Browsing by Author "Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen"
Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
Results Per Page
- ItemCononsolvency Transition of Polymer Brushes: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study(Basel : MDPI, 2018) Yong, Huaisong; Rauch, Sebastian; Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen; Uhlmann, Petra; Fery, Andreas; Sommer, Jens-UweIn this study, the cononsolvency transition of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm) brushes in aqueous ethanol mixtures was studied by using Vis-spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) discussed in conjunction with the adsorption-attraction model. We proved that the cononsolvency transition of PNiPAAm brushes showed features of a volume phase transition, such as a sharp collapse, reaching a maximum decrease in thickness for a very narrow ethanol volume composition range of 15% to 17%. These observations are in agreement with the recently published preferential adsorption model of the cononsolvency effect.
- ItemExamining the early stages of thermal oxidative degradation in epoxy-amine resins(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2020) Morsch, Suzanne; Liu, Yanwen; Lyon, S.B.; Gibbon, S.R.; Gabriele, Benjamin; Malanin, Mikhail; Eichhorn, Klaus-JochenEpoxy-amine resins continue to find widespread use as the binders in protective and decorative organic coatings, as the matrix in composite materials, and as adhesives. In service, exposure to the environment ultimately results in oxidative deterioration of these materials, limiting the performance lifetime. Defining this auto-oxidation process is therefore a key challenge in developing more durable high-performance materials. In this study, we investigate oxidative degradation of a model resin based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) and an aliphatic amine hardener, triethylenetetraamine (TETA). Using infrared spectroscopy, we find that prior to the expected detection of formate groups (corresponding to the well-known radical oxidation mechanism of DGEBA), a band at 1658 cm−1 forms, associated with amine cross-linker oxidation. Infrared microspectroscopy, in-situ heated ATR-infrared, Raman spectroscopy and AFM-IR techniques are thus employed to investigate the early stages of resin oxidation and demonstrate strong parallels between the initial stages of cured resin degradation and the auto-oxidation of TETA cross-linker molecules.
- ItemIn Situ Monitoring of Linear RGD-Peptide Bioconjugation with Nanoscale Polymer Brushes(Washington, DC : ACS Publications, 2017) Psarra, Evmorfia; König, Ulla; Müller, Martin; Bittrich, Eva; Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen; Welzel, Petra B.; Stamm, Manfred; Uhlmann, PetraBioinspired materials mimicking the native extracellular matrix environment are promising for biotechnological applications. Particularly, modular biosurface engineering based on the functionalization of stimuli-responsive polymer brushes with peptide sequences can be used for the development of smart surfaces with biomimetic cues. The key aspect of this study is the in situ monitoring and analytical verification of the biofunctionalization process on the basis of three complementary analytical techniques. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to quantify the amount of chemisorbed GRGDS at both the homopolymer poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brush and the binary poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-PAA brushes, which was finally confirmed by an acidic hydrolysis combined with a subsequent reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. In situ attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provided a step-by-step detection of the biofunctionalization process so that an optimized protocol for the bioconjugation of GRGDS could be identified. The optimized protocol was used to create a temperature-responsive binary brush with a high amount of chemisorbed GRGDS, which is a promising candidate for the temperature-sensitive control of GRGDS presentation in further cell-instructive studies.
- ItemIn-situ-investigation of enzyme immobilization on polymer brushes(Lausanne : Frontiers Media, 2019) Koenig, Meike; König, Ulla; Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen; Müller, Martin; Stamm, Manfred; Uhlmann, PetraHerein, we report on the use of a combined setup of quartz-crystal microbalance, with dissipation monitoring and spectroscopic ellipsometry, to comprehensively investigate the covalent immobilization of an enzyme to a polymer layer. All steps of the covalent reaction of the model enzyme glucose oxidase with the poly(acrylic acid) brush by carbodiimide chemistry, were monitored in-situ. Data were analyzed using optical and viscoelastic modeling. A nearly complete collapse of the polymer chains was found upon activation of the carboxylic acid groups with N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide and N-Hydroxysuccinimide. The reaction with the amine groups of the enzyme occurs simultaneously with re-hydration of the polymer layer. Significantly more enzyme was immobilized on the surface compared to physical adsorption at similar conditions, at the same pH. It was found that the pH responsive swelling behavior was almost not affected by the presence of the enzyme. © 2019 Koenig, König, Eichhorn, Müller, Stamm and Uhlmann.
- ItemTemperature-Dependent Reinforcement of Hydrophilic Rubber Using Ice Crystals(Washington, DC : ACS Publications, 2017-2-2) Natarajan, Tamil Selvan; Stöckelhuber, Klaus Werner; Malanin, Mikhail; Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen; Formanek, Petr; Reuter, Uta; Wießner, Sven; Heinrich, Gert; Das, AmitThis is the first study on the impact of ice crystals on glass transition and mechanical behavior of soft cross-linked elastomers. A hydrophilic elastomer such as epichlorohydrin-ethylene oxide-allyl glycidyl ether can absorb about ∼40 wt % of water. The water-swollen cross-linked network exhibits elastic properties with more than 1500% stretchability at room temperature. Coincidently, the phase transition of water into solid ice crystals inside of the composites allows the reinforcement of the soft elastomer mechanically at lower temperatures. Young's modulus of the composites measured at -20 °C remarkably increased from 1.45 to 3.14 MPa, whereas at +20 °C, the effect was opposite and the Young's modulus decreased from 0.6 to 0.03 MPa after 20 days of water treatment. It was found that a part of the absorbed water, ∼74% of the total absorbed water, is freezable and occupies nearly 26 vol % of the composites. Simultaneously, these solid ice crystals are found to be acting as a reinforcing filler at lower temperatures. The size of these ice crystals is distributed in a relatively narrow range of 400-600 nm. The storage modulus (E′) of the ice crystal-filled composites increased from 3 to 13 MPa at -20 °C. The glass transition temperature (-37 °C) of the soft cross-linked elastomer was not altered by the absorption of water. However, a special transition (melting of ice) occurred at temperatures close to 0 °C as observed in the dynamic mechanical analysis of the water-swollen elastomers. The direct polymer/filler (ice crystals) interaction was demonstrated by strain sweep experiments and investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This type of cross-linked rubber could be integrated into a smart rubber application such as in adaptable mechanics, where the stiffness of the rubber can be altered as a function of temperature without affecting the mechanical stretchability either below or above 0 °C (above the glass temperature region) of the rubber.
- ItemTracing microplastics in aquatic environments based on sediment analogies([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2019) Enders, Kristina; Käppler, Andrea; Biniasch, Oliver; Feldens, Peter; Stollberg, Nicole; Lange, Xaver; Fischer, Dieter; Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen; Pollehne, Falk; Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Labrenz, MatthiasMicroplastics (MP) data collection from the aquatic environment is a challenging endeavour that sets apparent limitations to regional and global MP quantification. Expensive data collection causes small sample sizes and oftentimes existing data sets are compared without accounting for natural variability due to hydrodynamic processes governing the distribution of particles. In Warnow estuarine sediments (Germany) we found significant correlations between high-density polymer size fractions (≥500 µm) and sediment grain size. Among potential predictor variables (source and environmental terms) sediment grain size was the critical proxy for MP abundance. The MP sediment relationship can be explained by the force necessary to start particle transport: at the same level of fluid motion, transported sediment grains and MP particles are offset in size by one to two orders of magnitude. Determining grain-size corrected MP abundances by fractionated granulometric normalisation is recommended as a basis for future MP projections and identification of sinks and sources.