Browsing by Author "Diestel, Anett"
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- ItemCan gadolinium compete with La-Fe-Co-Si in a thermomagnetic generator?(Abingdon : Taylor & Francis, 2021) Dzekan, Daniel; Diestel, Anett; Berger, Dietmar; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fähler, SebastianA thermomagnetic generator is a promising technology to harvest low-grade waste heat and convert it into electricity. To make this technology competitive with other technologies for energy harvesting near room temperature, the optimum thermomagnetic material is required. Here we compare the performance of a state of the art thermomagnetic generator using gadolinium and La-Fe-Co-Si as thermomagnetic material, which exhibit strong differences in thermal conductivity and type of magnetic transition. gadolinium is the established benchmark material for magnetocaloric cooling, which follows the reverse energy conversion process as compared to thermomagnetic energy harvesting. Surprisingly, La-Fe-Co-Si outperforms gadolinium in terms of voltage and power output. Our analysis reveals the differences in thermal conductivity are less important than the particular shape of the magnetization curve. In gadolinium an unsymmetrical magnetization curve is responsible for an uncompensated magnetic flux, which results in magnetic stray fields. These stray fields represent an energy barrier in the thermodynamic cycle and reduce the output of the generator. Our detailed experiments and simulations of both, thermomagnetic materials and generator, clearly reveal the importance to minimize magnetic stray fields. This is only possible when using materials with a symmetrical magnetization curve, such as La-Fe-Co-Si.
- ItemInfluencing Martensitic Transition in Epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga-Co Films with Large Angle Grain Boundaries(Basel : MDPI, 2020) Lünser, Klara; Diestel, Anett; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fähler, SebastianMagnetocaloric materials based on field-induced first order transformations such as Ni-Mn-Ga-Co are promising for more environmentally friendly cooling. Due to the underlying martensitic transformation, a large hysteresis can occur, which in turn reduces the efficiency of a cooling cycle. Here, we analyse the influence of the film microstructure on the thermal hysteresis and focus especially on large angle grain boundaries. We control the microstructure and grain boundary density by depositing films with local epitaxy on different substrates: Single crystalline MgO(0 0 1), MgO(1 1 0) and Al2O3(0 0 0 1). By combining local electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and global texture measurements with thermomagnetic measurements, we correlate a smaller hysteresis with the presence of grain boundaries. In films with grain boundaries, the hysteresis is decreased by about 30% compared to single crystalline films. Nevertheless, a large grain boundary density leads to a broadened transition. To explain this behaviour, we discuss the influence of grain boundaries on the martensitic transformation. While grain boundaries act as nucleation sites, they also lead to different strains in the material, which gives rise to various transition temperatures inside one film. We can show that a thoughtful design of the grain boundary microstructure is an important step to optimize the hysteresis.
- ItemOrigin and avoidance of double peaks in the induced voltage of a thermomagnetic generator for harvesting low-grade waste heat(Bristol : IOP Publishing, 2022) Dzekan, Daniel; Kischnik, Tim D.; Diestel, Anett; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fähler, SebastianThermomagnetic harvesting is an emerging approach used to convert low-grade waste heat to electricity, which recently obtained a boost due to the development of both more efficient functional materials and innovative device concepts. Here, we examine a thermomagnetic generator which utilizes gadolinium as the thermomagnetic material and report on the double peaks of the induced voltage. Using a combination of experiments and theory we show that these double peaks originate from the interaction between an asymmetric magnetization curve and a pretzel-like magnetic field topology. Double peaks are detrimental for the output power and can be avoided by matching the magnetization change by adjusting the cold and hot fluid flow.
- ItemSelf‐Patterning of Multifunctional Heusler Membranes by Dewetting(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Lünser, Klara; Diestel, Anett; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fähler, SebastianNi-Mn-based Heusler alloys are an emerging class of materials which enable actuation by (magnetic) shape memory effects, magnetocaloric cooling, and thermomagnetic energy harvesting. Multifunctional materials have a particular advantage for miniaturization since their functionality is already built within the material. However, often complex microtechnological processing is required to bring these materials into shape. Here, self-organized formation of single crystalline membranes having arrays of rectangular holes with high aspect ratio is demonstrated. Dewetting avoids the need for complicated processing and allows to prepare freestanding Ni–Mn–Ga–Co membranes. These membranes are martensitic and magnetic, and their functional properties are not disturbed by self-patterning. Feature sizes of these membranes can be tailored by film thickness and heat treatment, and the tendencies can be explained with dewetting. As an outlook, the advantages of these multifunctional membranes for magnetocaloric and thermomagnetic microsystems are sketched. © 2021 The Authors. Advanced Materials Interfaces published by Wiley-VCH GmbH