Browsing by Author "Hauswald, Walter"
Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
Results Per Page
- ItemNoise Sources and Requirements for Confocal Raman Spectrometers in Biosensor Applications(Basel : MDPI, 2021) Jahn, Izabella J.; Grjasnow, Alexej; John, Henry; Weber, Karina; Popp, Jürgen; Hauswald, WalterRaman spectroscopy probes the biochemical composition of samples in a non-destructive, non-invasive and label-free fashion yielding specific information on a molecular level. Nevertheless, the Raman effect is very weak. The detection of all inelastically scattered photons with highest efficiency is therefore crucial as well as the identification of all noise sources present in the system. Here we provide a study for performance comparison and assessment of different spectrometers for confocal Raman spectroscopy in biosensor applications. A low-cost, home-built Raman spectrometer with a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera, a middle price-class mini charge-coupled device (CCD) Raman spectrometer and a laboratory grade confocal Raman system with a deeply cooled CCD detector are compared. It is often overlooked that the sample itself is the most important “optical” component in a Raman spectrometer and its properties contribute most significantly to the signal-to-noise ratio. For this purpose, different representative samples: a crystalline silicon wafer, a polypropylene sample and E. coli bacteria were measured under similar conditions using the three confocal Raman spectrometers. We show that biosensor applications do not in every case profit from the most expensive equipment. Finally, a small Raman database of three different bacteria species is set up with the middle price-class mini CCD Raman spectrometer in order to demonstrate the potential of a compact setup for pathogen discrimination.
- ItemTargeted delivery of a phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ inhibitor to restore organ function in sepsis(Heidelberg : EMBO Press, 2021) Press, Adrian T.; Babic, Petra; Hoffmann, Bianca; Müller, Tina; Foo, Wanling; Hauswald, Walter; Benecke, Jovana; Beretta, Martina; Cseresnyés, Zoltán; Hoeppener, Stephanie; Nischang, Ivo; Coldewey, Sina M.; Gräler, Markus H.; Bauer, Reinhard; Gonnert, Falk; Gaßler, Nikolaus; Wetzker, Reinhard; Figge, Marc Thilo; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Bauer, MichaelJaundice, the clinical hallmark of infection-associated liver dysfunction, reflects altered membrane organization of the canalicular pole of hepatocytes and portends poor outcomes. Mice lacking phosphoinositide 3-kinase-γ (PI3Kγ) are protected against membrane disintegration and hepatic excretory dysfunction. However, they exhibit a severe immune defect that hinders neutrophil recruitment to sites of infection. To exploit the therapeutic potential of PI3Kγ inhibition in sepsis, a targeted approach to deliver drugs to hepatic parenchymal cells without compromising other cells, in particular immune cells, seems warranted. Here, we demonstrate that nanocarriers functionalized through DY-635, a fluorescent polymethine dye, and a ligand of organic anion transporters can selectively deliver therapeutics to hepatic parenchymal cells. Applying this strategy to a murine model of sepsis, we observed the PI3Kγ-dependent restoration of biliary canalicular architecture, maintained excretory liver function, and improved survival without impairing host defense mechanisms. This strategy carries the potential to expand targeted nanomedicines to disease entities with systemic inflammation and concomitantly impaired barrier functionality.
- ItemThermal illumination limits in 3D Raman microscopy: A comparison of different sample illumination strategies to obtain maximum imaging speed(San Francisco : Public Library of Science, 2019) Hauswald, Walter; Förster, Ronny; Popp, Jürgen; Heintzmann, RainerConfocal Raman microscopy is a powerful tool for material science and biomedical research. However, the low Raman scattering cross-section limits the working speed, which reduces the applicability for large and sensitive samples. Here, we discuss the fundamental physical limits of Raman spectroscopy with respect to signal-to-noise, sample load and how to achieve maximal imaging speed. For this, we develop a simple model to describe arbitrary far field light microscopes and their thermal influence on the sample. This model is used to compare the practical applicability of point- and line-confocal microscopes as well as wide-field-, light sheet- and light line illumination, for the measurement of 3D biological samples. The parallelization degree of the illumination can positively affect the imaging speed as long as it is not limited by thermal sample heating. In case of heat build-up inside the sample, the advantages of parallelization can be lost due to the required attenuation of excitation and the working speed can drop below that of a sequential method. We show that for point like illumination, the exposure time is thermally not as critical for the sample as the irradiance, while for volume like illumination, the exposure time and irradiance result in the same thermal effect. The results of our theoretical study are experimentally confirmed and suggest new concepts of Raman microscopy, thus extending its applicability. The developed model can be applied to Raman imaging as well as to other modes (e.g. two- or three- photon imaging, STED, PALM/STORM, MINFLUX) where thermal effects impose a practical limit due to the high irradiance required.
- ItemTuning the corona-core ratio of polyplex micelles for selective oligonucleotide delivery to hepatocytes or hepatic immune cells(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2023) Foo, WanLing; Cseresnyés, Zoltán; Rössel, Carsten; Teng, Yingfeng; Ramoji, Anuradha; Chi, Mingzhe; Hauswald, Walter; Huschke, Sophie; Hoeppener, Stephanie; Popp, Jürgen; Schacher, Felix H.; Sierka, Marek; Figge, Marc Thilo; Press, Adrian T.; Bauer, MichaelTargeted delivery of oligonucleotides or small molecular drugs to hepatocytes, the liver's parenchymal cells, is challenging without targeting moiety due to the highly efficient mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) of the liver. The MPS comprises Kupffer cells and specialized sinusoidal endothelial cells, efficiently clearing nanocarriers regardless of their size and surface properties. Physiologically, this non-parenchymal shield protects hepatocytes; however, these local barriers must be overcome for drug delivery. Nanocarrier structural properties strongly influence tissue penetration, in vivo pharmacokinetics, and biodistribution profile. Here we demonstrate the in vivo biodistribution of polyplex micelles formed by polyion complexation of short interfering (si)RNA with modified poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(allyl glycidyl ether) (PEG-b-PAGE) diblock copolymer that carries amino moieties in the side chain. The ratio between PEG corona and siRNA complexed PAGE core of polyplex micelles was chemically varied by altering the degree of polymerization of PAGE. Applying Raman-spectroscopy and dynamic in silico modeling on the polyplex micelles, we determined the corona-core ratio (CCR) and visualized the possible micellar structure with varying CCR. The results for this model system reveal that polyplex micelles with higher CCR, i.e., better PEG coverage, exclusively accumulate and thus allow passive cell-type-specific targeting towards hepatocytes, overcoming the macrophage-rich reticuloendothelial barrier of the liver.