Browsing by Author "Halisch, Matthias"
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- ItemBenchmark study using a multi-scale, multi-methodological approach for the petrophysical characterization of reservoir sandstones(Göttingen : Copernicus Publ., 2021) Haruzi, Peleg; Katsman, Regina; Halisch, Matthias; Waldmann, Nicolas; Spiro, BaruchThis paper presents a detailed description and evaluation of a multi-methodological petrophysical approach for the comprehensive multi-scale characterization of reservoir sandstones. The suggested methodology enables the identification of links between Darcy-scale permeability and an extensive set of geometrical, textural and topological rock descriptors quantified at the pore scale. This approach is applied to the study of samples from three consecutive sandstone layers of Lower Cretaceous age in northern Israel. These layers differ in features observed at the outcrop, hand specimen, petrographic microscope and micro-CT scales. Specifically, laboratory porosity and permeability measurements of several centimetre-sized samples show low variability in the quartz arenite (top and bottom) layers but high variability in the quartz wacke (middle) layer. The magnitudes of this variability are also confirmed by representative volume sizes and by anisotropy evaluations conducted on micro-CT-imaged 3-D pore geometries. Two scales of directional porosity variability are revealed in quartz arenite sandstone of the top layer: the pore size scale of ∼0.1 mm in all directions and ∼3.5 mm scale related to the occurrence of high- and low-porosity horizontal bands occluded by Fe oxide cementation. This millimetre-scale variability controls the laboratory-measured macroscopic rock permeability. More heterogeneous pore structures were revealed in the quartz wacke sandstone of the intermediate layer, which shows high inverse correlation between porosity and clay matrix in the vertical direction attributed to depositional processes and comprises an internal spatial irregularity. Quartz arenite sandstone of the bottom layer is homogenous and isotropic in the investigated domain, revealing porosity variability at a ∼0.1 mm scale, which is associated with the average pore size. Good agreement between the permeability upscaled from the pore-scale modelling and the estimates based on laboratory measurements is shown for the quartz arenite layers. The proposed multi-methodological approach leads to an accurate petrophysical characterization of reservoir sandstones with broad ranges of textural, topological and mineralogical characteristics and is particularly applicable for describing anisotropy and heterogeneity of sandstones on various rock scales. The results of this study also contribute to the geological interpretation of the studied stratigraphic units.
- ItemClassification and quantification of pore shapes in sandstone reservoir rocks with 3-D X-ray micro-computed tomography(Göttingen : Copernicus Publ., 2016) Schmitt, Mayka; Halisch, Matthias; Müller, Cornelia; Fernandes, Celso PeresRecent years have seen a growing interest in the characterization of the pore morphologies of reservoir rocks and how the spatial organization of pore traits affects the macro behavior of rock–fluid systems. With the availability of 3-D high-resolution imaging, such as x-ray micro-computed tomography (µ-CT), the detailed quantification of particle shapes has been facilitated by progress in computer science. Here, we show how the shapes of irregular rock particles (pores) can be classified and quantified based on binary 3-D images. The methodology requires the measurement of basic 3-D particle descriptors (length, width, and thickness) and a shape classification that involves the similarity of artificial objects, which is based on main pore network detachments and 3-D sample sizes. Two main pore components were identified from the analyzed volumes: pore networks and residual pore ganglia. A watershed algorithm was applied to preserve the pore morphology after separating the main pore networks, which is essential for the pore shape characterization. The results were validated for three sandstones (S1, S2, and S3) from distinct reservoirs, and most of the pore shapes were found to be plate- and cube-like, ranging from 39.49 to 50.94 % and from 58.80 to 45.18 % when the Feret caliper descriptor was investigated in a 10003 voxel volume. Furthermore, this study generalizes a practical way to correlate specific particle shapes, such as rods, blades, cuboids, plates, and cubes to characterize asymmetric particles of any material type with 3-D image analysis.
- ItemDevelopment of a numerical workflow based on μ-CT imaging for the determination of capillary pressure–saturation-specific interfacial area relationship in 2-phase flow pore-scale porous-media systems: a case study on Heletz sandstone(Göttingen : Copernicus Publ., 2016) Peche, Aaron; Halisch, Matthias; Bogdan Tatomir, Alexandru; Sauter, MartinIn this case study, we present the implementation of a finite element method (FEM)-based numerical pore-scale model that is able to track and quantify the propagating fluid–fluid interfacial area on highly complex micro-computed tomography (μ-CT)-obtained geometries. Special focus is drawn to the relationship between reservoir-specific capillary pressure (pc), wetting phase saturation (Sw) and interfacial area (awn). The basis of this approach is high-resolution μ-CT images representing the geometrical characteristics of a georeservoir sample. The successfully validated 2-phase flow model is based on the Navier–Stokes equations, including the surface tension force, in order to consider capillary effects for the computation of flow and the phase-field method for the emulation of a sharp fluid–fluid interface. In combination with specialized software packages, a complex high-resolution modelling domain can be obtained. A numerical workflow based on representative elementary volume (REV)-scale pore-size distributions is introduced. This workflow aims at the successive modification of model and model set-up for simulating, such as a type of 2-phase problem on asymmetric μ-CT-based model domains. The geometrical complexity is gradually increased, starting from idealized pore geometries until complex μ-CT-based pore network domains, whereas all domains represent geostatistics of the REV-scale core sample pore-size distribution. Finally, the model can be applied to a complex μ-CT-based model domain and the pc–Sw–awn relationship can be computed.
- ItemEnhanced pore space analysis by use of μ-CT, MIP, NMR, and SIP(Göttingen : Copernicus Publ., 2018) Zhang, Zeyu; Kruschwitz, Sabine; Weller, Andreas; Halisch, MatthiasWe investigate the pore space of rock samples with respect to different petrophysical parameters using various methods, which provide data on pore size distributions, including micro computed tomography (μ-CT), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and spectral-induced polarization (SIP). The resulting cumulative distributions of pore volume as a function of pore size are compared. Considering that the methods differ with regard to their limits of resolution, a multiple-length-scale characterization of the pore space is proposed, that is based on a combination of the results from all of these methods. The approach is demonstrated using samples of Bentheimer and Röttbacher sandstone. Additionally, we compare the potential of SIP to provide a pore size distribution with other commonly used methods (MIP, NMR). The limits of resolution of SIP depend on the usable frequency range (between 0.002 and 100 Hz). The methods with similar resolution show a similar behavior of the cumulative pore volume distribution in the overlapping pore size range. We assume that μ-CT and NMR provide the pore body size while MIP and SIP characterize the pore throat size. Our study shows that a good agreement between the pore radius distributions can only be achieved if the curves are adjusted considering the resolution and pore volume in the relevant range of pore radii. The MIP curve with the widest range in resolution should be used as reference.
- ItemPore-scale tomography and imaging: applications, techniques and recommended practice(Göttingen : Copernicus Publ., 2016) Halisch, Matthias; Steeb, Holger; Henkel, Steven; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.[No abstract available]
- ItemPorosity and distribution of water in perlite from the island of Milos, Greece(Berlin : SpringerOpen, 2014) Kaufhold, Stephan; Reese, Anke; Schwiebacher, Werner; Dohrmann, Reiner; Grathoff, Georg H.; Warr, Laurence N.; Halisch, Matthias; Müller, Cornelia; Schwarz-Schampera, Ulrich; Ufer, KristianA perlite sample representative of an operating mine in Milos was investigated with respect to the type and spatial distribution of water. A set of different methods was used which finally provided a consistent view on the water at least in this perlite. Infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of different water species (molecular water and hydroxyl groups / strongly bound water). The presence of more than 0.5 mass% smectite, however, could be excluded considering the cation exchange capacity results. The dehydration measured by thermal analysis occurred over a wide range of temperatures hence confirming the infrared spectroscopical results. Both methods point to the existence of a continuous spectrum of water binding energies. The spatial distribution of water and/or pores was investigated using different methods (CT: computer tomography, FIB: scanning electron microscopy including focused ion beam technology, IRM: infrared microscopy). Computer tomography (CT) showed large macropores (20 – 100 μm) and additionally revealed a mottled microstructure of the silicate matrix with low density areas up to a few μm in diameter. Scanning electron microscopy (FIB) confirmed the presence of μm sized pores and IRM showed the filling of these pores with water. In summary, two types of pores were found. Airfilled 20 – 100 μm pores and μm-sized pores disseminated in the glass matrix containing at least some water. Porosity measurements indicate a total porosity of 26 Vol%, 11 Vol% corresponding to the μm-sized pores. It remains unsolved wether the water in the μm-sized pores entered after or throughout perlite formation. However, the pores are sealed and no indications of cracks were found which indicated a primary source of the water, i.e. water was probably entrapped by quenching of the lava. The water in these pores may be the main reason for the thermal expandability which results in the extraordinarily porous expanded perlite building materials.
- ItemX-ray computed tomography investigation of structures in Opalinus Clay fromlarge-scale to small-scale after mechanical testing(Göttingen : Copernicus Publ., 2016) Kaufhold, Annette; Halisch, Matthias; Zacher, Gerhard; Kaufhold, StephanIn the past years X-ray computed tomography (CT) has became more and more common for geoscientific applications and is used from the µm-scale (e.g. for investigations of microfossils or pore-scale structures) up to the dm-scale (full drill cores or soil columns). In this paper we present results from CT imaging and mineralogical investigations of an Opalinus Clay core on different scales and different regions of interest, emphasizing especially the 3-D evaluation and distribution of cracks and their impact on mechanical testing of such material. Enhanced knowledge of the testing behaviour of the Opalinus Clay is of great interest, especially since this material is considered for a long-term radioactive waste disposal and storage facility in Switzerland. Hence, results are compared regarding the mineral (i.e. phase) contrast resolution, the spatial resolution, and the overall scanning speed. With this extensive interdisciplinary scale-down approach it has been possible to characterize the general fracture propagation in comparison to mineralogical and textural features of the Opalinus Clay. Additionally, and as far as we know, a so-called mylonitic zone, located at an intersect of two main fractures, has been observed for the first time for an experimentally deformed Opalinus sample. The multi-scale results are in good accordance to data from naturally deformed Opalinus Clay samples, which enables us to perform systematical research under controlled laboratory conditions. Accompanying 3-D imaging greatly enhances the capability of data interpretation and assessment of such a material.