon fluxes ranged between 0.35 and –0.63 Pg C for a reference period of one year and between 0.17 and –0.37 Pg C for a reference period of 16 years for the whole Europe. In Western and Central Europe, the anomaly in simulated net ecosystem productivity (NEP) over the growing season in 2003 was outside the 1σ variance bound of the carbon flux anomalies for 1980–2005 in all models. The estimated anomaly in net carbon flux ranged between –42 and –158 Tg C for Western Europe and between 24 and –129 Tg C for Central Europe depending on the model used. All models responded to a dipole pattern of the climate anomaly in 2003. In Western and Central Europe NEP was reduced due to heat and drought. In contrast, lower than normal temperatures and higher air humidity decreased NEP over Northeastern Europe. While models agree on the sign of changes in simulated NEP and gross primary productivity in 2003 over Western and Central Europe, models diverge in the estimates of anomalies in ecosystem respiration. Except for two process models which simulate respiration increase, most models simulated a decrease in ecosystem respiration in 2003. The diagnostic models showed a weaker decrease in ecosystem respiration than the process-oriented models. Based on the multi-model simulations we estimated the total carbon flux anomaly over the 2003 growing season in Europe to range between –0.02 and –0.27 Pg C relative to the net carbon flux in 1998–2002.
- ItemCellular Deformations Induced by Conical Silicon Nanowire Arrays Facilitate Gene Delivery(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2019) Chen, Y.; Aslanoglou, S.; Gervinskas, G.; Abdelmaksoud, H.; Voelcker, N.H.; Elnathan, R.Engineered cell–nanostructured interfaces generated by vertically aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays have become a promising platform for orchestrating cell behavior, function, and fate. However, the underlying mechanism in SiNW-mediated intracellular access and delivery is still poorly understood. This study demonstrates the development of a gene delivery platform based on conical SiNW arrays for mechanical cell transfection, assisted by centrifugal force, for both adherent and nonadherent cells in vitro. Cells form focal adhesions on SiNWs within 6 h, and maintain high viability and motility. Such a functional and dynamic cell–SiNW interface features conformational changes in the plasma membrane and in some cases the nucleus, promoting both direct penetration and endocytosis; this synergistically facilitates SiNW-mediated delivery of nucleic acids into immortalized cell lines, and into difficult-to-transfect primary immune T cells without pre-activation. Moreover, transfected cells retrieved from SiNWs retain the capacity to proliferate—crucial to future biomedical applications. The results indicate that SiNW-mediated intracellular delivery holds great promise for developing increasingly sophisticated investigative and therapeutic tools. © 2019 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
- ItemCharacterization of self-modulated electron bunches in an argon plasma(Bristol : IOP Publ., 2018) Gross, M.; Lishilin, O.; Loisch, G.; Boonpornprasert, P.; Chen, Y.; Engel, J.; Good, J.; Huck, H.; Isaev, I.; Krasilnikov, M.; Li, X.; Niemczyk, R.; Oppelt, A.; Qian, H.; Renier, Y.; Stephan, F.; Zhao, Q.; Brinkmann, R.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Osterhoff, J.; Grüner, F.J.; Mehrling, T.; Schroeder, C.B.; Will, I.The self-modulation instability is fundamental for the plasma wakefield acceleration experiment of the AWAKE (Advanced Wakefield Experiment) collaboration at CERN where this effect is used to generate proton bunches for the resonant excitation of high acceleration fields. Utilizing the availability of flexible electron beam shaping together with excellent diagnostics including an RF deflector, a supporting experiment was set up at the electron accelerator PITZ (Photo Injector Test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site), given that the underlying physics is the same. After demonstrating the effect  the next goal is to investigate in detail the self-modulation of long (with respect to the plasma wavelength) electron beams. In this contribution we describe parameter studies on self-modulation of a long electron bunch in an argon plasma. The plasma was generated with a discharge cell with densities in the 1013 cm-3 to 1015 cm-3 range. The plasma density was deduced from the plasma wavelength as indicated by the self-modulation period. Parameter scans were conducted with variable plasma density and electron bunch focusing.
- ItemElectronic structure and morphology of dark oxides on zinc generated by electrochemical treatment(London [u.a.] : Royal Society of Chemistry, 2013) Chen, Y.; Schneider, P.; Liu, B.-J.; Borodin, S.; Ren, B.; Erbe, A.Oxides formed by electrochemical treatment of metals frequently have properties and structures very different from the respective bulk oxides. Here, electronic structure and chemical composition were investigated for the oxide formed on polycrystalline zinc after electrochemical oxidation, and after subsequent reduction, in a Na2CO3 electrolyte. Photoluminescence and spectroscopic ellipsometry show the presence of states deep in the ZnO band gap in the oxidized sample, which consists of a highly disordered oxide. These states determine the absorption of light in the visible spectral range. After reduction, the characteristics of the ZnO electronic structure have disappeared, leaving a defect-dominated material with a band gap of ∼1.8 eV. Complementary detailed analysis of the morphology of the resulting surfaces shows hexagon-shaped metallic Zn-"nanoplates" to be formed in the reduction step. The optical appearance of the surfaces is dark, because of their efficient extinction of light over a large part of the visible spectrum. The optical appearance is a result of changed surface morphology and electronic structure of the oxide film. Such materials may possess interesting applications in photocatalysis or photoelectrochemistry.
- ItemEmittance Reduction of RF Photoinjector Generated Electron Beams by Transverse Laser Beam Shaping(Bristol : IOP Publ., 2019) Gross, M.; Qian, H.J.; Boonpornprasert, P.; Chen, Y.; Good, J.D.; Huck, H.; Isaev, I.; Koschitzki, C.; Krasilnikov, M.; Lal, S.; Li, X.; Lishilin, O.; Loisch, G.; Melkumyan, D.; Mohanty, S.K.; Niemczyk, R.; Oppelt, A.; Shaker, H.; Shu, G.; Stephan, F.; Vashchenko, G.; Will, I.Laser pulse shaping is one of the key elements to generate low emittance electron beams with RF photoinjectors. Ultimately high performance can be achieved with ellipsoidal laser pulses, but 3-dimensional shaping is challenging. High beam quality can also be reached by simple transverse pulse shaping, which has demonstrated improved beam emittance compared to a transversely uniform laser in the 'pancake' photoemission regime. In this contribution we present the truncation of a Gaussian laser at a radius of approximately one sigma in the intermediate (electron bunch length directly after emission about the same as radius) photoemission regime with high acceleration gradients (up to 60 MV/m). This type of electron bunch is used e.g. at the European XFEL and FLASH free electron lasers at DESY, Hamburg site and is being investigated in detail at the Photoinjector Test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ). Here we present ray-tracing simulations and experimental data of a laser beamline upgrade enabling variable transverse truncation. Initial projected emittance measurements taken with help of this setup are shown, as well as supporting beam dynamics simulations. Additional simulations show the potential for substantial reduction of slice emittance at PITZ. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.
- ItemHighly-efficient extraction of entangled photons from quantum dots using a broadband optical antenna(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2018) Chen, Y.; Zopf, M.; Keil, R.; Ding, F.; Schmidt, O.G.Many quantum photonic technologies require the efficient generation of entangled pairs of photons, but to date there have been few ways to produce them reliably. Sources based on parametric down conversion operate at very low efficiency per pulse due to the probabilistic generation process. Semiconductor quantum dots can emit single pairs of entangled photons deterministically but they fall short due to the extremely low-extraction efficiency. Strategies for extracting single photons from quantum dots, such as embedding them in narrowband optical cavities, are difficult to translate to entangled photons. Here, we build a broadband optical antenna with an extraction efficiency of 65% ± 4% and demonstrate a highly-efficient entangled-photon source by collecting strongly entangled photons (fidelity of 0.9) at a pair efficiency of 0.372 ± 0.002 per pulse. The high brightness achieved by our source represents a step forward in the development of optical quantum technologies.
- ItemKey concepts behind forming-free resistive switching incorporated with rectifying transport properties(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2013) Shuai, Y.; Ou, X.; Luo, W.; Mücklich, A.; Bürger, D.; Zhou, S.; Wu, C.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, W.; Helm, M.; Mikolajick, T.; Schmidt, O.G.; Schmidt, H.This work reports the effect of Ti diffusion on the bipolar resistive switching in Au/BiFeO 3/Pt/Ti capacitor-like structures. Polycrystalline BiFeO 3 thin films are deposited by pulsed laser deposition at different temperatures on Pt/Ti/SiO 2/Si substrates. From the energy filtered transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry it is observed that Ti diffusion occurs if the deposition temperature is above 600 C. The current-voltage (I-V) curves indicate that resistive switching can only be achieved in Au/BiFeO 3/Pt/Ti capacitor-like structures where this Ti diffusion occurs. The effect of Ti diffusion is confirmed by the BiFeO 3 thin films deposited on Pt/sapphire and Pt/Ti/sapphire substrates. The resistive switching needs no electroforming process, and is incorporated with rectifying properties which is potentially useful to suppress the sneak current in a crossbar architecture. Those specific features open a promising alternative concept for nonvolatile memory devices as well as for other memristive devices like synapses in neuromorphic circuits.
- ItemModeling the global emission, transport and deposition of trace elements associated with mineral dust(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2015) Zhang, Y.; Mahowald, N.; Scanza, R.A.; Journet, E.; Desboeufs, K.; Albani, S.; Kok, J.F.; Zhuang, G.; Chen, Y.; Cohen, D.D.; Paytan, A.; Patey, M.D.; Achterberg, E.P.; Engelbrecht, J.P.; Fomba, K.W.Trace element deposition from desert dust has important impacts on ocean primary productivity, the quantification of which could be useful in determining the magnitude and sign of the biogeochemical feedback on radiative forcing. However, the impact of elemental deposition to remote ocean regions is not well understood and is not currently included in global climate models. In this study, emission inventories for eight elements primarily of soil origin, Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, K, Al, and Si are determined based on a global mineral data set and a soil data set. The resulting elemental fractions are used to drive the desert dust model in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in order to simulate the elemental concentrations of atmospheric dust. Spatial variability of mineral dust elemental fractions is evident on a global scale, particularly for Ca. Simulations of global variations in the Ca / Al ratio, which typically range from around 0.1 to 5.0 in soils, are consistent with observations, suggesting that this ratio is a good signature for dust source regions. The simulated variable fractions of chemical elements are sufficiently different; estimates of deposition should include elemental variations, especially for Ca, Al and Fe. The model results have been evaluated with observations of elemental aerosol concentrations from desert regions and dust events in non-dust regions, providing insights into uncertainties in the modeling approach. The ratios between modeled and observed elemental fractions range from 0.7 to 1.6, except for Mg and Mn (3.4 and 3.5, respectively). Using the soil database improves the correspondence of the spatial heterogeneity in the modeling of several elements (Ca, Al and Fe) compared to observations. Total and soluble dust element fluxes to different ocean basins and ice sheet regions have been estimated, based on the model results. The annual inputs of soluble Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe and K associated with dust using the mineral data set are 0.30 Tg, 16.89 Gg, 1.32 Tg, 22.84 Gg, 0.068 Tg, and 0.15 Tg to global oceans and ice sheets.
- ItemSolid-state ensemble of highly entangled photon sources at rubidium atomic transitions(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2017) Keil, R.; Zopf, M.; Chen, Y.; Höfer, B.; Zhang, J.; Ding, F.; Schmidt, O.G.Semiconductor InAs/GaAs quantum dots grown by the Stranski-Krastanov method are among the leading candidates for the deterministic generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs. Despite remarkable progress in the past 20 years, many challenges still remain for this material, such as the extremely low yield, the low degree of entanglement and the large wavelength distribution. Here, we show that with an emerging family of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots grown by droplet etching and nanohole infilling, it is possible to obtain a large ensemble of polarization-entangled photon emitters on a wafer without any post-growth tuning. Under pulsed resonant two-photon excitation, all measured quantum dots emit single pairs of entangled photons with ultra-high purity, high degree of entanglement and ultra-narrow wavelength distribution at rubidium transitions. Therefore, this material system is an attractive candidate for the realization of a solid-state quantum repeater - among many other key enabling quantum photonic elements.