Browsing by Author "Hambsch, Mike"
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- ItemCharge Carrier Mobility Improvement in Diketopyrrolopyrrole Block-Copolymers by Shear Coating(Basel : MDPI, 2021) Ditte, Kristina; Kiriy, Nataliya; Perez, Jonathan; Hambsch, Mike; Mannsfeld, Stefan C.B.; Krupskaya, Yulia; Maragani, Ramesh; Voit, Brigitte; Lissel, FranziskaShear coating is a promising deposition method for upscaling device fabrication and enabling high throughput, and is furthermore suitable for translating to roll-to-roll processing. Although common polymer semiconductors (PSCs) are solution processible, they are still prone to mechanical failure upon stretching, limiting applications in e.g., electronic skin and health monitoring. Progress made towards mechanically compliant PSCs, e.g., the incorporation of soft segments into the polymer backbone, could not only allow such applications, but also benefit advanced fabrication methods, like roll-to-roll printing on flexible substrates, to produce the targeted devices. Tri-block copolymers (TBCs), consisting of an inner rigid semiconducting poly-diketo-pyrrolopyrrole-thienothiophene (PDPP-TT) block flanked by two soft elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) chains, maintain good charge transport properties, while being mechanically soft and flexible. Potentially aiming at the fabrication of TBC-based wearable electronics by means of cost-efficient and scalable deposition methods (e.g., blade-coating), a tolerance of the electrical performance of the TBCs to the shear speed was investigated. Herein, we demonstrate that such TBCs can be deposited at high shear speeds (film formation up to a speed of 10 mm s−1). While such high speeds result in increased film thickness, no degradation of the electrical performance was observed, as was frequently reported for polymer−based OFETs. Instead, high shear speeds even led to a small improvement in the electrical performance: mobility increased from 0.06 cm2 V−1 s−1 at 0.5 mm s−1 to 0.16 cm2 V−1 s−1 at 7 mm s−1 for the TBC with 24 wt% PDMS, and for the TBC containing 37 wt% PDMS from 0.05 cm2 V−1 s−1 at 0.5 mm s−1 to 0.13 cm2 V−1 s−1 at 7 mm s−1. Interestingly, the improvement of mobility is not accompanied by any significant changes in morphology.
- ItemElectronic Doping and Enhancement of n‐Channel Polycrystalline OFET Performance through Gate Oxide Modifications with Aminosilanes(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Shin, Nara; Schellhammer, Karl Sebastian; Lee, Min Ho; Zessin, Jakob; Hambsch, Mike; Salleo, Alberto; Ortmann, Frank; Mannsfeld, Stefan C.B.Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are widely employed in organic field-effect transistors to modify the surface energy, surface roughness, film growth kinetics, and electrical surface potential of the gate oxide to control the device's operating voltage. In this study, amino-functionalized SAM molecules are compared to pure alkylsilane SAMS in terms of their impact on the electrical properties of organic field-effect transistors, using the n-type polycrystalline small molecule semiconductor material N,N′-dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide (PTCDI-C8). In order to understand the electronic impact of the amino groups, the effect of both the number of amino-containing functional groups and the SAM molecular length are systematically studied. Though amino-functionalized SAM materials have been studied previously, this study is, for the first time, able to shed light on the nature of the doping effect that occurs when the gate oxide is treated with polar aminosilane materials. By a comprehensive theoretical study of the interface on the molecular level, it is shown that the observed shift in the threshold voltage is caused by free charges, which are attracted to the PTCDI-C8 and are stabilized there by protonated aminosilanes. This attraction and the voltage shift can be systematically tuned by varying the length of the neutral terminal chain of the aminosilane. © 2021 The Authors. Advanced Materials Interfaces published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemInvestigating the morphology of bulk heterojunctions by laser photoemission electron microscopy(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2022) Niefind, Falk; Shivhare, Rishi; Mannsfeld, Stefan C.B.; Abel, Bernd; Hambsch, MikeThe nanoscale morphology of bulk heterojunctions is highly important for the charge dissociation and transport in organic solar cells and ultimately defines the performance of the cell. The visualization of this nano-morphology in terms of domain size and polymer orientation in a fast and straightforward way is therefore of great interest to evaluate the suitability of a film for efficient solar cells. Here, we demonstrate that the morphology of different blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) can be imaged and analyzed by employing photoemission electron microscopy.
- ItemNanographene-Based Heterojunctions for High-Performance Organic Phototransistor Memory Devices.(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2023) Bai, Shaoling; Yang, Lin; Haase, Katherina; Wolansky, Jakob; Zhang, Zongbao; Tseng, Hsin; Talnack, Felix; Kress, Joshua; Andrade, Jonathan Perez; Benduhn, Johannes; Ma, Ji; Feng, Xinliang; Hambsch, Mike; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.Organic phototransistors can enable many important applications such as nonvolatile memory, artificial synapses, and photodetectors in next-generation optical communication and wearable electronics. However, it is still a challenge to achieve a big memory window (threshold voltage response ∆V ) for phototransistors. Here, a nanographene-based heterojunction phototransistor memory with large ∆V responses is reported. Exposure to low intensity light (25.7 µW cm ) for 1 s yields a memory window of 35 V, and the threshold voltage shift is found to be larger than 140 V under continuous light illumination. The device exhibits both good photosensitivity (3.6 × 10 ) and memory properties including long retention time (>1.5 × 10 s), large hysteresis (45.35 V), and high endurance for voltage-erasing and light-programming. These findings demonstrate the high application potential of nanographenes in the field of optoelectronics. In addition, the working principle of these hybrid nanographene-organic structured heterojunction phototransistor memory devices is described which provides new insight into the design of high-performance organic phototransistor devices.
- ItemSequentially Processed P3HT/CN6-CP•−NBu4+ Films: Interfacial or Bulk Doping?(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Karpov, Yevhen; Kiriy, Nataliya; Formanek, Petr; Hoffmann, Cedric; Beryozkina, Tetyana; Hambsch, Mike; Al-Hussein, Mahmoud; Mannsfeld, Stefan C.B.; Büchner, Bernd; Debnath, Bipasha; Bretschneider, Michael; Krupskaya, Yulia; Lissel, Franziska; Kiriy, AntonDerivatives of the hexacyano--radialene anion radical (CN6-CP•−) emerge as a promising new family of p-dopants having a doping strength comparable to that of archetypical dopant 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyano-quinodimethane (F4TCNQ). Here, mixed solution (MxS) and sequential processing (SqP) doping methods are compared by using a model semiconductor poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the dopant CN6-CP•−NBu4 + (NBu4 + = tetrabutylammonium). MxS films show a moderate yet thickness-independent conductivity of ≈0.1 S cm−1. For the SqP case, the highest conductivity value of ≈6 S cm−1 is achieved for the thinnest (1.5–3 nm) films whereas conductivity drops two orders of magnitudes for 100 times thicker films. These results are explained in terms of an interfacial doping mechanism realized in the SqP films, where only layers close to the P3HT/dopant interface are doped efficiently, whereas internal P3HT layers remain essentially undoped. This structure is in agreement with transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Kelvin probe force microscopy results. The temperature-dependent conductivity measurements reveal a lower activation energy for charge carriers in SqP samples than in MxS films (79 meV vs 110 meV), which could be a reason for their superior conductivity. © 2020 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
- ItemShort Excited-State Lifetimes Mediate Charge-Recombination Losses in Organic Solar Cell Blends with Low Charge-Transfer Driving Force(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Shivhare, Rishi; Moore, Gareth John; Hofacker, Andreas; Hutsch, Sebastian; Zhong, Yufei; Hambsch, Mike; Erdmann, Tim; Kiriy, Anton; Mannsfeld, Stefan C.B.; Ortmann, Frank; Banerji, NatalieA blend of a low-optical-gap diketopyrrolopyrrole polymer and a fullerene derivative, with near-zero driving force for electron transfer, is investigated. Using femtosecond transient absorption and electroabsorption spectroscopy, the charge transfer (CT) and recombination dynamics as well as the early-time transport are quantified. Electron transfer is ultrafast, consistent with a Marcus-Levich-Jortner description. However, significant charge recombination and unusually short excited (S1 ) and CT state lifetimes (≈14 ps) are observed. At low S1 -CT offset, a short S1 lifetime mediates charge recombination because: i) back-transfer from the CT to the S1 state followed by S1 recombination occurs and ii) additional S1 -CT hybridization decreases the CT lifetime. Both effects are confirmed by density functional theory calculations. In addition, relatively slow (tens of picoseconds) dissociation of charges from the CT state is observed, due to low local charge mobility. Simulations using a four-state kinetic model entailing the effects of energetic disorder reveal that the free charge yield can be increased from the observed 12% to 60% by increasing the S1 and CT lifetimes to 150 ps. Alternatively, decreasing the interfacial CT state disorder while increasing bulk disorder of free charges enhances the yield to 65% in spite of the short lifetimes.
- ItemA Two-Dimensional Polyimide-Graphene Heterostructure with Ultra-fast Interlayer Charge Transfer(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Liu, Kejun; Li, Jiang; Qi, Haoyuan; Hambsch, Mike; Rawle, Jonathan; Vázquez, Adrián Romaní; Nia, Ali Shaygan; Pashkin, Alexej; Schneider, Harald; Polozij, Mirosllav; Heine, Thomas; Helm, Manfred; Mannsfeld, Stefan C.B.; Kaiser, Ute; Dong, Renhao; Feng, XinliangTwo-dimensional polymers (2DPs) are a class of atomically/molecularly thin crystalline organic 2D materials. They are intriguing candidates for the development of unprecedented organic–inorganic 2D van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs) with exotic physicochemical properties. In this work, we demonstrate the on-water surface synthesis of large-area (cm2), monolayer 2D polyimide (2DPI) with 3.1-nm lattice. Such 2DPI comprises metal-free porphyrin and perylene units linked by imide bonds. We further achieve a scalable synthesis of 2DPI-graphene (2DPI-G) vdWHs via a face-to-face co-assembly of graphene and 2DPI on the water surface. Remarkably, femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy reveals an ultra-fast interlayer charge transfer (ca. 60 fs) in the resultant 2DPI-G vdWH upon protonation by acid, which is equivalent to that of the fastest reports among inorganic 2D vdWHs. Such large interlayer electronic coupling is ascribed to the interlayer cation–π interaction between 2DP and graphene. © 2021 The Authors. Angewandte Chemie International Edition published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemUltrasoft and High-Mobility Block Copolymers for Skin-Compatible Electronics(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Ditte, Kristina; Perez, Jonathan; Chae, Soosang; Hambsch, Mike; Al-Hussein, Mahmoud; Komber, Hartmut; Formanek, Peter; Mannsfeld, Stefan C.B.; Fery, Andreas; Kiriy, Anton; Lissel, FranziskaPolymer semiconductors (PSCs) are an essential component of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), but their potential for stretchable electronics is limited by their brittleness and failure susceptibility upon strain. Herein, a covalent connection of two state-of-the-art polymers—semiconducting poly-diketo-pyrrolopyrrole-thienothiophene (PDPP-TT) and elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)—in a single triblock copolymer (TBC) chain is reported, which enables high charge carrier mobility and low modulus in one system. Three TBCs containing up to 65 wt% PDMS were obtained, and the TBC with 65 wt% PDMS content exhibits mobilities up to 0.1 cm2 V−1 s−1, in the range of the fully conjugated reference polymer PDPP-TT (0.7 cm2 V−1 s−1). The TBC is ultrasoft with a low elastic modulus (5 MPa) in the range of mammalian tissue. The TBC exhibits an excellent stretchability and extraordinary durability, fully maintaining the initial electric conductivity in a doped state after 1500 cycles to 50% strain. © 2020 The Authors. Advanced Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH