Browsing by Author "Fähler, Sebastian"
Now showing 1 - 12 of 12
Results Per Page
- ItemBuilding Hierarchical Martensite(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Schwabe, Stefan; Niemann, Robert; Backen, Anja; Wolf, Daniel; Damm, Christine; Walter, Tina; Seiner, Hanuš; Heczko, Oleg; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fähler, SebastianMartensitic materials show a complex, hierarchical microstructure containing structural domains separated by various types of twin boundaries. Several concepts exist to describe this microstructure on each length scale, however, there is no comprehensive approach bridging the whole range from the nano- up to the macroscopic scale. Here, it is described for a Ni-Mn-based Heusler alloy how this hierarchical microstructure is built from scratch with just one key parameter: the tetragonal distortion of the basic building block at the atomic level. Based on this initial block, five successive levels of nested building blocks are introduced. At each level, a larger building block is formed by twinning the preceding one to minimize the relevant energy contributions locally. This naturally explains the coexistence of different types of twin boundaries. The scale-bridging approach of nested building blocks is compared with experiments in real and reciprocal space. The approach of nested building blocks is versatile as it can be applied to the broad class of functional materials exhibiting diffusionless transformations. © 2020 The Authors. Advanced Functional Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemCan gadolinium compete with La-Fe-Co-Si in a thermomagnetic generator?(Abingdon : Taylor & Francis, 2021) Dzekan, Daniel; Diestel, Anett; Berger, Dietmar; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fähler, SebastianA thermomagnetic generator is a promising technology to harvest low-grade waste heat and convert it into electricity. To make this technology competitive with other technologies for energy harvesting near room temperature, the optimum thermomagnetic material is required. Here we compare the performance of a state of the art thermomagnetic generator using gadolinium and La-Fe-Co-Si as thermomagnetic material, which exhibit strong differences in thermal conductivity and type of magnetic transition. gadolinium is the established benchmark material for magnetocaloric cooling, which follows the reverse energy conversion process as compared to thermomagnetic energy harvesting. Surprisingly, La-Fe-Co-Si outperforms gadolinium in terms of voltage and power output. Our analysis reveals the differences in thermal conductivity are less important than the particular shape of the magnetization curve. In gadolinium an unsymmetrical magnetization curve is responsible for an uncompensated magnetic flux, which results in magnetic stray fields. These stray fields represent an energy barrier in the thermodynamic cycle and reduce the output of the generator. Our detailed experiments and simulations of both, thermomagnetic materials and generator, clearly reveal the importance to minimize magnetic stray fields. This is only possible when using materials with a symmetrical magnetization curve, such as La-Fe-Co-Si.
- ItemEfficient and affordable thermomagnetic materials for harvesting low grade waste heat(College Park, ML : American Institute of Physics, 2021) Dzekan, Daniel; Waske, Anja; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fähler, SebastianIndustrial processes release substantial quantities of waste heat, which can be harvested to generate electricity. At present, the conversion of low grade waste heat to electricity relies solely on thermoelectric materials, but such materials are expensive and have low thermodynamic efficiencies. Although thermomagnetic materials may offer a promising alternative, their performance remains to be evaluated, thereby hindering their real-world application. Here, the efficiency and cost effectiveness of thermomagnetic materials are evaluated for the usage in motors, oscillators, and generators for converting waste heat to electricity. The analysis reveals that up to temperature differences of several 10 K, the best thermomagnetic materials have the potential to compete with thermoelectric materials. Importantly, it is found that the price per watt of some thermomagnetic materials is much lower compared to that of present-day thermoelectrics, which can become competitive with conventional power plants. This materials library enables the selection of the best available thermomagnetic materials for harvesting waste heat and gives guidelines for their future development.
- ItemHow to grow single-crystalline and epitaxial NiTi films in (100)- and (111)-orientation(Bristol : IOP Publishing, 2023) Lünser, Klara; Undisz, Andreas; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fähler, SebastianUnderstanding the martensitic microstructure in nickel-titanium (NiTi) thin films helps to optimize their properties for applications in microsystems. Epitaxial and single-crystalline films can serve as model systems to understand the microstructure, as well as to exploit the anisotropic mechanical properties of NiTi. Here, we analyze the growth of NiTi on single-crystalline MgO(100) and Al2O3(0001) substrates and optimize film and buffer deposition conditions to achieve epitaxial films in (100)- and (111)-orientation. On MgO(100), we compare the transformation behavior and crystal quality of (100)-oriented NiTi films on different buffer layers. We demonstrate that a vanadium buffer layer helps to decrease the low-angle grain boundary density in the NiTi film, which inhibits undesired growth twins and leads to higher transformation temperatures. On Al2O3(0001), we analyze the orientation of a chromium buffer layer and find that it grows (111)-oriented only in a narrow temperature range around 500 ∘C. By depositing the Cr buffer below the NiTi film, we can prepare (111)-oriented, epitaxial films with transformation temperatures above room temperature. Transmission electron microscopy confirms a martensitic microstructure with Guinier Preston-zone precipitates at room temperature. We identify the deposition conditions to approach the ideal single crystalline state, which is beneficial for the analysis of the martensitic microstructure and anisotropic mechanical properties in different film orientations.
- ItemInfluencing Martensitic Transition in Epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga-Co Films with Large Angle Grain Boundaries(Basel : MDPI, 2020) Lünser, Klara; Diestel, Anett; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fähler, SebastianMagnetocaloric materials based on field-induced first order transformations such as Ni-Mn-Ga-Co are promising for more environmentally friendly cooling. Due to the underlying martensitic transformation, a large hysteresis can occur, which in turn reduces the efficiency of a cooling cycle. Here, we analyse the influence of the film microstructure on the thermal hysteresis and focus especially on large angle grain boundaries. We control the microstructure and grain boundary density by depositing films with local epitaxy on different substrates: Single crystalline MgO(0 0 1), MgO(1 1 0) and Al2O3(0 0 0 1). By combining local electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and global texture measurements with thermomagnetic measurements, we correlate a smaller hysteresis with the presence of grain boundaries. In films with grain boundaries, the hysteresis is decreased by about 30% compared to single crystalline films. Nevertheless, a large grain boundary density leads to a broadened transition. To explain this behaviour, we discuss the influence of grain boundaries on the martensitic transformation. While grain boundaries act as nucleation sites, they also lead to different strains in the material, which gives rise to various transition temperatures inside one film. We can show that a thoughtful design of the grain boundary microstructure is an important step to optimize the hysteresis.
- ItemMechanisms of stress generation and relaxation during pulsed laser deposition of epitaxial Fe-Pd magnetic shape memory alloy films on MgO(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2008) Edler, Tobias; Buschbeck, Jörg; Mickel, Christine; Fähler, Sebastian; Mayr, S.G.Mechanical stress generation during epitaxial growth of Fe–Pd thin films on MgO from pulsed laser deposition is a key parameter for the suitability in shape memory applications. By employing in situ substrate curvature measurements, we determine the stress states as a function of film thickness and composition. Depending on composition, different stress states are observed during initial film growth, which can be attributed to different misfits. Compressive stress generation by atomic peening is observed in the later stages of growth. Comparison with ex situ x-ray based strain measurements allows integral and local stress to be distinguished and yields heterogeneities of the stress state between coherent and incoherent regions. In combination with cross-sectional TEM measurements the relevant stress relaxation mechanism is identified to be stress-induced martensite formation with (111) twinning.
- ItemOrigami-Inspired Shape Memory Folding Microactuator(Basel : MDPI, 2020) Seigner, Lena; Bezsmertna, Olha; Fähler, Sebastian; Tshikwand, Georgino; Wendler, Frank; Kohl, ManfredThis paper presents the design, fabrication and performance of origami-based folding microactuators based on a cold-rolled NiTi foil of 20 µm thickness showing the one-way shape memory effect. Origami refers to a variety of techniques of transforming planar sheets into three-dimensional (3D) structures by folding, which has been introduced in science and engineering for, e.g., assembly and robotics. Here, NiTi microactuators are interconnected to rigid sections (tiles) forming an initial planar system that self-folds into a set of predetermined 3D shapes upon heating. While this concept has been demonstrated at the macro scale, we intend to transfer this concept into microtechnology by combining state-of-the art methods of micromachining. NiTi foils are micromachined by laser cutting or photolithography to achieve double-beam structures allowing for direct Joule heating with an electrical current. A thermo-mechanical treatment is used for shape setting of as-received specimens to reach a maximum folding angle of 180°. The bending moments, bending radii and load-dependent folding angles upon Joule heating are evaluated. The shape setting process is particularly effective for small bending radii, which, however generates residual plastic strain. After shape setting, unloaded beam structures show recoverable bending deflection between 0° and 140° for a maximum heating power of 900 mW. By introducing additional loads to account for the effect of the tiles, the smooth folding characteristic evolves into a sharp transition, whereby full deflection up to 180° is reached. The achieved results are an important step towards the development of cooperative multistable microactuator systems for 3D self-assembly.
- ItemOrigin and avoidance of double peaks in the induced voltage of a thermomagnetic generator for harvesting low-grade waste heat(Bristol : IOP Publishing, 2022) Dzekan, Daniel; Kischnik, Tim D.; Diestel, Anett; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fähler, SebastianThermomagnetic harvesting is an emerging approach used to convert low-grade waste heat to electricity, which recently obtained a boost due to the development of both more efficient functional materials and innovative device concepts. Here, we examine a thermomagnetic generator which utilizes gadolinium as the thermomagnetic material and report on the double peaks of the induced voltage. Using a combination of experiments and theory we show that these double peaks originate from the interaction between an asymmetric magnetization curve and a pretzel-like magnetic field topology. Double peaks are detrimental for the output power and can be avoided by matching the magnetization change by adjusting the cold and hot fluid flow.
- ItemSelf‐Patterning of Multifunctional Heusler Membranes by Dewetting(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Lünser, Klara; Diestel, Anett; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fähler, SebastianNi-Mn-based Heusler alloys are an emerging class of materials which enable actuation by (magnetic) shape memory effects, magnetocaloric cooling, and thermomagnetic energy harvesting. Multifunctional materials have a particular advantage for miniaturization since their functionality is already built within the material. However, often complex microtechnological processing is required to bring these materials into shape. Here, self-organized formation of single crystalline membranes having arrays of rectangular holes with high aspect ratio is demonstrated. Dewetting avoids the need for complicated processing and allows to prepare freestanding Ni–Mn–Ga–Co membranes. These membranes are martensitic and magnetic, and their functional properties are not disturbed by self-patterning. Feature sizes of these membranes can be tailored by film thickness and heat treatment, and the tendencies can be explained with dewetting. As an outlook, the advantages of these multifunctional membranes for magnetocaloric and thermomagnetic microsystems are sketched. © 2021 The Authors. Advanced Materials Interfaces published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemStructural transformations among austenite, ferrite and cementite in Fe-C alloys: A unified theory based on ab initio simulations(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2015) Zhang, Xie; Hickel, Tilmann; Rogal, Jutta; Fähler, Sebastian; Drautz, Ralf; Neugebauer, JörgStructural transformations in Fe–C alloys are decisive for the mechanical properties of steels, but their modeling remains a challenge due to the simultaneous changes in Fe lattice and redistribution of C. With a combination of the orientation relationships between austenite, ferrite and cementite, we identify a metastable intermediate structure (MIS), which can serve as a link between the three phases. Based on this framework, different mechanisms depending on the local conditions (C concentration, strain, magnetism) are revealed from ab initio nudged elastic band simulations, which allow us to construct a unified theory for the structural transformations among austenite, ferrite and cementite.
- ItemVoltage‐Controlled Deblocking of Magnetization Reversal in Thin Films by Tunable Domain Wall Interactions and Pinning Sites(Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2020) Zehner, Jonas; Soldatov, Ivan; Schneider, Sebastian; Heller, René; Khojasteh, Nasrin B.; Schiemenez, Sandra; Fähler, Sebastian; Nielsch, Kornelius; Schäfer, Rudolf; Leistner, KarinHigh energy efficiency of magnetic devices is crucial for applications such as data storage, computation, and actuation. Redox‐based (magneto‐ionic) voltage control of magnetism is a promising room‐temperature pathway to improve energy efficiency. However, for ferromagnetic metals, the magneto‐ionic effects studied so far require ultrathin films with tunable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy or nanoporous structures for appreciable effects. This paper reports a fully reversible, low voltage‐induced collapse of coercivity and remanence by redox reactions in iron oxide/iron films with uniaxial in‐plane anisotropy. In the initial iron oxide/iron films, Néel wall interactions stabilize a blocked state with high coercivity. During the voltage‐triggered reduction of the iron oxide layer, in situ Kerr microscopy reveals inverse changes of coercivity and anisotropy, and a coarsening of the magnetic microstructure. These results confirm a magneto‐ionic deblocking mechanism, which relies on changes of the Néel wall interactions, and of the microstructural domain‐wall‐pinning sites. With this approach, voltage‐controlled 180° magnetization switching with high energy‐efficiency is achieved. It opens up possibilities for developing magnetic devices programmable by ultralow power and for the reversible tuning of defect‐controlled materials in general.
- ItemWhat is the speed limit of martensitic transformations?(Abingdon : Taylor & Francis, 2022) Schwabe, Stefan; Lünser, Klara; Schmidt, Daniel; Nielsch, Kornelius; Gaal, Peter; Fähler, SebastianStructural martensitic transformations enable various applications, which range from high stroke actuation and sensing to energy efficient magnetocaloric refrigeration and thermomagnetic energy harvesting. All these emerging applications benefit from a fast transformation, but up to now their speed limit has not been explored. Here, we demonstrate that a thermoelastic martensite to austenite transformation can be completed within 10 ns. We heat epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga films with a nanosecond laser pulse and use synchrotron diffraction to probe the influence of initial temperature and overheating on transformation rate and ratio. We demonstrate that an increase in thermal energy drives this transformation faster. Though the observed speed limit of 2.5 × 1027 (Js)1 per unit cell leaves plenty of room for further acceleration of applications, our analysis reveals that the practical limit will be the energy required for switching. Thus, martensitic transformations obey similar speed limits as in microelectronics, as expressed by the Margolus–Levitin theorem.