Browsing by Author "Gemming, Thomas"
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- ItemBeyond Janus Geometry: Characterization of Flow Fields around Nonspherical Photocatalytic Microswimmers(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2022) Heckel, Sandra; Bilsing, Clemens; Wittmann, Martin; Gemming, Thomas; Büttner, Lars; Czarske, Jürgen; Simmchen, JulianeCatalytic microswimmers that move by a phoretic mechanism in response to a self-induced chemical gradient are often obtained by the design of spherical janus microparticles, which suffer from multi-step fabrication and low yields. Approaches that circumvent laborious multi-step fabrication include the exploitation of the possibility of nonuniform catalytic activity along the surface of irregular particle shapes, local excitation or intrinsic asymmetry. Unfortunately, the effects on the generation of motion remain poorly understood. In this work, single crystalline BiVO4 microswimmers are presented that rely on a strict inherent asymmetry of charge-carrier distribution under illumination. The origin of the asymmetrical flow pattern is elucidated because of the high spatial resolution of measured flow fields around pinned BiVO4 colloids. As a result the flow from oxidative to reductive particle sides is confirmed. Distribution of oxidation and reduction reactions suggests a dominant self-electrophoretic motion mechanism with a source quadrupole as the origin of the induced flows. It is shown that the symmetry of the flow fields is broken by self-shadowing of the particles and synthetic surface defects that impact the photocatalytic activity of the microswimmers. The results demonstrate the complexity of symmetry breaking in nonspherical microswimmers and emphasize the role of self-shadowing for photocatalytic microswimmers. The findings are leading the way toward understanding of propulsion mechanisms of phoretic colloids of various shapes.
- ItemBlood platelet enrichment in mass-producible surface acoustic wave (SAW) driven microfluidic chips(Cambridge : RSC, 2019) Richard, Cynthia; Fakhfouri, Armaghan; Colditz, Melanie; Striggow, Friedrich; Kronstein-Wiedemann, Romy; Tonn, Torsten; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Gemming, Thomas; Winkler, AndreasThe ability to separate specific biological components from cell suspensions is indispensable for liquid biopsies, and for personalized diagnostics and therapy. This paper describes an advanced surface acoustic wave (SAW) based device designed for the enrichment of platelets (PLTs) from a dispersion of PLTs and red blood cells (RBCs) at whole blood concentrations, opening new possibilities for diverse applications involving cell manipulation with high throughput. The device is made of patterned SU-8 photoresist that is lithographically defined on the wafer scale with a new proposed methodology. The blood cells are initially focused and subsequently separated by an acoustic radiation force (ARF) applied through standing SAWs (SSAWs). By means of flow cytometric analysis, the PLT concentration factor was found to be 7.7, and it was proven that the PLTs maintain their initial state. A substantially higher cell throughput and considerably lower applied powers than comparable devices from literature were achieved. In addition, fully coupled 3D numerical simulations based on SAW wave field measurements were carried out to anticipate the coupling of the wave field into the fluid, and to obtain the resulting pressure field. A comparison to the acoustically simpler case of PDMS channel walls is given. The simulated results show an ideal match to the experimental observations and offer the first insights into the acoustic behavior of SU-8 as channel wall material. The proposed device is compatible with current (Lab-on-a-Chip) microfabrication techniques allowing for mass-scale, reproducible chip manufacturing which is crucial to push the technology from lab-based to real-world applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.
- ItemCapability study of Ti, Cr, W, Ta and Pt as seed layers for electrodeposited platinum films on γ-Al2O3 for high temperature and harsh environment applications(Basel : MDPI, 2017) Seifert, Marietta; Brachmann, Erik; Rane, Gayatri K.; Menzel, Siegfried B.; Gemming, ThomasHigh temperature surface acoustic wave sensors based on radio frequency identification technology require adequate antennas of high efficiency and thermal stability for the signal transmission. Platinum is well known and frequently used as a material of choice for high temperature and harsh environment applications because of the high melting point and its chemical stability. Therefore, one way to realize high temperature stable antennas is the combination of a Pt metallization on an Al 2 O 3 substrate. As a cost-effective technique, the Pt film is deposited via electrochemical deposition. For this growth procedure, a pre-deposited metallization on the Al 2 O 3 layer is required. This paper analyzes the influence of various seed layers (Ta, Ti, W, Cr, Pt) on the morphology, stability and electrical properties of the electrochemically-grown Pt thick film after heat treatments up to 1000 ∘ C in air. We find an oxidation of all adhesion layers except for Pt, for which the best electrical properties were measured. Although significant areas of the films delaminate from the substrate, individual anchor structures retain a stable connection between the Pt layer and the rough Al 2 O 3 substrate.
- ItemColloidal PbS nanoplatelets synthesized via cation exchange for electronic applications(Cambridge : RSC Publ., 2019) Sonntag, Luisa; Shamraienko, Volodymyr; Fan, Xuelin; Samadi Khoshkhoo, Mahdi; Kneppe, David; Koitzsch, Andreas; Gemming, Thomas; Hiekel, Karl; Leo, Karl; Lesnyak, Vladimir; Eychmüller, AlexanderIn this work, we present a new synthetic approach to colloidal PbS nanoplatelets (NPLs) utilizing a cation exchange (CE) strategy starting from CuS NPLs synthesized via the hot-injection method. Whereas the thickness of the resulting CuS NPLs was fixed at approx. 5 nm, the lateral size could be tuned by varying the reaction conditions, such as time from 6 to 16 h, the reaction temperature (120 °C, 140 °C), and the amount of copper precursor. In a second step, Cu+ cations were replaced with Pb2+ ions within the crystal lattice via CE. While the shape and the size of parental CuS platelets were preserved, the crystal structure was rearranged from hexagonal covellite to PbS galena, accompanied by the fragmentation of the monocrystalline phase into polycrystalline one. Afterwards a halide mediated ligand exchange (LE) was carried out in order to remove insulating oleic acid residues from the PbS NPL surface and to form stable dispersions in polar organic solvents enabling thin-film fabrication. Both CE and LE processes were monitored by several characterization techniques. Furthermore, we measured the electrical conductivity of the resulting PbS NPL-based films before and after LE and compared the processing in ambient to inert atmosphere. Finally, we fabricated field-effect transistors with an on/off ratio of up to 60 and linear charge carrier mobility for holes of 0.02 cm2 V−1 s−1.
- ItemCrystal structure, synthesis and characterization of different chromium-based two-dimensional compounds(Riyadh : Saudi Chemical Soc., 2023) Hasan, Maria; Ta, Huy Q.; Ullah, Sami; Yang, Xiaoqin; Luo, Jingping; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Gemming, Thomas; Trzebicka, Barbara; Mahmood, Azhar; Zeng, Mengqi; Fu, Lei; Liu, Lijun; Rümmeli, Mark H.The field of two dimensional (2D) materials experienced a surge of discoveries after the isolation of graphene. Among these, the transition metal compounds of Molybdenum and tungsten have been the most extensively studied materials after graphene. More recently, their group member chromium has only recently come to the limelight after the discovery of its exciting magnetic properties. As such the body of work surrounding 2D chromium-based materials is growing. Here, we present an up-to-date summary of the chromium 2D materials showing the latest advances in their experimental synthesis, characterization and the applications of 2D Chromium-based compounds. Finally, we conclude with a perspective on the future of 2D chromium-based materials. We believe that this study will be helpful to understand the field of chromium-based 2D compounds.
- ItemDurability of TiAl based surface acoustic wave devices for sensing at intermediate high temperatures(Rio de Janeiro : Elsevier, 2023) Seifert, Marietta; Leszczynska, Barbara; Weser, Robert; Menzel, Siegfried; Gemming, Thomas; Schmidt, HagenTiAl based surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, which offer a promising cheap and easy to handle wireless sensor solution for intermediate high temperatures up to 600 °C, were prepared and investigated with respect to their durability. To obtain the devices, Ti/Al multilayers were deposited on high-temperature stable piezoelectric catangasite (CTGS) substrates and structured as electrodes via the lift-off technique. AlNO cover layers and barrier layers at the substrate site served as an oxidation protection. The devices were characterized regarding their electrical behavior by ex-situ measurements of their frequency characteristics after heat treatments up to 600 °C in air. In addition, long-term in situ measurements up to 570 °C were performed to analyze a possible drift of the resonant frequency in dependence on the temperature and time. Scanning electron microscopy of the surfaces of the devices and scanning transmission electron microscopy of cross sections of TiAl interdigital transducer electrode fingers and the contact pads were conducted to check the morphology of the electrode metallization and to reveal if degradation or oxidation processes occurred during the heat treatments. The results demonstrated a sufficient high-temperature stability of the TiAl based devices after a first conditioning of system. A linear dependence of the resonant frequency on the temperature of about −37 ppm/K was observed. In summary, the suitability of TiAl based SAW sensors for long-term application at intermediate temperatures was proven.
- ItemEffect of Viscosity on Microswimmers: A Comparative Study(Weinheim : Wiley, 2021) Nsamela, Audrey; Sharan, Priyanka; Garcia‐Zintzun, Aidee; Heckel, Sandra; Chattopadhyay, Purnesh; Wang, Linlin; Wittmann, Martin; Gemming, Thomas; Saenz, James; Simmchen, JulianeAlthough many biological fluids like blood and mucus exhibit high viscosities, there are still many open questions concerning the swimming behavior of microswimmers in highly viscous media, limiting research to idealized laboratory conditions instead of application-oriented scenarios. Here, we analyze the effect of viscosity on the swimming speed and motion pattern of four kinds of microswimmers of different sizes which move by contrasting propulsion mechanisms: two biological swimmers (bovine sperm cells and Bacillus subtilis bacteria) which move by different bending patterns of their flagella and two artificial swimmers with catalytic propulsion mechanisms (alginate microtubes and Janus Pt@SiO2 spherical microparticles). Experiments consider two different media (glycerol and methylcellulose) with increasing viscosity, but also the impact of surface tension, catalyst activity and diffusion coefficients are discussed and evaluated.
- ItemErratum: Exploring the 3D structure and defects of a self-assembled gold mesocrystal by coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (Nanoscale (2021) DOI: 10.1039/D1NR01806J)(Cambridge : RSC Publ., 2021) Carnis, Jerome; Kirner, Felizitas; Lapkin, Dmitry; Sturm, Sebastian; Kim, Young Yong; Baburin, Igor A.; Khubbutdinov, Ruslan; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Iashina, Ekaterina; Mistonov, Alexander; Steegemans, Tristan; Wieck, Thomas; Gemming, Thomas; Lubk, Axel; Lazarev, Sergey; Sprung, Michael; Vartanyants, Ivan A.; Sturm, Elena V.Correction for ‘Exploring the 3D structure and defects of a self-assembled gold mesocrystal by coherent X-ray diffraction imaging’ by Jerome Carnis et al., Nanoscale, 2021, DOI: 10.1039/D1NR01806J.
- ItemEvaluation of surface cleaning procedures for CTGS substrates for SAW technology with XPS(Basel : MDPI, 2017) Brachmann, Erik; Seifert, Marietta; Oswald, Steffen; Menzel, Siegfried B.; Gemming, ThomasA highly efficient and reproducible cleaning procedure of piezoelectric substrates is essential in surface acoustic waves (SAW) technology to fabricate high-quality SAW devices, especially for new applications such SAW sensors wherein new materials for piezoelectric substrates and interdigital transducers are used. Therefore, the development and critical evaluation of cleaning procedures for each material system that is under consideration becomes crucial. Contaminants like particles or the presence of organic/inorganic material on the substrate can dramatically influence and alter the properties of the thin film substrate composite, such as wettability, film adhesion, film texture, and so on. In this article, focus is given to different cleaning processes like SC-1 and SC-2, UV-ozone treatment, as well as cleaning by first-contact polymer Opticlean, which are applied for removal of contaminants from the piezoelectric substrate Ca 3 TaGa 3 Si 2 O 14 . By means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the presence of the most critical contaminants such as carbon, sodium, and iron removed through different cleaning procedures were studied and significant differences were observed between the outcomes of these procedures. Based on these results, a two-step cleaning process, combining SC-1 at a reduced temperature at 30 ∘ C instead of 80 ∘ C and a subsequent UV-ozone cleaning directly prior to deposition of the metallization, is suggested to achieve the lowest residual contamination level.
- ItemFunctionalization of Ti-40Nb implant material with strontium by reactive sputtering(London : BioMed Central, 2017-10-10) Göttlicher, Markus; Rohnke, Marcus; Moryson, Yannik; Thomas, Jürgen; Sann, Joachim; Lode, Anja; Schumacher, Matthias; Schmidt, Romy; Pilz, Stefan; Gebert, Annett; Gemming, Thomas; Janek, JürgenBackground: Surface functionalization of orthopedic implants with pharmaceutically active agents is a modern approach to enhance osseointegration in systemically altered bone. A local release of strontium, a verified bone building therapeutic agent, at the fracture site would diminish side effects, which could occur otherwise by oral administration. Strontium surface functionalization of specially designed titanium-niobium (Ti-40Nb) implant alloy would provide an advanced implant system that is mechanically adapted to altered bone with the ability to stimulate bone formation. Methods: Strontium-containing coatings were prepared by reactive sputtering of strontium chloride (SrCl2) in a self-constructed capacitively coupled radio frequency (RF) plasma reactor. Film morphology, structure and composition were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) was used for the investigation of thickness and growth direction of the product layer. TEM lamellae were prepared using the focused ion beam (FIB) technique. Bioactivity of the surface coatings was tested by cultivation of primary human osteoblasts and subsequent analysis of cell morphology, viability, proliferation and differentiation. The results are correlated with the amount of strontium that is released from the coating in biomedical buffer solution, quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Dense coatings, consisting of SrOxCly, of more than 100 nm thickness and columnar structure, were prepared. TEM images of cross sections clearly show an incoherent but well-structured interface between coating and substrate without any cracks. Sr2+ is released from the SrOxCly coating into physiological solution as proven by ICP-MS analysis. Cell culture studies showed excellent biocompatibility of the functionalized alloy. Conclusions: Ti-40Nb alloy, a potential orthopedic implant material for osteoporosis patients, could be successfully plasma coated with a dense SrOxCly film. The material performed well in in vitro tests. Nevertheless, the Sr2+ release must be optimized in future work to meet the requirements of an effective drug delivery system.
- ItemGraphene-Like ZnO: A Mini Review(Basel : MDPI, 2016) Ta, Huy Q.; Zhao, Liang; Pohl, Darius; Pang, Jinbo; Trzebicka, Barbara; Rellinghaus, Bernd; Pribat, Didier; Gemming, Thomas; Liu, Zhongfan; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Rümmeli, Mark H.The isolation of a single layer of graphite, known today as graphene, not only demonstrated amazing new properties but also paved the way for a new class of materials often referred to as two-dimensional (2D) materials. Beyond graphene, other 2D materials include h-BN, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), silicene, and germanene, to name a few. All tend to have exciting physical and chemical properties which appear due to dimensionality effects and modulation of their band structure. A more recent member of the 2D family is graphene-like zinc oxide (g-ZnO) which also holds great promise as a future functional material. This review examines current progress in the synthesis and characterization of g-ZnO. In addition, an overview of works dealing with the properties of g-ZnO both in its pristine form and modified forms (e.g., nano-ribbon, doped material, etc.) is presented. Finally, discussions/studies on the potential applications of g-ZnO are reviewed and discussed.
- ItemHigh-performance electronics and optoelectronics of monolayer tungsten diselenide full film from pre-seeding strategy(Weinheim : Wiley, 2021) Zhang, Shu; Pang, Jinbo; Cheng, Qilin; Yang, Feng; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yu; Li, Yufen; Gemming, Thomas; Liu, Xiaoyan; Ibarlucea, Bergoi; Yang, Jiali; Liu, Hong; Zhou, Weijia; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Rümmeli, Mark H.Tungsten diselenide (WSe2) possesses extraordinary electronic properties for applications in electronics, optoelectronics, and emerging exciton physics. The synthesis of monolayer WSe2 film is of topmost for device arrays and integrated circuits. The monolayer WSe2 film has yet been reported by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach, and the nucleation mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report a pre-seeding strategy for finely regulating the nuclei density at an early stage and achieving a fully covered film after chemical vapor deposition growth. The underlying mechanism is heterogeneous nucleation from the pre-seeding tungsten oxide nanoparticles. At first, we optimized the precursor concentration for pre-seeding. Besides, we confirmed the superiority of the pre-seeding method, compared with three types of substrate pretreatments, including nontreatment, sonication in an organic solvent, and oxygen plasma. Eventually, the high-quality synthetic WSe2 monolayer film exhibits excellent device performance in field-effect transistors and photodetectors. We extracted thermodynamic activation energy from the nucleation and growth data. Our results may shed light on the wafer-scale production of homogeneous monolayer films of WSe2, other 2D materials, and their van der Waals heterostructures.
- ItemIn Situ Fabrication of Freestanding Single-Atom-Thick 2D Metal/Metallene and 2D Metal/ Metallene Oxide Membranes: Recent Developments(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Ta, Huy Q.; Mendes, Rafael G.; Liu, Yu; Yang, Xiaoqin; Luo, Jingping; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Gemming, Thomas; Zeng, Mengqi; Fu, Lei; Liu, Lijun; Rümmeli, Mark H.In recent years, two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted a lot of research interest as they exhibit several fascinating properties. However, outside of 2D materials derived from van der Waals layered bulk materials only a few other such materials are realized, and it remains difficult to confirm their 2D freestanding structure. Despite that, many metals are predicted to exist as 2D systems. In this review, the authors summarize the recent progress made in the synthesis and characterization of these 2D metals, so called metallenes, and their oxide forms, metallene oxides as free standing 2D structures formed in situ through the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM (STEM) to synthesize these materials. Two primary approaches for forming freestanding monoatomic metallic membranes are identified. In the first, graphene pores as a means to suspend the metallene or metallene oxide and in the second, electron-beam sputtering for the selective etching of metal alloys or thick complex initial materials is employed to obtain freestanding single-atom-thick 2D metal. The data show a growing number of 2D metals/metallenes and 2D metal/ metallene oxides having been confirmed and point to a bright future for further discoveries of these 2D materials.
- ItemIn Situ N-Doped Graphene and Mo Nanoribbon Formation from Mo2Ti2C3 MXene Monolayers(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Mendes, Rafael Gregorio; Ta, Huy Quang; Yang, Xiaoqin; Li, Wei; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Choi, Jin-Ho; Gemming, Thomas; Anasori, Babak; Lijun, Liu; Fu, Lei; Liu, Zhongfan; Rümmeli, Mark HermannSince the advent of monolayered 2D transition metal carbide and nitrides (MXenes) in 2011, the number of different monolayer systems and the study thereof have been on the rise. Mo2Ti2C3 is one of the least studied MXenes and new insights to this material are of value to the field. Here, the stability of Mo2Ti2C3 under electron irradiation is investigated. A transmission electron microscope (TEM) is used to study the structural and elemental changes in situ. It is found that Mo2Ti2C3 is reasonably stable for the first 2 min of irradiation. However, structural changes occur thereafter, which trigger increasingly rapid and significant rearrangement. This results in the formation of pores and two new nanomaterials, namely, N-doped graphene membranes and Mo nanoribbons. The study provides insight into the stability of Mo2Ti2C3 monolayers against electron irradiation, which will allow for reliable future study of the material using TEM. Furthermore, these findings will facilitate further research in the rapidly growing field of electron beam driven chemistry and engineering of nanomaterials. © 2020 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
- ItemIn Situ Room Temperature Electron-Beam Driven Graphene Growth from Hydrocarbon Contamination in a Transmission Electron Microscope(Basel : MDPI, 2018-5-26) Rummeli, Mark H.; Pan, Yumo; Zhao, Liang; Gao, Jing; Ta, Huy Q.; Martinez, Ignacio G.; Mendes, Rafael G.; Gemming, Thomas; Fu, Lei; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Liu, ZhongfanThe excitement of graphene (as well as 2D materials in general) has generated numerous procedures for the fabrication of graphene. Here we present a mini-review on a rather less known, but attractive, in situ means to fabricate graphene inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This is achieved in a conventional TEM (viz. no sophisticated specimen holders or microscopes are required) and takes advantage of inherent hydrocarbon contamination as a carbon source. Both catalyst free and single atom catalyst approaches are reviewed. An advantage of this technique is that not only can the growth process be imaged in situ, but this can also be achieved with atomic resolution. Moreover, in the future, one can anticipate such approaches enabling the growth of nano-materials with atomic precision.
- ItemIn-situ quasi-instantaneous e-beam driven catalyst-free formation of crystalline aluminum borate nanowires(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Gonzalez-Martinez, Ignacio G.; Gemming, Thomas; Mendes, Rafael; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Bezugly, Viktor; Kunstmann, Jens; Eckert, Jürgen; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Rümmeli, Mark H.The catalyst-assisted nucleation and growth mechanisms for many kinds of nanowires and nanotubes are pretty well understood. At times, though, 1D nanostructures form without a catalyst and the argued growth modes have inconsistencies. One such example is the catalyst-free growth of aluminium borate nanowires. Here we develop an in-situ catalyst-free room temperature growth route for aluminium nanowires using the electron beam in a transmission electron microscope. We provide strong experimental evidence that supports a formation process that can be viewed as a phase transition in which the generation of free-volume induced by the electron beam irradiation enhances the atomic mobility within the precursor material. The enhanced atomic mobility and specific features of the crystal structure of Al5BO9 drive the atomic rearrangement that results in the large scale formation of highly crystalline aluminium borate nanowires. The whole formation process can be completed within fractions of a second. Our developed growth mechanism might also be extended to describe the catalyst-free formation of other nanowires.
- ItemThe Influence of the Composition of Ru100−xAlx (x = 50, 55, 60, 67) Thin Films on Their Thermal Stability(Basel : MDPI, 2017-3-10) Seifert, Marietta; Rane, Gayatri K.; Oswald, Steffen; Menzel, Siegfried B.; Gemming, ThomasRuAl thin films possess a high potential as a high temperature stable metallization for surface acoustic wave devices. During the annealing process of the Ru-Al films, Al2O3 is formed at the surface of the films even under high vacuum conditions, so that the composition of a deposited Ru50Al50 film is shifted to a Ru-rich alloy. To compensate for this effect, the Al content is systematically increased during the deposition of the Ru-Al films. Three Al-rich alloys—Ru45Al55, Ru40Al60 and Ru33Al67—were analyzed concerning their behavior after high temperature treatment under high vacuum and air conditions in comparison to the initial Ru50Al50 sample. Although the films’ cross sections show a more homogeneous structure in the case of the Al-rich films, the RuAl phase formation is reduced with increasing Al content.
- ItemLarge-Area Single-Crystal Graphene via Self-Organization at the Macroscale(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Ta, Huy Quang; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Mendes, Rafael Gregorio; Perello, David J.; Zhao, Liang; Trzebicka, Barbara; Gemming, Thomas; Rotkin, Slava V.; Rümmeli, Mark H.In 1665 Christiaan Huygens first noticed how two pendulums, regardless of their initial state, would synchronize. It is now known that the universe is full of complex self-organizing systems, from neural networks to correlated materials. Here, graphene flakes, nucleated over a polycrystalline graphene film, synchronize during growth so as to ultimately yield a common crystal orientation at the macroscale. Strain and diffusion gradients are argued as the probable causes for the long-range cross-talk between flakes and the formation of a single-grain graphene layer. The work demonstrates that graphene synthesis can be advanced to control the nucleated crystal shape, registry, and relative alignment between graphene crystals for large area, that is, a single-crystal bilayer, and (AB-stacked) few-layer graphene can been grown at the wafer scale. © 2020 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemLong-term high-temperature behavior of Ti–Al based electrodes for surface acoustic wave devices(Rio de Janeiro : Elsevier, 2022) Seifert, Marietta; Leszczynska, Barbara; Menzel, Siegfried; Gemming, ThomasThe long-term high-temperature behavior of Ti–Al based electrodes for the application in surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor devices was analyzed. The electrodes were obtained by e-beam evaporation of Ti/Al multilayers on the high-temperature stable piezoelectric Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (CTGS) substrates and structuring via the lift-off process. AlNO (25 at.% Al; 60 at.% N and 15 at.% O) cover and barrier layers were applied as protection against oxidation from the surrounding atmosphere and to prohibit a chemical reaction with the substrate. The samples were annealed at temperatures up to 600 °C in air for a duration of up to 192 h. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the morphology and degradation of the electrodes as well as of the extended contact pads. The results revealed that the Ti–Al based electrodes remained unoxidized after annealing for 192 h at 400 and 500 °C and for 24 h at 600 °C. After the heat treatment for 192 h at 600 °C, a strong oxidation of the structured electrodes occurred, which was less pronounced within the pads. In summary, the investigation showed that Ti–Al based SAW devices are a cost efficient alternative for long-term applications up to at least 500 °C and short- and medium-term applications up to 600 °C.
- ItemNano-inspired fluidic interactivity for boiling heat transfer: Impact and criteria(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Kim, Beom Seok; Choi, Geehong; Shin, Sangwoo; Gemming, Thomas; Cho, Hyung HeeThe enhancement of boiling heat transfer, the most powerful energy-transferring technology, will lead to milestones in the development of high-efficiency, next-generation energy systems. Perceiving nano-inspired interface functionalities from their rough morphologies, we demonstrate interface-induced liquid refreshing is essential to improve heat transfer by intrinsically avoiding Leidenfrost phenomenon. High liquid accessibility of hemi-wicking and catalytic nucleation, triggered by the morphological and hydrodynamic peculiarities of nano-inspired interfaces, contribute to the critical heat flux (CHF) and the heat transfer coefficient (HTC). Our experiments show CHF is a function of universal hydrodynamic characteristics involving interfacial liquid accessibility and HTC is improved with a higher probability of smaller nuclei with less superheat. Considering the interface-induced and bulk liquid accessibility at boiling, we discuss functionalizing the interactivity between an interface and a counteracting fluid seeking to create a novel interface, a so-called smart interface, for a breakthrough in boiling and its pragmatic application in energy systems.