Browsing by Author "Coumou, D."
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- ItemChanges in meandering of the Northern Hemisphere circulation(Bristol : Institute of Physics Publishing, 2016) Di Capua, G.; Coumou, D.
- ItemThe dynamical core of the Aeolus 1.0 statistical-dynamical atmosphere model: Validation and parameter optimization(Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2018) Totz, S.; Eliseev, A.V.; Petri, S.; Flechsig, M.; Caesar, L.; Petoukhov, V.; Coumou, D.We present and validate a set of equations for representing the atmosphere's large-scale general circulation in an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (EMIC). These dynamical equations have been implemented in Aeolus 1.0, which is a statistical-dynamical atmosphere model (SDAM) and includes radiative transfer and cloud modules (Coumou et al., 2011; Eliseev et al., 2013). The statistical dynamical approach is computationally efficient and thus enables us to perform climate simulations at multimillennia timescales, which is a prime aim of our model development. Further, this computational efficiency enables us to scan large and high-dimensional parameter space to tune the model parameters, e.g., for sensitivity studies.
Here, we present novel equations for the large-scale zonal-mean wind as well as those for planetary waves. Together with synoptic parameterization (as presented by Coumou et al., 2011), these form the mathematical description of the dynamical core of Aeolus 1.0.
We optimize the dynamical core parameter values by tuning all relevant dynamical fields to ERA-Interim reanalysis data (1983-2009) forcing the dynamical core with prescribed surface temperature, surface humidity and cumulus cloud fraction. We test the model's performance in reproducing the seasonal cycle and the influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We use a simulated annealing optimization algorithm, which approximates the global minimum of a high-dimensional function.
With non-tuned parameter values, the model performs reasonably in terms of its representation of zonal-mean circulation, planetary waves and storm tracks. The simulated annealing optimization improves in particular the model's representation of the Northern Hemisphere jet stream and storm tracks as well as the Hadley circulation.
The regions of high azonal wind velocities (planetary waves) are accurately captured for all validation experiments. The zonal-mean zonal wind and the integrated lower troposphere mass flux show good results in particular in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere, the model tends to produce too-weak zonal-mean zonal winds and a too-narrow Hadley circulation. We discuss possible reasons for these model biases as well as planned future model improvements and applications.
- ItemExploring the sensitivity of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation to different surface temperature forcing using a statistical-dynamical atmospheric model(Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2019) Totz, S.; Petri, S.; Lehmann, J.; Peukert, E.; Coumou, D.Climate and weather conditions in the mid-latitudes are strongly driven by the large-scale atmosphere circulation. Observational data indicate that important components of the large-scale circulation have changed in recent decades, including the strength and the width of the Hadley cell, jets, storm tracks and planetary waves. Here, we use a new statistical-dynamical atmosphere model (SDAM) to test the individual sensitivities of the large-scale atmospheric circulation to changes in the zonal temperature gradient, meridional temperature gradient and global-mean temperature. We analyze the Northern Hemisphere Hadley circulation, jet streams, storm tracks and planetary waves by systematically altering the zonal temperature asymmetry, the meridional temperature gradient and the global-mean temperature. Our results show that the strength of the Hadley cell, storm tracks and jet streams depend, in terms of relative changes, almost linearly on both the global-mean temperature and the meridional temperature gradient, whereas the zonal temperature asymmetry has little or no influence. The magnitude of planetary waves is affected by all three temperature components, as expected from theoretical dynamical considerations. The width of the Hadley cell behaves nonlinearly with respect to all three temperature components in the SDAM. Moreover, some of these observed large-scale atmospheric changes are expected from dynamical equations and are therefore an important part of model validation.
- ItemFuture changes in extratropical storm tracks and baroclinicity under climate change(Bristol : IOP, 2014) Lehmann, J.; Coumou, D.; Frieler, K.; Eliseev, A.V.; Levermann, A.The weather in Eurasia, Australia, and North and South America is largely controlled by the strength and position of extratropical storm tracks. Future climate change will likely affect these storm tracks and the associated transport of energy, momentum, and water vapour. Many recent studies have analyzed how storm tracks will change under climate change, and how these changes are related to atmospheric dynamics. However, there are still discrepancies between different studies on how storm tracks will change under future climate scenarios. Here, we show that under global warming the CMIP5 ensemble of coupled climate models projects only little relative changes in vertically averaged mid-latitude mean storm track activity during the northern winter, but agree in projecting a substantial decrease during summer. Seasonal changes in the Southern Hemisphere show the opposite behaviour, with an intensification in winter and no change during summer. These distinct seasonal changes in northern summer and southern winter storm tracks lead to an amplified seasonal cycle in a future climate. Similar changes are seen in the mid-latitude mean Eady growth rate maximum, a measure that combines changes in vertical shear and static stability based on baroclinic instability theory. Regression analysis between changes in the storm tracks and changes in the maximum Eady growth rate reveal that most models agree in a positive association between the two quantities over mid-latitude regions.
- ItemInfluence of Anthropogenic Climate Change on Planetary Wave Resonance and Extreme Weather Events(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2017) Mann, M.E.; Rahmstorf, S.; Kornhuber, K.; Steinman, B.A.; Miller, S.K.; Coumou, D.Persistent episodes of extreme weather in the Northern Hemisphere summer have been shown to be associated with the presence of high-amplitude quasi-stationary atmospheric Rossby waves within a particular wavelength range (zonal wavenumber 6-8). The underlying mechanistic relationship involves the phenomenon of quasi-resonant amplification (QRA) of synoptic-scale waves with that wavenumber range becoming trapped within an effective mid-latitude atmospheric waveguide. Recent work suggests an increase in recent decades in the occurrence of QRA-favorable conditions and associated extreme weather, possibly linked to amplified Arctic warming and thus a climate change influence. Here, we isolate a specific fingerprint in the zonal mean surface temperature profile that is associated with QRA-favorable conditions. State-of-the-art ("CMIP5") historical climate model simulations subject to anthropogenic forcing display an increase in the projection of this fingerprint that is mirrored in multiple observational surface temperature datasets. Both the models and observations suggest this signal has only recently emerged from the background noise of natural variability.
- ItemThe influence of Arctic amplification on mid-latitude summer circulation([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2018) Coumou, D.; Di Capua, G.; Vavrus, S.; Wang, L.; Wang, S.Accelerated warming in the Arctic, as compared to the rest of the globe, might have profound impacts on mid-latitude weather. Most studies analyzing Arctic links to mid-latitude weather focused on winter, yet recent summers have seen strong reductions in sea-ice extent and snow cover, a weakened equator-to-pole thermal gradient and associated weakening of the mid-latitude circulation. We review the scientific evidence behind three leading hypotheses on the influence of Arctic changes on mid-latitude summer weather: Weakened storm tracks, shifted jet streams, and amplified quasi-stationary waves. We show that interactions between Arctic teleconnections and other remote and regional feedback processes could lead to more persistent hot-dry extremes in the mid-latitudes. The exact nature of these non-linear interactions is not well quantified but they provide potential high-impact risks for society.
- ItemThe influence of mid-latitude storm tracks on hot, cold, dry and wet extremes(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2015) Lehmann, J.; Coumou, D.
- ItemScheme for calculation of multi-layer cloudiness and precipitation for climate models of intermediate complexity(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2013) Eliseev, A.V.; Coumou, D.; Chernokulsky, A.V.; Petoukhov, V.; Petri, S.In this study we present a scheme for calculating the characteristics of multi-layer cloudiness and precipitation for Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs). This scheme considers three-layer stratiform cloudiness and single-column convective clouds. It distinguishes between ice and droplet clouds as well. Precipitation is calculated by using cloud lifetime, which depends on cloud type and phase as well as on statistics of synoptic and convective disturbances. The scheme is tuned to observations by using an ensemble simulation forced by the ERA-40-derived climatology for 1979–2001. Upon calibration, the scheme realistically reproduces basic features of fields of cloud fractions, cloud water path, and precipitation. The simulated globally and annually averaged total cloud fraction is 0.59, and the simulated globally averaged annual precipitation is 100 cm yr−1. Both values agree with empirically derived values. The simulated cloud water path is too small, probably because the simulated vertical extent of stratiform clouds is too small. Geographical distribution and seasonal changes of calculated cloud fraction and precipitation are broadly realistic as well. However, some important regional biases still remain in the scheme, e.g. too little precipitation in the tropics. We discuss possibilities for future improvements in the scheme.
- ItemThree-dimensional parameterizations of the synoptic scale kinetic energy and momentum flux in the Earth's atmosphere(Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2011) Coumou, D.; Petoukhov, V.; Eliseev, A.V.We present a new set of statistical-dynamical equations (SDEs) which can accurately reproduce the three-dimensional atmospheric fields of synoptic scale kinetic energy and momentum flux. The set of equations is closed by finding proper parameterizations for the vertical macro-turbulent diffusion coefficient and ageostrophic terms. The equations have been implemented in a new SD atmosphere model, named Aeolus. We show that the synoptic scale kinetic energy and momentum fluxes generated by the model are in good agreement with empirical data, which were derived from bandpass-filtered ERA-40 data. In addition to present-day climate, the model is tested for substantially colder (last glacial maximum) and warmer (2×CO2) climates, and shown to be in agreement with general circulation model (GCM) results. With the derived equations, one can efficiently study the position and strength of storm tracks under different climate scenarios with calculation time a fraction of those of GCMs. This work prepares ground for the development of a new generation of fast Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity which are able to perform multi-millennia simulations in a reasonable time frame while appropriately accounting for the climatic effect of storm tracks.