Browsing by Author "Fery, Andreas"
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- ItemAmphiphilic block copolymer micelles in selective solvents: The effect of solvent selectivity on micelle formation(Basel : MDPI, 2019) Kumar, Labeesh; Horechyy, Andriy; Bittrich, Eva; Nandan, Bhanu; Uhlmann, Petra; Fery, AndreasWe investigated the micellar behavior of a series of asymmetric polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) block copolymers in different P4VP-selective alcoholic solvents. The micellar behavior was further correlated with the spectroscopic ellipsometry results obtained on swelling of PS and P4VP polymer films in the corresponding solvent vapors. The time-resolved (in situ) dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements, in combination with (ex situ) electron microscopy imaging, revealed information about the aggregation state of PS-b-P4VP BCP in different alcohols and the effect of heat treatment. The ellipsometry measurements allowed us to estimate the difference in solvent selectivity toward PS/P4VP pair. Both DLS and ellipsometric studies suggested that less polar alcohols (i.e., 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol) are likely to be close to each other in terms of their selectivity toward PS/P4VP pair, whereas more polar ethanol and methanol show the highest and the lowest affinity toward P4VP, respectively.
- ItemColloidal Self-Assembly Concepts for Plasmonic Metasurfaces(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2019) Mayer, Martin; Schnepf, Max J.; König, Tobias A.F.; Fery, AndreasMetallic nanostructures exhibit strong interactions with electromagnetic radiation, known as the localized surface plasmon resonance. In recent years, there is significant interest and growth in the area of coupled metallic nanostructures. In such assemblies, short- and long-range coupling effects can be tailored and emergent properties, e.g., metamaterial effects, can be realized. The term “plasmonic metasurfaces” is used for this novel class of assemblies deposited on planar surfaces. Herein, the focus is on plasmonic metasurfaces formed from colloidal particles. These are formed by self-assembly and can meet the demands of low-cost manufacturing of large-area, flexible, and ultrathin devices. The advances in high optical quality of the colloidal building blocks and methods for controlling their self-assembly on surfaces will lead to novel functional devices for dynamic light modulators, pulse sharpening, subwavelength imaging, sensing, and quantum devices. This progress report focuses on predicting optical properties of single colloidal building blocks and their assemblies, wet-chemical synthesis, and directed self-assembly of colloidal particles. The report concludes with a discussion of the perspectives toward expanding the colloidal plasmonic metasurfaces concept by integrating them with quantum emitters (gain materials) or mechanically responsive structures. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
- ItemCononsolvency Transition of Polymer Brushes: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study(Basel : MDPI, 2018) Yong, Huaisong; Rauch, Sebastian; Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen; Uhlmann, Petra; Fery, Andreas; Sommer, Jens-UweIn this study, the cononsolvency transition of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm) brushes in aqueous ethanol mixtures was studied by using Vis-spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) discussed in conjunction with the adsorption-attraction model. We proved that the cononsolvency transition of PNiPAAm brushes showed features of a volume phase transition, such as a sharp collapse, reaching a maximum decrease in thickness for a very narrow ethanol volume composition range of 15% to 17%. These observations are in agreement with the recently published preferential adsorption model of the cononsolvency effect.
- ItemConstrained thermoresponsive polymers - new insights into fundamentals and applications(Frankfurt, M. : Beilstein-Institut zur Förderung der Chemischen Wissenschaften, 2021) Flemming, Patricia; Münch, Alexander S.; Fery, Andreas; Uhlmann, PetraIn the last decades, numerous stimuli-responsive polymers have been developed and investigated regarding their switching properties. In particular, thermoresponsive polymers, which form a miscibility gap with the ambient solvent with a lower or upper critical demixing point depending on the temperature, have been intensively studied in solution. For the application of such polymers in novel sensors, drug delivery systems or as multifunctional coatings, they typically have to be transferred into specific arrangements, such as micelles, polymer films or grafted nanoparticles. However, it turns out that the thermodynamic concept for the phase transition of free polymer chains fails, when thermoresponsive polymers are assembled into such sterically confined architectures. Whereas many published studies focus on synthetic aspects as well as individual applications of thermoresponsive polymers, the underlying structure-property relationships governing the thermoresponse of sterically constrained assemblies, are still poorly understood. Furthermore, the clear majority of publications deals with polymers that exhibit a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior, with PNIPAAM as their main representative. In contrast, for polymer arrangements with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), there is only limited knowledge about preparation, application and precise physical understanding of the phase transition. This review article provides an overview about the current knowledge of thermoresponsive polymers with limited mobility focusing on UCST behavior and the possibilities for influencing their thermoresponsive switching characteristics. It comprises star polymers, micelles as well as polymer chains grafted to flat substrates and particulate inorganic surfaces. The elaboration of the physicochemical interplay between the architecture of the polymer assembly and the resulting thermoresponsive switching behavior will be in the foreground of this consideration.
- ItemControlling line defects in wrinkling: a pathway towards hierarchical wrinkling structures(London : Royal Soc. of Chemistry, 2021) Knapp, André; Nebel, Lisa Julia; Nitschke, Mirko; Sander, Oliver; Fery, AndreasWe demonstrate a novel approach for controlling the line defect formation in microscopic wrinkling structures by patterned plasma treatment of elastomeric surfaces. Wrinkles were formed on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces exposed to low-pressure plasma under uniaxial stretching and subsequent relaxation. The wrinkling wavelength λ can be regulated via the treatment time and choice of plasma process gases (H2, N2). Sequential masking allows for changing these parameters on micron-scale dimensions. Thus, abrupt changes of the wrinkling wavelength become feasible and result in line defects located at the boundary zone between areas of different wavelengths. Wavelengths, morphology, and mechanical properties of the respective areas are investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy and agree quantitatively with predictions of analytical models for wrinkle formation. Notably, the approach allows for the first time the realization of a dramatic wavelength change up to a factor of 7 to control the location of the branching zone. This allows structures with a fixed but also with a strictly alternating branching behavior. The morphology inside the branching zone is compared with finite element methods and shows semi-quantitative agreement. Thus our finding opens new perspectives for “programming” hierarchical wrinkling patterns with potential applications in optics, tribology, and biomimetic structuring of surfaces.
- ItemDirect Observation of Plasmon Band Formation and Delocalization in Quasi-Infinite Nanoparticle Chains(Washington, DC : ACS Publ., 2019) Mayer, Martin; Potapov, Pavel L.; Pohl, Darius; Steiner, Anja Maria; Schultz, Johannes; Rellinghaus, Bernd; Lubk, Axel; König, Tobias A.F.; Fery, AndreasChains of metallic nanoparticles sustain strongly confined surface plasmons with relatively low dielectric losses. To exploit these properties in applications, such as waveguides, the fabrication of long chains of low disorder and a thorough understanding of the plasmon-mode properties, such as dispersion relations, are indispensable. Here, we use a wrinkled template for directed self-assembly to assemble chains of gold nanoparticles. With this up-scalable method, chain lengths from two particles (140 nm) to 20 particles (1500 nm) and beyond can be fabricated. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy supported by boundary element simulations, finite-difference time-domain, and a simplified dipole coupling model reveal the evolution of a band of plasmonic waveguide modes from degenerated single-particle modes in detail. In striking difference from plasmonic rod-like structures, the plasmon band is confined in excitation energy, which allows light manipulations below the diffraction limit. The non-degenerated surface plasmon modes show suppressed radiative losses for efficient energy propagation over a distance of 1500 nm. © 2019 American Chemical Society.
- ItemExploiting Combinatorics to Investigate Plasmonic Properties in Heterogeneous Ag-Au Nanosphere Chain Assemblies(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Schletz, Daniel; Schultz, Johannes; Potapov, Pavel L.; Steiner, Anja Maria; Krehl, Jonas; König, Tobias A.F.; Mayer, Martin; Lubk, Axel; Fery, AndreasChains of coupled metallic nanoparticles are of special interest for plasmonic applications because they can sustain highly dispersive plasmon bands, allowing strong ballistic plasmon wave transport. Whereas early studies focused on homogeneous particle chains exhibiting only one dominant band, heterogeneous assemblies consisting of different nanoparticle species came into the spotlight recently. Their increased configuration space principally allows engineering multiple bands, bandgaps, or topological states. Simultaneously, the challenge of the precise arrangement of nanoparticles, including their distances and geometric patterns, as well as the precise characterization of the plasmonics in these systems, persists. Here, the surface plasmon resonances in heterogeneous Ag-Au nanoparticle chains are reported. Wrinkled templates are used for directed self-assembly of monodisperse gold and silver nanospheres as chains, which allows assembling statistical combinations of more than 109 particles. To reveal the spatial and spectral distribution of the plasmonic response, state-of-the-art scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy accompanied by boundary element simulations is used. A variety of modes in the heterogeneous chains are found, ranging from localized surface plasmon modes occurring in single gold or silver spheres, respectively, to modes that result from the hybridization of the single particles. This approach opens a novel avenue toward combinatorial studies of plasmonic properties in heterosystems. © 2021 The Authors. Advanced Optical Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemFreestanding Nanolayers of a Wide-Gap Topological Insulator through Liquid-Phase Exfoliation(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Lê Anh, Mai; Potapov, Pavel; Wolf, Daniel; Lubk, Axel; Glatz, Bernhard; Fery, Andreas; Doert, Thomas; Ruck, MichaelThe layered salt Bi14Rh3I9 is a weak three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI), that is, a stack of two-dimensional (2D) TIs. It has a wide non-trivial band gap of 210 meV, which is generated by strong spin-orbit coupling, and possesses protected electronic edge-states. In the structure, charged layers of (Formula presented.) (Bi4Rh)3I]2+ honeycombs and (Formula presented.) Bi2I8]2− chains alternate. The non-trivial topology of Bi14Rh3I9 is an inherent property of the 2D intermetallic fragment. Here, the exfoliation of Bi14Rh3I9 was performed using two different chemical approaches: (a) through a reaction with n-butyllithium and poly(vinylpyrrolidone), (b) through a reaction with betaine in dimethylformamide at 55 °C. The former yielded few-layer sheets of the new compound Bi12Rh3I, while the latter led to crystalline sheets of Bi14Rh3I9 with a thickness down to 5 nm and edge-lengths up to several ten microns. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy proved that the structure of Bi14Rh3I9 remained intact. Thus, it was assumed that the particles are still TIs. Dispersions of these flakes now allow for next steps towards the envisioned applications in nanoelectronics, such as the study of quantum coherence in deposited films, the combination with superconducting particles or films for the generation of Majorana fermions, or studies on their behavior under the influence of magnetic or electric fields or in contact with various materials occurring in devices. The method presented generally allows to exfoliate layers with high specific charges and thus the use of layered starting materials beyond van der Waals crystals. © 2020 The Authors. Chemistry - A European Journal published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemFrom microfluidics to hierarchical hydrogel materials(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2023) Weigel, Niclas; Li, Yue; Fery, Andreas; Thiele, JulianOver the past two decades, microfluidics has made significant contributions to material and life sciences, particularly via the design of nano-, micro- and mesoscale materials such as nanoparticles, micelles, vesicles, emulsion droplets, and microgels. Unmatched in control over a multitude of material parameters, microfluidics has also shed light on fundamental aspects of material design such as the early stages of nucleation and growth processes as well as structure evolution. Exemplarily, polymer hydrogel particles can be formed via microfluidics with exact control over size, shape, functionalization, compartmentalization, and mechanics that is hardly found in any other processing method. Interestingly, the utilization of microfluidics for material design largely focuses on the fabrication of single entities that act as reaction volume for organic and cell-free biosynthesis, cell mimics, or local environment for cell culturing. In recent years, however, hydrogel design has shifted towards structures that integrate a large variety of functions, e.g., to address the demands for sensing tasks in a complex environment or more closely mimicking architecture and organization of tissue by multiparametric cultures. Hence, this review provides an overview of recent literature that explores microfluidics for fabricating hydrogel materials that go well beyond common length scales as well as the structural and functional complexity of microgels necessary to produce hierarchical hydrogel structures. We focus on examples that utilize microfluidics to design microgel-based assemblies, on microfluidically made polymer microgels for 3D bioprinting, on hydrogels fabricated by microfluidics in a continuous fashion, like fibers, and on hydrogel structures that are shaped by microchannels.
- ItemThe influence of plasma treatment on the elasticity of the in situ oxidized gradient layer in PDMS: towards crack-free wrinkling(London : Royal Soc. of Chemistry, 2018) Glatz, Bernhard Alexander; Fery, AndreasControlled surface wrinkling is widely applied for structuring surfaces in the micro- and nano-range. The formation of cracks in the wrinkling process is however limiting applications, and developing approaches towards crack-free wrinkles is therefore vital. To understand crack-formation, we systematically characterized the thickness and mechanics of thin layers formed by O2-plasma-oxidation of polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) as a function of plasma power and pressure using Atomic Force Microscopy Quantitative Nano-mechanical Mapping (AFM-QNM). We found a nearly constant layer thickness with simultaneously changing Young's moduli for both power and pressure screenings. We determined the respective crack densities, revealing conditions for crack-free wrinkling. Thus we could identify correlations between the intensity of plasma treatment and the cracking behavior. The primary cause for crack-suppression is a continuous elasticity gradient starting within the soft bulk PDMS, and rising up to several hundred MPa at the oxidized layer's surface. With mechanical simulations via the Finite Elements Method (FEM) we were able to demonstrate a noticeable difference in maximal stress intensity σmax between a comparable, but theoretical single layer and a gradient interface. A threshold in tensile stress of σcrit = 14 MPa distinguishes between intact and cracked layers.
- ItemJanus particles: from concepts to environmentally friendly materials and sustainable applications(Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer, 2020) Marschelke, Claudia; Fery, Andreas; Synytska, AllaJanus particles represent a unique group of patchy particles combining two or more different physical or chemical functionalities at their opposite sides. Especially, individual Janus particles (JPs) with both chemical and geometrical anisotropy as well as their assembled layers provide considerable advantages over the conventional monofunctional particles or surfactant molecules offering (a) a high surface-to-volume ratio; (b) high interfacial activity; (c) target controlling and manipulation of their interfacial activity by external signals such as temperature, light, pH, or ionic strength and achieving switching between stable emulsions and macro-phase separation; (d) recovery and recycling; (e) controlling the mass transport across the interface between the two phases; and finally (f) tunable several functionalities in one particle allowing their use either as carrier materials for immobilized catalytically active substances or, alternatively, their site-selective attachment to substrates keeping another functionality active for further reactions. All these advantages of JPs make them exclusive materials for application in (bio-)catalysis and (bio-)sensing. Considering “green chemistry” aspects covering biogenic materials based on either natural or fully synthetic biocompatible and biodegradable polymers for the design of JPs may solve the problem of toxicity of some existing materials and open new paths for the development of more environmentally friendly and sustainable materials in the very near future. Considering the number of contributions published each year on the topic of Janus particles in general, the number of contributions regarding their environmentally friendly and sustainable applications is by far smaller. This certainly pinpoints an important challenge and is addressed in this review article. The first part of the review focuses on the synthesis of sustainable biogenic or biocompatible Janus particles, as well as strategies for their recovery, recycling, and reusability. The second part addresses recent advances in applications of biogenic/biocompatible and non-biocompatible JPs in environmental and biotechnological fields such as sensing of hazardous pollutants, water decontamination, and hydrogen production. Finally, we provide implications for the rational design of environmentally friendly and sustainable materials based on Janus particles. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]. © 2020, The Author(s).
- ItemLasing by Template-Assisted Self-Assembled Quantum Dots(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2023) Aftenieva, Olha; Sudzius, Markas; Prudnikau, Anatol; Adnan, Mohammad; Sarkar, Swagato; Lesnyak, Vladimir; Leo, Karl; Fery, Andreas; König, Tobias A.F.Miniaturized laser sources with low threshold power are required for integrated photonic devices. Photostable core/shell nanocrystals are well suited as gain material and their laser properties can be exploited by direct patterning as distributed feedback (DFB) lasers. Here, the 2nd-order DFB resonators tuned to the photoluminescence wavelength of the QDs are used. Soft lithography based on template-assisted colloidal self-assembly enables pattern resolution in the subwavelength range. Combined with the directional Langmuir–Blodgett arrangement, control of the waveguide layer thickness is further achieved. It is shown that a lasing threshold of 5.5 mJ cm−2 is reached by a direct printing method, which can be further reduced by a factor of ten (0.6 mJ cm−2) at an optimal waveguide thickness. Moreover, it is discussed how one can adjust the DFB geometries to any working wavelength. This colloidal approach offers prospects for applications in bioimaging, biomedical sensing, anti-counterfeiting, or displays.
- ItemMechanotunable Plasmonic Properties of Colloidal Assemblies(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Brasse, Yannic; Gupta, Vaibhav; Schollbach, H.C. Tomohiro; Karg, Matthias; König, Tobias A.F.; Fery, AndreasNoble metal nanoparticles can absorb incident light very efficiently due to their ability to support localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs), collective oscillations of the free electron cloud. LSPRs lead to strong, nanoscale confinement of electromagnetic energy which facilitates applications in many fields including sensing, photonics, or catalysis. In these applications, damping of the LSPR caused by inter- and intraband transitions is a limiting factor due to the associated energy losses and line broadening. The losses and broad linewidth can be mitigated by arranging the particles into periodic lattices. Recent advances in particle synthesis, (self-)assembly, and fabrication techniques allow for the realization of collective coupling effects building on various particle sizes, geometries, and compositions. Beyond assemblies on static substrates, by assembling or printing on mechanically deformable surfaces a modulation of the lattice periodicity is possible. This enables significant alteration and tuning of the optical properties. This progress report focuses on this novel approach for tunable spectroscopic properties with a particular focus on low-cost and large-area fabrication techniques for functional plasmonic lattices. The report concludes with a discussion of the perspectives for expanding the mechanotunable colloidal concept to responsive structures and flexible devices. © 2019 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
- ItemMechanotunable Surface Lattice Resonances in the Visible Optical Range by Soft Lithography Templates and Directed Self-Assembly(Washington, DC : Soc., 2019) Gupta, Vaibhav; Probst, Patrick T.; Goßler, Fabian R.; Steiner, Anja Maria; Schubert, Jonas; Brasse, Yannic; König, Tobias A.F.; Fery, AndreasWe demonstrate a novel colloidal self-assembly approach toward obtaining mechanically tunable, cost-efficient, and low-loss plasmonic nanostructures that show pronounced optical anisotropy upon mechanical deformation. Soft lithography and template-assisted colloidal self-assembly are used to fabricate a stretchable periodic square lattice of gold nanoparticles on macroscopic areas. We stress the impact of particle size distribution on the resulting optical properties. To this end, lattices of narrowly distributed particles (∼2% standard deviation in diameter) are compared with those composed of polydisperse ones (∼14% standard deviation). The enhanced particle quality sharpens the collective surface lattice resonances by 40% to achieve a full width at half-maximum as low as 16 nm. This high optical quality approaches the theoretical limit for this system, as revealed by electromagnetic simulations. One hundred stretching cycles demonstrate a reversible transformation from a square to a rectangular lattice, accompanied by polarization-dependent optical properties. On the basis of these findings we envisage the potential applications as strain sensors and mechanically tunable filters. © 2019 American Chemical Society.
- ItemMonitoring the contact stress distribution of gecko-inspired adhesives using mechano-sensitive surface coatings(Washington D.C. : American Chemical Society, 2018) Neubauer, Jens W.; Xue, Longjian; Erath, Johann; Drotlef, Dirk-Michael; del Campo, Aránzazu; Fery, AndreasThe contact geometry of microstructured adhesive surfaces is of high relevance for adhesion enhancement. Theoretical considerations indicate that the stress distribution in the contact zone is crucial for the detachment mechanism, but direct experimental evidence is missing so far. In this work, we propose a method that allows, for the first time, the detection of local stresses at the contact area of biomimetic adhesive microstructures during contact formation, compression and detachment. We use a mechano-sensitive polymeric layer, which turns mechanical stresses into changes of fluorescence intensity. The biomimetic surface is brought into contact with this layer in a well-defined fashion using a microcontact printer, while the contact area is monitored with fluorescence microscopy in situ. Thus, changes in stress distribution across the contact area during compression and pull-off can be visualized with a lateral resolution of 1 μm. We apply this method to study the enhanced adhesive performance of T-shaped micropillars, compared to flat punch microstructures. We find significant differences in the stress distribution of the both differing contact geometries during pull-off. In particular, we find direct evidence for the suppression of crack nucleation at the edge of T-shaped pillars, which confirms theoretical models for the superior adhesive properties of these structures.
- ItemNanoimprint Lithography Facilitated Plasmonic-Photonic Coupling for Enhanced Photoconductivity and Photocatalysis(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Gupta, Vaibhav; Sarkar, Swagato; Aftenieva, Olha; Tsuda, Takuya; Kumar, Labeesh; Schletz, Daniel; Schultz, Johannes; Kiriy, Anton; Fery, Andreas; Vogel, Nicolas; König, Tobias A.F.Imprint lithography has emerged as a reliable, reproducible, and rapid method for patterning colloidal nanostructures. As a promising alternative to top-down lithographic approaches, the fabrication of nanodevices has thus become effective and straightforward. In this study, a fusion of interference lithography (IL) and nanosphere imprint lithography on various target substrates ranging from carbon film on transmission electron microscope grid to inorganic and dopable polymer semiconductor is reported. 1D plasmonic photonic crystals are printed with 75% yield on the centimeter scale using colloidal ink and an IL-produced polydimethylsiloxane stamp. Atomically smooth facet, single-crystalline, and monodisperse colloidal building blocks of gold (Au) nanoparticles are used to print 1D plasmonic grating on top of a titanium dioxide (TiO2) slab waveguide, producing waveguide-plasmon polariton modes with superior 10 nm spectral line-width. Plasmon-induced hot electrons are confirmed via two-terminal current measurements with increased photoresponsivity under guiding conditions. The fabricated hybrid structure with Au/TiO2 heterojunction enhances photocatalytic processes like degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye molecules using the generated hot electrons. This simple colloidal printing technique demonstrated on silicon, glass, Au film, and naphthalenediimide polymer thus marks an important milestone for large-scale implementation in optoelectronic devices. © 2021 The Authors. Advanced Functional Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemNanorattles with tailored electric field enhancement(Cambridge : RSC Publ., 2017) Schnepf, Max J.; Mayer, Martin; Kuttner, Christian; Tebbe, Moritz; Wolf, Daniel; Dulle, Martin; Altantzis, Thomas; Formanek, Petr; Förster, Stephan; Bals, Sara; König, Tobias A. F.; Fery, AndreasNanorattles are metallic core-shell particles with core and shell separated by a dielectric spacer. These nanorattles have been identified as a promising class of nanoparticles, due to their extraordinary high electric-field enhancement inside the cavity. Limiting factors are reproducibility and loss of axial symmetry owing to the movable metal core; movement of the core results in fluctuation of the nanocavity dimensions and commensurate variations in enhancement factor. We present a novel synthetic approach for the robust fixation of the central gold rod within a well-defined box, which results in an axisymmetric nanorattle. We determine the structure of the resulting axisymmetric nanorattles by advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Optical absorption and scattering cross-sections obtained from UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy quantitatively agree with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations based on the structural model derived from SAXS. The predictions of high and homogenous field enhancement are evidenced by scanning TEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (STEM-EELS) measurement on single-particle level. Thus, comprehensive understanding of structural and optical properties is achieved for this class of nanoparticles, paving the way for photonic applications where a defined and robust unit cell is crucial.
- ItemPH-Responsive Biohybrid Carrier Material for Phenol Decontamination in Wastewater(Columbus, Ohio : American Chemical Soc., 2018) Pretscher, Martin; Pineda-Contreras, Beatriz A.; Kaiser, Patrick; Reich, Steffen; Schöbel, Judith; Kuttner, Christian; Freitag, Ruth; Fery, Andreas; Schmalz, Holger; Agarwal, SeemaSmart polymers are a valuable platform to protect and control the activity of biological agents over a wide range of conditions, such as low pH, by proper encapsulation. Such conditions are present in olive oil mill wastewater with phenol as one of the most problematic constituents. We show that elastic and pH-responsive diblock copolymer fibers are a suitable carrier for Corynebacterium glutamicum, i.e., bacteria which are known for their ability to degrade phenol. Free C. glutamicum does not survive low pH conditions and fails to degrade phenol at low pH conditions. Our tea-bag like biohybrid system, where the pH-responsive diblock copolymer acts as a protecting outer shell for the embedded bacteria, allows phenol degradation even at low pH. Utilizing a two-step encapsulation process, planktonic cells were first encapsulated in poly(vinyl alcohol) to protect the bacteria against the organic solvents used in the second step employing coaxial electrospinning.
- ItemPlasmonic Properties of Colloidal Assemblies(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Rossner, Christian; König, Tobias A.F.; Fery, AndreasThe assembly of metal nanoparticles into supracolloidal structures unlocks optical features, which can go beyond synergistic combinations of the properties of their primary building units. This is due to inter-particle plasmonic coupling effects, which give rise to emergent properties. The motivation for this progress report is twofold: First, it is described how simulation approaches can be used to predict and understand the optical properties of supracolloidal metal clusters. These simulations may form the basis for the rational design of plasmonic assembly architectures, based on the desired functional cluster properties, and they may also spark novel material designs. Second, selected scalable state-of-the-art preparative strategies based on synthetic polymers to guide the supracolloidal assembly are discussed. These routes also allow for equipping the assembly structures with adaptive properties, which in turn enables (inter-)active control over the cluster optical properties. © 2021 The Authors. Advanced Optical Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemPoly(3-hexylthiophene)s Functionalized with N-Heterocyclic Carbenes as Robust and Conductive Ligands for the Stabilization of Gold Nanoparticles(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Sun, Ningwei; Zhang, Shi-Tong; Simon, Frank; Steiner, Anja Maria; Schubert, Jonas; Du, Yixuan; Qiao, Zhi; Fery, Andreas; Lissel, FranziskaRecently, N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) are explored as anchor groups to bind organic ligands to colloidal gold (i.e. gold nanoparticles, Au NPs), yet these efforts are confined to non-conjugated ligands so far—that is, focused solely on exploiting the stability aspect. Using NHCs to link Au NPs and electronically active organic components, for example, conjugated polymers (CPs), will allow capitalizing on both the stability as well as the inherent conductivity of the NHC anchors. Here, we report three types of Br-NHC-Au-X (X=Cl, Br) complexes, which, when used as starting points for Kumada polymerizations, yield regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophenes)-NHC-Au (P3HTs-NHC-Au) with narrow molecular weight distributions. The corresponding NPs are obtained via direct reduction and show excellent thermal as well as redox stability. The NHC anchors enable electron delocalization over the gold/CP interface, resulting in an improved electrochromic response behavior in comparison with P3HT-NHC-Au. © 2020 The Authors. Angewandte Chemie International Edition published by Wiley-VCH GmbH