Browsing by Author "Eckert, Jürgen"
Now showing 1 - 20 of 43
Results Per Page
- ItemCorrelation between structural heterogeneity and plastic deformation for phase separating FeCu metallic glasses(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Peng, Chuan-Xiao; Song, Kai-Kai; Wang, Li; Şopu, Daniel; Pauly, Simon; Eckert, JürgenUnlike crystalline metals, the plastic deformation of metallic glasses (MGs) involves a competition between disordering and structural relaxation ordering, which is not well understood, yet. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate the evolutions of strain localizations, short-range order (SRO) as well as the free volume in the glass during compressive deformation of Fe50Cu50 MGs with different degrees of phase separation. Our findings indicate that the free volume in the phase separating MGs decreases while the shear strain localizations increase with increasing degree of phase separation. Cu-centered clusters show higher potential energies and Voronoi volumes, and bear larger local shear strains. On the other hand, Fe-centered pentagon-rich clusters in Cu-rich regions seem to play an important role to resist the shear transformation. The dilatation or annihilation of Voronoi volumes is due to the competition between ordering via structural relaxation and shear stress-induced deformation. The present study could provide a better understanding of the relationship between the structural inhomogeneity and the deformation of MGs.
- ItemCryogenic-temperature-induced structural transformation of a metallic glass(London [u.a.] : Taylor & Francis, 2016-11-30) Bian, Xilei; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qing; Sun, Baoan; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Zhai, Qijie; Mattern, Norbert; Bednarčík, Jozef; Eckert, JürgenThe plasticity of metallic glasses depends largely on the atomic-scale structure. However, the details of the atomic-scale structure, which are responsible for their properties, remain to be clarified. In this study, in-situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction and strain-rate jump compression tests at different cryogenic temperatures were carried out. We show that the activation volume of flow units linearly depends on temperature in the non-serrated flow regime. A plausible atomic deformation mechanism is proposed, considering that the activated flow units mediating the plastic flow originate from the medium-range order and transit to the short-range order with decreasing temperature.
- ItemDeformation at ambient and high temperature of in situ Laves phases-ferrite composites(Bristol : IOP Publishing, 2014) Donnadieu, Patricia; Pohlmann, Carsten; Scudino, Sergio; Blandin, Jean-Jacques; Surreddi, Kumar Babu; Eckert, JürgenThe mechanical behavior of a Fe80Zr10Cr10 alloy has been studied at ambient and high temperature. This Fe80Zr10Cr10 alloy, whoose microstructure is formed by alternate lamellae of Laves phase and ferrite, constitutes a very simple example of an in situ CMA phase composite. The role of the Laves phase type was investigated in a previous study while the present work focuses on the influence of the microstructure length scale owing to a series of alloys cast at different cooling rates that display microstructures with Laves phase lamellae width ranging from ∼50 nm to ∼150 nm. Room temperature compression tests have revealed a very high strength (up to 2 GPa) combined with a very high ductility (up to 35%). Both strength and ductility increase with reduction of the lamella width. High temperature compression tests have shown that a high strength (900 MPa) is maintained up to 873 K. Microstructural study of the deformed samples suggests that the confinement of dislocations in the ferrite lamellae is responsible for strengthening at both ambient and high temperature. The microstructure scale in addition to CMA phase structural features stands then as a key parameter for optimization of mechanical properties of CMA in situ composites.
- ItemDeformation induced structural evolution in bulk metallic glasses(Heidelberg : Springer, 2011) Wang, Gang; Mattern, Norbert; Bednarčí, Jozef; Xia, Lei; Zhai, QiJie; Dong, YuanDa; Eckert, JürgenThe structural behavior of binary Cu50Zr50 and ternary Cu50Zr45Ti5 bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) under applied stress was investigated by means of in-situ high energy X-ray synchrotron diffraction. The components of the strain tensors were determined from the shifts of the maxima of the atomic pair correlation functions (PDF) in real space. The anisotropic atomic reorientation in the first-nearest-neighbor shell versus stress suggests structural rearrangements in short-range order. Within the plastic deformation range the overall strain of the metallic glass is equal to the yield strain. After unloading, the atomic structure returns to the stress-free state, and the short-range order is identical to that of the undeformed state. Plastic deformation, however, leads to localized shear bands whose contribution to the volume averaged diffraction pattern is too weak to be detected. A concordant region evidenced by the anisotropic component is activated to counterbalance the stress change due to the atomic bond reorientation in the first-nearest-neighbor shell. The size of the concordant region is an important factor dominating the yield strength and the plastic strain ability of the BMGs.
- ItemDeformation-induced martensitic transformation in Cu-Zr-Zn bulk metallic glass composites(Basel : MDPI, 2015) Wu, Dianyu; Song, Kaikai; Cao, Chongde; Li, Ran; Wang, Gang; Wu, Yuan; Wan, Feng; Ding, Fuli; Shi, Yue; Bai, Xiaojun; Kaban, Ivan; Eckert, JürgenThe microstructures and mechanical properties of (Cu0.5Zr0.5)100−xZnx (x = 0, 1.5, 2.5, 4.5, 7, 10, and 14 at. %) bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites were studied. CuZr martensitic crystals together with minor B2 CuZr and amorphous phases dominate the microstructures of the as-quenched samples with low Zn additions (x = 0, 1.5, and 2.5 at. %), while B2 CuZr and amorphous phases being accompanied with minor martensitic crystals form at a higher Zn content (x = 4.5, 7, 10, and 14 at. %). The fabricated Cu-Zr-Zn BMG composites exhibit macroscopically appreciable compressive plastic strain and obvious work-hardening due to the formation of multiple shear bands and the deformation-induced martensitic transformation (MT) within B2 crystals. The present BMG composites could be a good candidate as high-performance structural materials.
- ItemDirect observation of nanocrystal-induced enhancement of tensile ductility in a metallic glass composite(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2021) Gammer, Christoph; Rentenberger, Christian; Beitelschmidt, Denise; Minor, Andrew M.; Eckert, JürgenBulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have attracted wide interest, but their successful application is hindered by their low ductility at room temperature. Therefore, the use of composites of a BMG matrix with crystalline secondary phases has been proposed to overcome this drawback. In the present work we demonstrate the fabrication of a tailored BMG nanocomposite containing a high density of monodisperse nanocrystals with a size of around 20 nm using a combination of mechanical and thermal treatment of Cu36Zr48Al8Ag8 well below the crystallization temperature. Direct observations of the interaction of the nanocrystals with a shear band during in situ deformation in a transmission electron microscope demonstrate that the achieved nanocomposite has the potential to inhibit catastrophic fracture in tension. This demonstrates that a sufficient number of nanoscale structural heterogeneities can be a route towards BMG composites with superior mechanical properties.
- ItemEffect of Alloying Elements in Melt Spun Mg-alloys for Hydrogen Storage(São Carlos : SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online, 2016) Rozenberg, Silvia; Saporiti, Fabiana; Lang, Julien; Audebert, Fernando; Botta, Pablo; Stoica, Mihai; Huot, Jacques; Eckert, JürgenIn this paper we report the effect of alloying elements on hydrogen storage properties of melt-spun Mg-based alloys. The base alloys Mg90Si10, Mg90Cu10, Mg65Cu35 (at%) were studied. We also investigated the effect of rare earths (using MM: mischmetal) and Al in Mg65Cu25Al10, Mg65Cu25MM10 and Mg65Cu10Al15MM10 alloys. All the melt-spun alloys without MM show a crystalline structure, and the Mg65Cu25MM10 and Mg65Cu10Al15MM10 alloys showed an amorphous and partially amorphous structure respectively. At 350˚C all the alloys had a crystalline structure during the hydrogen absorption-desorption tests. It was observed that Si and Cu in the binaries alloys hindered completely the activation of the hydrogen absorption. The partial substitution of Cu by MM or Al allowed activation. The combined substitution of Cu by MM and Al showed the best results with the fastest absorption and desorption kinetics, which suggests that this combination can be used for new Mg-alloys to improve hydrogen storage properties.
- ItemEmulsion soft templating of carbide-derived carbon nanospheres with controllable porosity for capacitive electrochemical energy storage(Cambridge : Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015) Oschatz, Martin; Zeiger, Marco; Jaeckel, Nicolas; Strubel, Patrick; Borchardt, Lars; Reinhold, Romy; Nickel, Winfried; Eckert, Jürgen; Presser, Volker; Kaskel, StefanA new approach to produce carbide-derived carbon nanospheres of 20-200 nm in diameter based on a novel soft-templating technique is presented. Platinum catalysis is used for the cross-linking of liquid (allylhydrido)polycarbosilane polymer chains with para-divinylbenzene within oil-in-water miniemulsions. Quantitative implementation of the pre-ceramic polymer can be achieved allowing precise control over the resulting materials. After pyrolysis and high-temperature chlorine treatment, resulting particles offer ideal spherical shape, very high specific surface area (up to 2347 m^2/g^-1), and large micro/mesopore volume (up to 1.67 cm^3/g^-1). The internal pore structure of the nanospheres is controllable by the composition of the oil phase within the miniemulsions. The materials are highly suitable for electrochemical double-layer capacitors with high specific capacitances in aqueous 1 M Na2SO4 solution (110 F/g^-1) and organic 1 M tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in acetonitrile (130 F/g^-1).
- ItemHigh area capacity lithium-sulfur full-cell battery with prelitiathed silicon nanowire-carbon anodes for long cycling stability(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Krause, Andreas; Dörfler, Susanne; Piwko, Markus; Wisser, Florian M.; Jaumann, Tony; Ahrens, Eike; Giebeler, Lars; Althues, Holger; Schädlich, Stefan; Grothe, Julia; Jeffery, Andrea; Grube, Matthias; Brückner, Jan; Martin, Jan; Eckert, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M.We show full Li/S cells with the use of balanced and high capacity electrodes to address high power electro-mobile applications. The anode is made of an assembly comprising of silicon nanowires as active material densely and conformally grown on a 3D carbon mesh as a light-weight current collector, offering extremely high areal capacity for reversible Li storage of up to 9 mAh/cm2. The dense growth is guaranteed by a versatile Au precursor developed for homogenous Au layer deposition on 3D substrates. In contrast to metallic Li, the presented system exhibits superior characteristics as an anode in Li/S batteries such as safe operation, long cycle life and easy handling. These anodes are combined with high area density S/C composite cathodes into a Li/S full-cell with an ether- and lithium triflate-based electrolyte for high ionic conductivity. The result is a highly cyclable full-cell with an areal capacity of 2.3 mAh/cm2, a cyclability surpassing 450 cycles and capacity retention of 80% after 150 cycles (capacity loss <0.4% per cycle). A detailed physical and electrochemical investigation of the SiNW Li/S full-cell including in-operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements reveals that the lower degradation is due to a lower self-reduction of polysulfides after continuous charging/discharging.
- ItemHigh pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, AndrásSoft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications.
- ItemHigh-mobility graphene on liquid p-block elements by ultra-low-loss CVD growth(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2013) Wang, Jiao; Zeng, Mengqi; Tan, Lifang; Dai, Boya; Deng, Yuan; Rümmeli, Mark; Xu, Haitao; Li, Zishen; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lianmao; Eckert, Jürgen; Fu, LeiThe high-quality and low-cost of the graphene preparation method decide whether graphene is put into the applications finally. Enormous efforts have been devoted to understand and optimize the CVD process of graphene over various d-block transition metals (e.g. Cu, Ni and Pt). Here we report the growth of uniform high-quality single-layer, single-crystalline graphene flakes and their continuous films over p-block elements (e.g. Ga) liquid films using ambient-pressure chemical vapor deposition. The graphene shows high crystalline quality with electron mobility reaching levels as high as 7400 cm2 V−1s−1 under ambient conditions. Our employed growth strategy is ultra-low-loss. Only trace amounts of Ga are consumed in the production and transfer of the graphene and expensive film deposition or vacuum systems are not needed. We believe that our research will open up new territory in the field of graphene growth and thus promote its practical application.
- ItemIn-situ quasi-instantaneous e-beam driven catalyst-free formation of crystalline aluminum borate nanowires(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Gonzalez-Martinez, Ignacio G.; Gemming, Thomas; Mendes, Rafael; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Bezugly, Viktor; Kunstmann, Jens; Eckert, Jürgen; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Rümmeli, Mark H.The catalyst-assisted nucleation and growth mechanisms for many kinds of nanowires and nanotubes are pretty well understood. At times, though, 1D nanostructures form without a catalyst and the argued growth modes have inconsistencies. One such example is the catalyst-free growth of aluminium borate nanowires. Here we develop an in-situ catalyst-free room temperature growth route for aluminium nanowires using the electron beam in a transmission electron microscope. We provide strong experimental evidence that supports a formation process that can be viewed as a phase transition in which the generation of free-volume induced by the electron beam irradiation enhances the atomic mobility within the precursor material. The enhanced atomic mobility and specific features of the crystal structure of Al5BO9 drive the atomic rearrangement that results in the large scale formation of highly crystalline aluminium borate nanowires. The whole formation process can be completed within fractions of a second. Our developed growth mechanism might also be extended to describe the catalyst-free formation of other nanowires.
- ItemLifetime vs. rate capability: Understanding the role of FEC and VC in high-energy Li-ion batteries with nano-silicon anodes(Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2016) Jaumann, Tony; Balach, Juan; Langklotz, Ulrike; Sauchuk, Viktar; Fritsch, Marco; Michaelis, Alexander; Teltevskij, Valerij; Mikhailova, Daria; Oswald, Steffen; Klose, Markus; Stephani, Guenter; Hauser, Ralf; Eckert, Jürgen; Giebeler, LarsFluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and vinylene carbonate (VC) are the most frequently used electrolyte components to enhance the lifetime of anode materials in Li-ion batteries, but for silicon it is still ambiguous when FEC or VC is more beneficial. Herein, a nanostructured silicon/carbon anode derived from low-cost HSiCl3 is tailored by the rational choice of the electrolyte component, to obtain an anode material outperforming current complex silicon structures. We demonstrate highly reversible areal capacities of up to 5 mA h/cm2 at 4.4 mg/cm2 mass loading, a specific capacity of 1280 mA h/gElectrode, a capacity retention of 81% after 500 deep-discharge cycles versus lithium metal and successful full-cell tests with high-voltage cathodes meeting the requirements for real application. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and post-mortem investigation provide new insights in tailoring the interfacial properties of silicon-based anodes for high performance anode materials based on an alloying mechanism with large volume changes. The role of fluorine in the FEC-derived interfacial layer is discussed in comparison with the VC-derived layer and possible degradation mechanisms are proposed. We believe that this study gives a valuable understanding and provides new strategies on the facile use of additives for highly reversible silicon anodes in Li-ion batteries.
- ItemLocal melting to design strong and plastically deformable bulk metallic glass composites(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2017) Qin, Yue-Sheng; Han, Xiao-Liang; Song, Kai-Kai; Tian, Yu-Hao; Peng, Chuan-Xiao; Wang, Li; Sun, Bao-An; Wang, Gang; Kaban, Ivan; Eckert, JürgenRecently, CuZr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites reinforced by the TRIP (transformation-induced plasticity) effect have been explored in attempt to accomplish an optimal of trade-off between strength and ductility. However, the design of such BMG composites with advanced mechanical properties still remains a big challenge for materials engineering. In this work, we proposed a technique of instantaneously and locally arc-melting BMG plate to artificially induce the precipitation of B2 crystals in the glassy matrix and then to tune mechanical properties. Through adjusting local melting process parameters (i.e. input powers, local melting positions, and distances between the electrode and amorphous plate), the size, volume fraction, and distribution of B2 crystals were well tailored and the corresponding formation mechanism was clearly clarified. The resultant BMG composites exhibit large compressive plasticity and high strength together with obvious work-hardening ability. This compelling approach could be of great significance for the steady development of metastable CuZr-based alloys with excellent mechanical properties.
- ItemLocal microstructure evolution at shear bands in metallic glasses with nanoscale phase separation(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) He, Jie; Kaban, Ivan; Mattern, Norbert; Song, Kaikai; Sun, Baoan; Kim, Do Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen; Greer, A.LindsayAt room temperature, plastic flow of metallic glasses (MGs) is sharply localized in shear bands, which are a key feature of the plastic deformation in MGs. Despite their clear importance and decades of study, the conditions for formation of shear bands, their structural evolution and multiplication mechanism are still under debate. In this work, we investigate the local conditions at shear bands in new phase-separated bulk MGs containing glassy nanospheres and exhibiting exceptional plasticity under compression. It is found that the glassy nanospheres within the shear band dissolve through mechanical mixing driven by the sharp strain localization there, while those nearby in the matrix coarsen by Ostwald ripening due to the increased atomic mobility. The experimental evidence demonstrates that there exists an affected zone around the shear band. This zone may arise from low-strain plastic deformation in the matrix between the bands. These results suggest that measured property changes originate not only from the shear bands themselves, but also from the affected zones in the adjacent matrix. This work sheds light on direct visualization of deformation-related effects, in particular increased atomic mobility, in the region around shear bands.
- ItemLocalized crystallization in shear bands of a metallic glass([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2016) Yan, Zhijie; Song, Kaikai; Hu, Yong; Dai, Fuping; Chu, Zhibing; Eckert, JürgenStress-induced viscous flow is the characteristic of atomic movements during plastic deformation of metallic glasses in the absence of substantial temperature increase, which suggests that stress state plays an important role in mechanically induced crystallization in a metallic glass. However, it is poorly understood. Here, we report on the stress-induced localized crystallization in individual shear bands of Zr60Al15Ni25 metallic glass subjected to cold rolling. We find that crystallization in individual shear bands preferentially occurs in the regions neighboring the amorphous matrix, where the materials are subjected to compressive stresses demonstrated by our finite element simulations. Our results provide direct evidence that the mechanically induced crystallization kinetics is closely related with the stress state. The crystallization kinetics under compressive and tensile stresses are interpreted within the frameworks of potential energy landscape and classical nucleation theory, which reduces the role of stress state in mechanically induced crystallization in a metallic glass.
- ItemMaterialien - Realisierung von Nano-Eigenschaften auf Makro-Ebene : Abschlussbericht zum Projekt MaReNaMa(Hannover : Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB), 2015) Bickel, St.; Schwab, H.; Pauly, S.; Kühn, U.; Eckert, Jürgen[no abstract available]
- ItemMechanical and structural investigation of porous bulk metallic glasses(Basel : MDPI, 2015) Wu, Dianyu; Song, Kaikai; Cao, Chongde; Li, Ran; Wang, Gang; Wu, Yuan; Wan, Feng; Ding, Fuli; Shi, Yue; Bai, Xiaojun; Kaban, Ivan; Eckert, JürgenThe intrinsic properties of advanced alloy systems can be altered by changing their microstructural features. Here, we present a highly efficient method to produce and characterize structures with systematically-designed pores embedded inside. The fabrication stage involves a combination of photolithography and deep reactive ion etching of a Si template replicated using the concept of thermoplastic forming. Pt- and Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) were evaluated through uniaxial tensile test, followed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) fractographic and shear band analysis. Compositional investigation of the fracture surface performed via energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), as well as Auger spectroscopy (AES) shows a moderate amount of interdiffusion (5 at.% maximum) of the constituent elements between the deformed and undeformed regions. Furthermore, length-scale effects on the mechanical behavior of porous BMGs were explored through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, where shear band formation is observed for a material width of 18 nm.
- ItemMicrostructural Characterization of a Laser Surface Remelted Cu-Based Shape Memory Alloy(São Carlos : [Verlag nicht ermittelbar], 2018-4-12) da Silva, Murillo Romero; Gargarella, Piter; Wolf, Witor; Gustmann, Tobias; Kiminami, Claudio Shyinti; Pauly, Simon; Eckert, Jürgen; Bolfarini, ClaudemiroCu-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) present some advantages as higher transformation temperatures, lower costs and are easier to process than traditional Ti-based SMAs but they also show some disadvantages as low ductility and higher tendency for intergranular cracking. Several studies have sought for a way to improve the mechanical properties of these alloys and microstructural refinement has been frequently used. It can be obtained by laser remelting treatments. The aim of the present work was to investigate the influence of the laser surface remelting on the microstructure of a Cu-11.85Al-3.2Ni-3Mn (wt%) SMA. Plates were remelted using three different laser scanning speeds, i.e. 100, 300 and 500 mm/s. The remelted regions showed a T-shape morphology with a mean thickness of 52, 29 and 23 µm and an average grain size of 30, 29 and 23µm for plates remelted using scanning speed of 100, 300 and 500 mm/s, respectively. In the plates remelted with 100 and 300 mm/s some pores were found at the root of the keyhole due to the keyhole instability. We find that the instability of keyholes becomes more pronounced for lower scanning speeds. It was not observed any preferential orientation introduced by the laser treatment.
- ItemNon-isothermal kinetic analysis of the crystallization of metallic glasses using the master curve method(Basel : MDPI, 2011) Torrens-Serra, Joan; Venkataraman, Shankar; Stoica, Mihai; Kuehn, Uta; Roth, Stefan; Eckert, JürgenThe non-isothermal transformation rate curves of metallic glasses are analyzed with the Master Curve method grounded in the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami theory. The method is applied to the study of two different metallic glasses determining the activation energy of the transformation and the experimental kinetic function that is analyzed using Avrami kinetics. The analysis of the crystallization of Cu47Ti33Zr11Ni8Si1 metallic glassy powders gives Ea = 3.8 eV, in good agreement with the calculation by other methods, and a transformation initiated by an accelerating nucleation and diffusion-controlled growth. The other studied alloy is a Nanoperm-type Fe77Nb7B15Cu1 metallic glass with a primary crystallization of bcc-Fe. An activation energy of Ea = 5.7 eV is obtained from the Master Curve analysis. It is shown that the use of Avrami kinetics is not able to explain the crystallization mechanisms in this alloy giving an Avrami exponent of n = 1.