Browsing by Author "Hübner, Uwe"
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- Item1D p–n Junction Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices from Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Lateral Heterostructures Grown by One-Pot Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Najafidehaghani, Emad; Gan, Ziyang; George, Antony; Lehnert, Tibor; Ngo, Gia Quyet; Neumann, Christof; Bucher, Tobias; Staude, Isabelle; Kaiser, David; Vogl, Tobias; Hübner, Uwe; Kaiser, Ute; Eilenberger, Falk; Turchanin, AndreyLateral heterostructures of dissimilar monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides provide great opportunities to build 1D in-plane p–n junctions for sub-nanometer thin low-power electronic, optoelectronic, optical, and sensing devices. Electronic and optoelectronic applications of such p–n junction devices fabricated using a scalable one-pot chemical vapor deposition process yielding MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures are reported here. The growth of the monolayer lateral heterostructures is achieved by in situ controlling the partial pressures of the oxide precursors by a two-step heating protocol. The grown lateral heterostructures are characterized structurally and optically using optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy/microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy/microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy further confirms the high-quality 1D boundary between MoSe2 and WSe2 in the lateral heterostructure. p–n junction devices are fabricated from these lateral heterostructures and their applicability as rectifiers, solar cells, self-powered photovoltaic photodetectors, ambipolar transistors, and electroluminescent light emitters are demonstrated. © 2021 The Authors. Advanced Functional Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemAbsolute EUV reflectivity measurements using a broadband high-harmonic source and an in situ single exposure reference scheme(Washington, DC : Soc., 2022) Abel, Johann J.; Wiesner, Felix; Nathanael, Jan; Reinhard, Julius; Wünsche, Martin; Schmidl, Gabriele; Gawlik, Annett; Hübner, Uwe; Plentz, Jonathan; Rödel, Christian; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Fuchs, SilvioWe present a tabletop setup for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflection spectroscopy in the spectral range from 40 to 100 eV by using high-harmonic radiation. The simultaneous measurements of reference and sample spectra with high energy resolution provide precise and robust absolute reflectivity measurements, even when operating with spectrally fluctuating EUV sources. The stability and sensitivity of EUV reflectivity measurements are crucial factors for many applications in attosecond science, EUV spectroscopy, and nano-scale tomography. We show that the accuracy and stability of our in situ referencing scheme are almost one order of magnitude better in comparison to subsequent reference measurements. We demonstrate the performance of the setup by reflective near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements of the aluminum L2/3 absorption edge in α-Al2O3 and compare the results to synchrotron measurements.
- ItemCharacterization of encapsulated graphene layers using extreme ultraviolet coherence tomography(Washington, DC : Soc., 2022) Wiesner, Felix; Skruszewicz, Slawomir; Rödel, Christian; Abel, Johann Jakob; Reinhard, Julius; Wünsche, Martin; Nathanael, Jan; Grünewald, Marco; Hübner, Uwe; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Fuchs, SilvioMany applications of two-dimensional materials such as graphene require the encapsulation in bulk material. While a variety of methods exist for the structural and functional characterization of uncovered 2D materials, there is a need for methods that image encapsulated 2D materials as well as the surrounding matter. In this work, we use extreme ultraviolet coherence tomography to image graphene flakes buried beneath 200 nm of silicon. We show that we can identify mono-, bi-, and trilayers of graphene and quantify the thickness of the silicon bulk on top by measuring the depth-resolved reflectivity. Furthermore, we estimate the quality of the graphene interface by incorporating a model that includes the interface roughness. These results are verified by atomic force microscopy and prove that extreme ultraviolet coherence tomography is a suitable tool for imaging 2D materials embedded in bulk materials.
- ItemCombining super-resolution microcopy with neuronal network recording using magnesium fluoride thin films as cover layer for multi-electrode array technology(Berlin : Nature Publishing, 2019) Schmidl, Lars; Schmidl, Gabriele; Gawlik, Annett; Dellith, Jan; Hübner, Uwe; Tympel, Volker; Schmidl, Frank; Plentz, Jonathan; Geis, Christian; Haselmann, HolgerWe present an approach for fabrication of reproducible, chemically and mechanically robust functionalized layers based on MgF2 thin films on thin glass substrates. These show great advantages for use in super-resolution microscopy as well as for multi-electrode-array fabrication and are especially suited for combination of these techniques. The transparency of the coated substrates with the low refractive index material is adjustable by the layer thickness and can be increased above 92%. Due to the hydrophobic and lipophilic properties of the thin crystalline MgF2 layers, the temporal stable adhesion needed for fixation of thin tissue, e.g. cryogenic brain slices is given. This has been tested using localization-based super-resolution microscopy with currently highest spatial resolution in light microscopy. We demonstrated that direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy revealed in reliable imaging of structures of central synapses by use of double immunostaining of post- (homer1 and GluA2) and presynaptic (bassoon) marker structure in a 10 µm brain slice without additional fixing of the slices. Due to the proven additional electrical insulating effect of MgF2 layers, surfaces of multi-electrode-arrays were coated with this material and tested by voltage-current-measurements. MgF2 coated multi-electrode-arrays can be used as a functionalized microscope cover slip for combination with live-cell super-resolution microscopy.
- ItemControlled growth of transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using Knudsen-type effusion cells for the precursors(Bristol : IOP Publishing, 2019) George, Antony; Neumann, Christof; Kaiser, David; Mupparapu, Rajeshkumar; Lehnert, Tibor; Hübner, Uwe; Tang, Zian; Winter, Andreas; Kaiser, Ute; Staude, Isabelle; Turchanin, AndreyControlling the flow rate of precursors is essential for the growth of high quality monolayer single crystals of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) by chemical vapor deposition. Thus, introduction of an excess amount of the precursors affects reproducibility of the growth process and results in the formation of TMD multilayers and other unwanted deposits. Here we present a simple method for controlling the precursor flow rates using the Knudsen-type effusion cells. This method results in a highly reproducible growth of large area and high density TMD monolayers. The size of the grown crystals can be adjusted between 10 and 200 μm. We characterized the grown MoS2 and WS2 monolayers by optical, atomic force and transmission electron microscopies as well as by x-ray photoelectron, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies, and by electrical transport measurements showing their high optical and electronic quality based on the single crystalline nature.
- ItemDirect supercritical angle localization microscopy for nanometer 3D superresolution([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021) Dasgupta, Anindita; Deschamps, Joran; Matti, Ulf; Hübner, Uwe; Becker, Jan; Strauss, Sebastian; Jungmann, Ralf; Heintzmann, Rainer; Ries, Jonas3D single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) is an emerging superresolution method for structural cell biology, as it allows probing precise positions of proteins in cellular structures. In supercritical angle localization microscopy (SALM), z-positions of single fluorophores are extracted from the intensity of supercritical angle fluorescence, which strongly depends on their distance to the coverslip. Here, we realize the full potential of SALM and improve its z-resolution by more than four-fold compared to the state-of-the-art by directly splitting supercritical and undercritical emission, using an ultra-high NA objective, and applying fitting routines to extract precise intensities of single emitters. We demonstrate nanometer isotropic localization precision on DNA origami structures, and on clathrin coated vesicles and microtubules in cells, illustrating the potential of SALM for cell biology.
- ItemEfficient laser-driven proton acceleration from cylindrical and planar cryogenic hydrogen jets(Berlin : Nature Pulishing, 2017) Obst, Lieselotte; Göde, Sebastian; Rehwald, Martin; Brack, Florian-Emanuel; Branco, Joao; Bock, Stefan; Bussmann, Michael; Cowan, Thomas E.; Curry, Chandra B.; Fiuza, Frederico; Gauthier, Maxence; Gebhardt, Rene; Helbig, Uwe; Huebl, Axel; Hübner, Uwe; Irman, Arie; Kazak, Lev; Kim, Jongjin B.; Kluge, Thomas; Kraft, Stephan; Löser, Markus; Metzkes, Josefine; Mishra, Rohini; Rödel, Christian; Schlenvoigt, Hans-Peter; Siebold, Mathias; Tiggesbäumker, Josef; Wolter, Steffen; Ziegler, Tim; Schramm, Ulrich; Glenzer, Siegfried H.; Zeil, KarlWe report on recent experimental results deploying a continuous cryogenic hydrogen jet as a debris-free, renewable laser-driven source of pure proton beams generated at the 150 TW ultrashort pulse laser Draco. Efficient proton acceleration reaching cut-off energies of up to 20 MeV with particle numbers exceeding 109 particles per MeV per steradian is demonstrated, showing for the first time that the acceleration performance is comparable to solid foil targets with thicknesses in the micrometer range. Two different target geometries are presented and their proton beam deliverance characterized: cylindrical (∅ 5 μm) and planar (20 μm × 2 μm). In both cases typical Target Normal Sheath Acceleration emission patterns with exponential proton energy spectra are detected. Significantly higher proton numbers in laser-forward direction are observed when deploying the planar jet as compared to the cylindrical jet case. This is confirmed by two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell (2D3V PIC) simulations, which demonstrate that the planar jet proves favorable as its geometry leads to more optimized acceleration conditions.
- ItemA high resolution extreme ultraviolet spectrometer system optimized for harmonic spectroscopy and XUV beam analysis(Melville, NY : American Inst. of Physics, 2019) Wünsche, Martin; Fuchs, Silvio; Weber, Thomas; Nathanael, Jan; Abel, Johann J.; Reinhard, Julius; Wiesner, Felix; Hübner, Uwe; Skruszewicz, Slawomir J.; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Rödel, ChristianWe present a modular extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectrometer system optimized for a broad spectral range of 12-41 nm (30-99 eV) with a high spectral resolution of λ/Δλ 784 ± 89. The spectrometer system has several operation modes for (1) XUV beam inspection, (2) angular spectral analysis, and (3) imaging spectroscopy. These options allow for a versatile use in high harmonic spectroscopy and XUV beam analysis. The high performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated using a novel cross-sectional imaging method called XUV coherence tomography. © 2019 Author(s).
- ItemLaboratory setup for extreme ultraviolet coherence tomography driven by a high-harmonic source(Melville, NY : American Inst. of Physics, 2019) Nathanael, Jan; Wünsche, Martin; Fuchs, Silvio; Weber, Thomas; Abel, Johann J.; Reinhard, Julius; Wiesner, Felix; Hübner, Uwe; Skruszewicz, Slawomir J.; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Rödel, ChristianWe present a laboratory beamline dedicated to nanoscale subsurface imaging using extreme ultraviolet coherence tomography (XCT). In this setup, broad-bandwidth extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation is generated by a laser-driven high-harmonic source. The beamline is able to handle a spectral range of 30-130 eV and a beam divergence of 10 mrad (full width at half maximum). The XUV radiation is focused on the sample under investigation, and the broadband reflectivity is measured using an XUV spectrometer. For the given spectral window, the XCT beamline is particularly suited to investigate silicon-based nanostructured samples. Cross-sectional imaging of layered nanometer-scale samples can be routinely performed using the laboratory-scale XCT beamline. A depth resolution of 16 nm has been achieved using the spectral range of 36-98 eV which represents a 33% increase in resolution due to the broader spectral range compared to previous work. © 2019 Author(s).
- ItemMagnetically induced transparency of a quantum metamaterial composed of twin flux qubits(Berlin : Nature Publishing, 2018) Shulga, Kirill; Il'ichev, Evgeny; Fistul, Mikhail V.; Besedin, I.S.; Butz, Susanne; Astafiev, Oleg; Hübner, Uwe; Ustinov, Alexey V.Quantum theory is expected to govern the electromagnetic properties of a quantum metamaterial, an artificially fabricated medium composed of many quantum objects acting as artificial atoms. Propagation of electromagnetic waves through such a medium is accompanied by excitations of intrinsic quantum transitions within individual meta-atoms and modes corresponding to the interactions between them. Here we demonstrate an experiment in which an array of double-loop type superconducting flux qubits is embedded into a microwave transmission line. We observe that in a broad frequency range the transmission coefficient through the metamaterial periodically depends on externally applied magnetic field. Field-controlled switching of the ground state of the meta-atoms induces a large suppression of the transmission. Moreover, the excitation of meta-atoms in the array leads to a large resonant enhancement of the transmission. We anticipate possible applications of the observed frequency-tunable transparency in superconducting quantum networks.
- ItemMastering the Wrinkling of Self-supported Graphene(Berlin : Nature Pulishing, 2017) Pacakova, Barbara; Verhagen, Timotheus; Bousa, Milan; Hübner, Uwe; Vejpravova, Jana; Kalbac, Martin; Frank, OtakarWe present an approach that allows for the preparation of well-defined large arrays of graphene wrinkles with predictable geometry. Chemical vapor deposition grown graphene transferred onto hexagonal pillar arrays of SiO2 with sufficiently small interpillar distance forms a complex network of two main types of wrinkle arrangements. The first type is composed of arrays of aligned equidistantly separated parallel wrinkles propagating over large distances, and originates from line interfaces in the graphene, such as thin, long wrinkles and graphene grain boundaries. The second type of wrinkle arrangement is composed of non-aligned short wrinkles, formed in areas without line interfaces. Besides the presented hybrid graphene topography with distinct wrinkle geometries induced by the pre-patterned substrate, the graphene layers are suspended and self-supporting, exhibiting large surface area and negligible doping effects from the substrate. All these properties make this wrinkled graphene a promising candidate for a material with enhanced chemical reactivity useful in nanoelectronic applications.
- ItemNanoboomerang-based inverse metasurfaces - a promising path towards ultrathin photonic devices for transmission operation(College Park : American Institute of Physics, 2017) Zeisberger, Matthias; Schneidewind, Henrik; Hübner, Uwe; Popp, Jürgen; Schmidt, Markus A.Metasurfaces have revolutionized photonics due to their ability to shape phase fronts as requested and to tune beam directionality using nanoscale metallic or dielectric scatterers. Here we reveal inverse metasurfaces showing superior properties compared to their positive counterparts if transmission mode operation is considered. The key advantage of such slot-type metasurfaces is the strong reduction of light in the parallel-polarization state, making the crossed-polarization, being essential for metasurface operation, dominant and highly visible. In the experiment, we show an up to four times improvement in polarization extinction for the individual metasurface element geometry consisting of deep subwavelength nanoboomerangs with feature sizes of the order of 100 nm. As confirmed by simulations, strong plasmonic hybridization yields two spectrally separated plasmonic resonances, ultimately allowing for the desired phase and scattering engineering in transmission. Due to the design flexibility of inverse metasurfaces, a large number of highly integrated ultra-flat photonic elements can be envisioned, examples of which include monolithic lenses for telecommunications and spectroscopy, beam shaper or generator for particle trapping or acceleration or sophisticated polarization control for microscopy.
- ItemNanograting-Enhanced Optical Fibers for Visible and Infrared Light Collection at Large Input Angles(Basel : MDPI, 2021) Wang, Ning; Zeisberger, Matthias; Hübner, Uwe; Schmidt, Markus A.The efficient incoupling of light into particular fibers at large angles is essential for a multitude of applications; however, this is difficult to achieve with commonly used fibers due to low numerical aperture. Here, we demonstrate that commonly used optical fibers functionalized with arrays of metallic nanodots show substantially improved large-angle light-collection performances at multiple wavelengths. In particular, we show that at visible wavelengths, higher diffraction orders contribute significantly to the light-coupling efficiency, independent of the incident polarization, with a dominant excitation of the fundamental mode. The experimental observation is confirmed by an analytical model, which directly suggests further improvement in incoupling efficiency through the use of powerful nanostructures such as metasurface or dielectric gratings. Therefore, our concept paves the way for high-performance fiber-based optical devices and is particularly relevant within the context of endoscopic-type applications in life science and light collection within quantum technology.
- ItemNanotrimer enhanced optical fiber tips implemented by electron beam lithography(Washington D.C. : Optical Society of America, 2018) Wang, Ning; Zeisberger, Matthias; Hübner, Uwe; Schmidt, Markus A.Here we present a novel fabrication approach that allows for the implementation of sophisticated planar nanostructures with deep subwavelength dimensions on fiber end faces by electron beam lithography. Specifically, we planarize the end faces of fiber bundles such that they are compatible with planar nanostructuring technology, with the result that fibers can be treated in the same way as typical wafers, opening up the entire field of nanotechnology for fiber optics. To demonstrate our approach, we have implemented densely-packed arrays of gold nanotrimers on the end face of 50 cm long standard single mode fibers, showing asymmetrical resonance lineshapes that arise due to the interplay of diffractive coupling of the individual timer response at infrared wavelengths that overlap with the single mode regime of typical telecommunication fibers. Refractive index sensing experiments suggest sensitivities of about 390 nm/RIU, representing the state-of-the-art for such a device type. Due to its unique capability of making optical fibers compatible with planar nanostructuring technology, we anticipate our approach to be applied in numerous fields including bioanalytics, telecommunications, nonlinear photonics, optical trapping and beam shaping.
- ItemObservation of Ultrafast Solid-Density Plasma Dynamics Using Femtosecond X-Ray Pulses from a Free-Electron Laser(College Park, Md. : APS, 2018) Kluge, Thomas; Rödel, Melanie; Metzkes-Ng, Josefine; Pelka, Alexander; Laso Garcia, Alejandro; Prencipe, Irene; Rehwald, Martin; Nakatsutsumi, Motoaki; McBride, Emma E.; Schönherr, Tommy; Garten, Marco; Hartley, Nicholas J.; Zacharias, Malte; Grenzer, Jörg; Erbe, Artur; Georgiev, Yordan M.; Galtier, Eric; Nam, Inhyuk; Lee, Hae Ja; Glenzer, Siegfried; Bussmann, Michael; Gutt, Christian; Zeil, Karl; Rödel, Christian; Hübner, Uwe; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas E.The complex physics of the interaction between short-pulse ultrahigh-intensity lasers and solids is so far difficult to access experimentally, and the development of compact laser-based next-generation secondary radiation sources, e.g., for tumor therapy, laboratory astrophysics, and fusion, is hindered by the lack of diagnostic capabilities to probe the complex electron dynamics and competing instabilities. At present, the fundamental plasma dynamics that occur at the nanometer and femtosecond scales during the laser-solid interaction can only be elucidated by simulations. Here we show experimentally that small-angle x-ray scattering of femtosecond x-ray free-electron laser pulses facilitates new capabilities for direct in situ characterization of intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions at solid density that allows simultaneous nanometer spatial and femtosecond temporal resolution, directly verifying numerical simulations of the electron density dynamics during the short-pulse high-intensity laser irradiation of a solid density target. For laser-driven grating targets, we measure the solid density plasma expansion and observe the generation of a transient grating structure in front of the preinscribed grating, due to plasma expansion. The density maxima are interleaved, forming a double frequency grating in x-ray free-electron laser projection for a short time, which is a hitherto unknown effect. We expect that our results will pave the way for novel time-resolved studies, guiding the development of future laser-driven particle and photon sources from solid targets.
- ItemP-N junction-based Si biochips with ring electrodes for novel biosensing applications(Basel : MDPI, 2019) Kiani, Mahdi; Du, Nan; Vogel, Manja; Raff, Johannes; Hübner, Uwe; Skorupa, Ilona; Bürger, Danilo; Schulz, Stefan E.; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Schmidt, HeidemarieIn this work, we report on the impedance of p-n junction-based Si biochips with gold ring top electrodes and unstructured platinum bottom electrodes which allows for counting target biomaterial in a liquid-filled ring top electrode region. The systematic experiments on p-n junction-based Si biochips fabricated by two different sets of implantation parameters (i.e. biochips PS5 and BS5) are studied, and the comparable significant change of impedance characteristics in the biochips in dependence on the number of bacteria suspension, i.e., Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-A12, in Deionized water with an optical density at 600 nm from OD600 = 4–16 in the electrode ring region is demonstrated. Furthermore, with the help of the newly developed two-phase electrode structure, the modeled capacitance and resistance parameters of the electrical equivalent circuit describing the p-n junction-based biochips depend linearly on the number of bacteria in the ring top electrode region, which successfully proves the potential performance of p-n junction-based Si biochips in observing the bacterial suspension. The proposed p-n junction-based biochips reveal perspective applications in medicine and biology for diagnosis, monitoring, management, and treatment of diseases.In this work, we report on the impedance of p-n junction-based Si biochips with gold ring top electrodes and unstructured platinum bottom electrodes which allows for counting target biomaterial in a liquid-filled ring top electrode region. The systematic experiments on p-n junction-based Si biochips fabricated by two different sets of implantation parameters (i.e. biochips PS5 and BS5) are studied, and the comparable significant change of impedance characteristics in the biochips in dependence on the number of bacteria suspension, i.e., Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-A12, in Deionized water with an optical density at 600 nm from OD600 = 4–16 in the electrode ring region is demonstrated. Furthermore, with the help of the newly developed two-phase electrode structure, the modeled capacitance and resistance parameters of the electrical equivalent circuit describing the p-n junction-based biochips depend linearly on the number of bacteria in the ring top electrode region, which successfully proves the potential performance of p-n junction-based Si biochips in observing the bacterial suspension. The proposed p-n junction-based biochips reveal perspective applications in medicine and biology for diagnosis, monitoring, management, and treatment of diseases.
- ItemPHONA - photonische Nanomaterialien : Schlussbericht ; Laufzeit des Vorhabens: 01.12.2009-30.11.2014(Hannover : Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB), 2014) Hübner, Uwe; Popp, Jürgen[no abstract available]
- ItemSuperlattice in collapsed graphene wrinkles(Berlin : Nature Publishing, 2019) Verhagen, Timotheus; Pacakova, Barbara; Bousa, Milan; Hübner, Uwe; Kalbac, Martin; Vejpravova, Jana; Frank, OtakarTopographic corrugations, such as wrinkles, are known to introduce diverse physical phenomena that can significantly modify the electrical, optical and chemical properties of two-dimensional materials. This range of assets can be expanded even further when the crystal lattices of the walls of the wrinkle are aligned and form a superlattice, thereby creating a high aspect ratio analogue of a twisted bilayer or multilayer – the so-called twisted wrinkle. Here we present an experimental proof that such twisted wrinkles exist in graphene monolayers on the scale of several micrometres. Combining atomic force microscopy and Raman spectral mapping using a wide range of visible excitation energies, we show that the wrinkles are extremely narrow and their Raman spectra exhibit all the characteristic features of twisted bilayer or multilayer graphene. In light of a recent breakthrough – the superconductivity of a magic-angle graphene bilayer, the collapsed wrinkles represent naturally occurring systems with tuneable collective regimes.
- ItemSurface enhanced Raman spectroscopy-based evaluation of the membrane protein composition of the organohalide-respiring Sulfurospirillum multivorans(Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley, 2021) Cialla-May, Dana; Gadkari, Jennifer; Winterfeld, Andreea; Hübner, Uwe; Weber, Karina; Diekert, Gabriele; Schubert, Torsten; Goris, Tobias; Popp, JürgenBacteria often employ different respiratory chains that comprise membrane proteins equipped with various cofactors. Monitoring the protein inventory that is present in the cells under a given cultivation condition is often difficult and time-consuming. One example of a metabolically versatile bacterium is the microaerophilic organohalide-respiring Sulfurospirillum multivorans. Here, we used surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to quickly identify the cofactors involved in the respiration of S. multivorans. We cultured the organism with either tetrachloroethene (perchloroethylene, PCE), fumarate, nitrate, or oxygen as electron acceptors. Because the corresponding terminal reductases of the four different respiratory chains harbor different cofactors, specific fingerprint signals in SERS were expected. Silver nanostructures fabricated by means of electron beam lithography were coated with the membrane fractions extracted from the four S. multivorans cultivations, and SERS spectra were recorded. In the case of S. multivorans cultivated with PCE, the recorded SERS spectra were dominated by Raman peaks specific for Vitamin B12. This is attributed to the high abundance of the PCE reductive dehalogenase (PceA), the key enzyme in PCE respiration. After cultivation with oxygen, fumarate, or nitrate, no Raman spectral features of B12 were found. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
- ItemSymmetry breaking-induced magnetic Fano resonances in densely packed arrays of symmetric nanotrimers(Berlin : Nature Publishing, 2019) Wang, Ning; Zeisberger, Matthias; Hübner, Uwe; Giannini, Vincenzo; Schmidt, Markus A.Due to unique properties and great design flexibilities, Fano resonances represent one of the most promising optical features mediated by metallic nanostructures, while the excitation of some Fano modes is impossible due to symmetry reasons. The aim of this work is to show that dense lattice arrangements can have a profound impact on the optical properties of nanostructures and, in particular, can enable the excitation of otherwise dark modes. Here, we demonstrate this concept using the example of rectangular arrays of symmetric trimers packed so densely that the coupling between neighbouring unit cells imposes a symmetry break, enabling the excitation of magnetic Fano resonances. We found that in experiments as well as in simulations, electric and magnetic Fano resonances can be simultaneously formed in cases where the inter-trimer distances are sufficiently small. By analysing the transition from an isolated trimer mode into a regime of strong near-field coupling, we show that by modifying the rectangular unit cell lengths due to the symmetry mismatch between lattice and trimer, two types of Fano resonances can be found, especially magnetic Fano resonances with loop-type magnetic field distributions within the centre of each trimer, which can be either enhanced or suppressed. In addition, the influence of the refractive index environment was measured, showing sensitivity values of approximately 300 nm/RIU. Our work provides fundamental insights into the interaction of the lattice and nanostructure response and paves the way towards the observation of novel optical excitations.