Browsing by Author "Heintzmann, Rainer"
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- ItemThe 2015 super-resolution microscopy roadmap(Bristol : IOP Publ., 2015) Hell, Stefan W.; Sahl, Steffen J.; Bates, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Heintzmann, Rainer; Booth, Martin J.; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Shtengel, Gleb; Hess, Harald; Tinnefeld, Philip; Honigmann, Alf; Jakobs, Stefan; Testa, Ilaria; Cognet, Laurent; Lounis, Brahim; Ewers, Helge; Davis, Simon J.; Eggeling, Christian; Klenerman, David; Willig, Katrin I.; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto; Cordes, ThorbenFar-field optical microscopy using focused light is an important tool in a number of scientific disciplines including chemical, (bio)physical and biomedical research, particularly with respect to the study of living cells and organisms. Unfortunately, the applicability of the optical microscope is limited, since the diffraction of light imposes limitations on the spatial resolution of the image. Consequently the details of, for example, cellular protein distributions, can be visualized only to a certain extent. Fortunately, recent years have witnessed the development of 'super-resolution' far-field optical microscopy (nanoscopy) techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED), ground state depletion (GSD), reversible saturated optical (fluorescence) transitions (RESOLFT), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), structured illumination microscopy (SIM) or saturated structured illumination microscopy (SSIM), all in one way or another addressing the problem of the limited spatial resolution of far-field optical microscopy. While SIM achieves a two-fold improvement in spatial resolution compared to conventional optical microscopy, STED, RESOLFT, PALM/STORM, or SSIM have all gone beyond, pushing the limits of optical image resolution to the nanometer scale. Consequently, all super-resolution techniques open new avenues of biomedical research. Because the field is so young, the potential capabilities of different super-resolution microscopy approaches have yet to be fully explored, and uncertainties remain when considering the best choice of methodology. Thus, even for experts, the road to the future is sometimes shrouded in mist. The super-resolution optical microscopy roadmap of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics addresses this need for clarity. It provides guidance to the outstanding questions through a collection of short review articles from experts in the field, giving a thorough discussion on the concepts underlying super-resolution optical microscopy, the potential of different approaches, the importance of label optimization (such as reversible photoswitchable proteins) and applications in which these methods will have a significant impact.
- ItemAutofluorescent granules of the human retinal pigment epithelium: phenotypes, intracellular distribution, and age-related topography(Rockville, Md. : ARVO, 2020) Bermond, Katharina; Wobbe, Christina; Tarau, Ioana-Sandra; Heintzmann, Rainer; Hillenkamp, Jost; Curcio, Christine A.; Sloan, Kenneth R.; Ach, ThomasPURPOSE. The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) accumulates granules significant for autofluorescence imaging. Knowledge of intracellular accumulation and distribution is limited. Using high-resolution microscopy techniques, we determined the total number of granules per cell, intracellular distribution, and changes related to retinal topography and age. METHODS. RPE cells from the fovea, perifovea, and near-periphery of 15 human RPE flat mounts were imaged using structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and confocal fluorescence microscopy in young (=51 years, n = 8) and older (>80 years, n = 7) donors. Using custom FIJI plugins, granules were marked with computer assistance, classified based on morphological and autofluorescence properties, and analyzed with regard to intracellular distribution, total number per cell, and granule density. RESULTS. A total of 193,096 granules in 450 RPE cell bodies were analyzed. Based on autofluorescence properties, size, and composition, the RPE granules exhibited nine different phenotypes (lipofuscin, two; melanolipofuscin, five; melanosomes, two), distinguishable by SIM. Overall, lipofuscin (low at the fovea but increases with eccentricity and age) and melanolipofuscin (equally distributed at all three locations with no age-related changes) were the major granule types. Melanosomes were under-represented due to suboptimal visualization of apical processes in flat mounts. CONCLUSIONS. Low lipofuscin and high melanolipofuscin content within foveal RPE cell bodies and abundant lipofuscin at the perifovea suggest a different genesis, plausibly related to the population of overlying photoreceptors (fovea, cones only; perifovea, highest rod density). This systematic analysis provides further insight into RPE cell and granule physiology and links granule load to cell autofluorescence, providing a subcellular basis for the interpretation of clinical fundus autofluorescence. © 2020 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Inc.. All rights reserved.
- ItemAutomated distinction of shearing and distortion artefacts in structured illumination microscopy(Washington D.C. : Optical Society of America, 2018) Förster, Ronny; Müller, Walter; Richter, Renè; Heintzmann, RainerAny motion during an image acquisition leads to an artefact in the final image. Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) combines several raw images into one high-resolution image and is thus particularly prone to these motion artefacts. Their unpredictable shape cannot easily be distinguished from real high-resolution content. We previously implemented a motion detection specifically for SIM, which had two shortcomings which are solved here. First, the brightness dependency of the motion signal is removed. Second, the empirical threshold of the calculated motion signal was not a threshold at a maximum allowed artefact. Here we investigate which artefacts are still acceptable and which linear movement creates them. Thus, the motion signal is linked with the maximal strength of the expected artefact. A signal-to-noise analysis including classification successfully distinguishes between artefact-free imaging, shearing and distortion artefacts in biological specimens. A shearing, as in wide-field microscopy, is the dominant reconstruction artefact, while distortions arise not until surprisingly fast movements.
- ItemBessel beam CARS of axially structured samples([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2015) Heuke, Sandro; Zheng, Juanjuan; Akimov, Denis; Heintzmann, Rainer; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, JürgenWe report about a Bessel beam CARS approach for axial profiling of multi-layer structures. This study presents an experimental implementation for the generation of CARS by Bessel beam excitation using only passive optical elements. Furthermore, an analytical expression is provided describing the generated anti-Stokes field by a homogeneous sample. Based on the concept of coherent transfer functions, the underling resolving power of axially structured geometries is investigated. It is found that through the non-linearity of the CARS process in combination with the folded illumination geometry continuous phase-matching is achieved starting from homogeneous samples up to spatial sample frequencies at twice of the pumping electric field wave. The experimental and analytical findings are modeled by the implementation of the Debye Integral and scalar Green function approach. Finally, the goal of reconstructing an axially layered sample is demonstrated on the basis of the numerically simulated modulus and phase of the anti-Stokes far-field radiation pattern.
- ItemcellSTORM - Cost-effective Super-Resolution on a Cellphone using dSTORM(San Francisco : Public Library of Science, 2019) Diederich, Benedict; Then, Patrick; Jügler, Alexander; Förster, Ronny; Heintzmann, RainerHigh optical resolution in microscopy usually goes along with costly hardware components, such as lenses, mechanical setups and cameras. Several studies proved that Single Molecular Localization Microscopy can be made affordable, relying on off-the-shelf optical components and industry grade CMOS cameras. Recent technological advantages have yielded consumer-grade camera devices with surprisingly good performance. The camera sensors of smartphones have benefited of this development. Combined with computing power smartphones provide a fantastic opportunity for “imaging on a budget”. Here we show that a consumer cellphone is capable of optical super-resolution imaging by (direct) Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (dSTORM), achieving optical resolution better than 80 nm. In addition to the use of standard reconstruction algorithms, we used a trained image-to-image generative adversarial network (GAN) to reconstruct video sequences under conditions where traditional algorithms provide sub-optimal localization performance directly on the smartphone. We believe that “cellSTORM” paves the way to make super-resolution microscopy not only affordable but available due to the ubiquity of cellphone cameras.High optical resolution in microscopy usually goes along with costly hardware components, such as lenses, mechanical setups and cameras. Several studies proved that Single Molecular Localization Microscopy can be made affordable, relying on off-the-shelf optical components and industry grade CMOS cameras. Recent technological advantages have yielded consumer-grade camera devices with surprisingly good performance. The camera sensors of smartphones have benefited of this development. Combined with computing power smartphones provide a fantastic opportunity for “imaging on a budget”. Here we show that a consumer cellphone is capable of optical super-resolution imaging by (direct) Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (dSTORM), achieving optical resolution better than 80 nm. In addition to the use of standard reconstruction algorithms, we used a trained image-to-image generative adversarial network (GAN) to reconstruct video sequences under conditions where traditional algorithms provide sub-optimal localization performance directly on the smartphone. We believe that “cellSTORM” paves the way to make super-resolution microscopy not only affordable but available due to the ubiquity of cellphone cameras.
- ItemCharacteristics of normal human retinal pigment epithelium cells with extremes of autofluorescence or intracellular granule count(Hong Kong : AME Publishing Company, 2021-3) Bermond, Katharina; Berlin, Andreas; Tarau, Ioana-Sandra; Wobbe, Christina; Heintzmann, Rainer; Curcio, Christine A.; Sloan, Kenneth R.; Ach, ThomasBackground: Cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) accumulate different kinds of granules (lipofuscin, melanolipofuscin, melanosomes) within their cell bodies, with lipofuscin and melanolipofuscin being autofluorescent after blue light excitation. High amounts of lipofuscin granules within the RPE have been associated with the development of RPE cell death and age-related macular degeneration (AMD); however, this has not been confirmed in histology so far. Here, based on our previous dataset of RPE granule characteristics, we report the characteristics of RPE cells from human donor eyes that show either high or low numbers of intracellular granules or high or low autofluorescence (AF) intensities. Methods: RPE flatmounts of fifteen human donors were examined using high-resolution structured illumination microscopy (HR-SIM) and laser scanning microscopy (LSM). Autofluorescent granules were analyzed regarding AF phenotype and absolute number of granules. In addition, total AF intensity per cell and granule density (number of granules per cell area) were determined. For the final analysis, RPE cells with total granule number below 5th or above the 95th percentile, or a total AF intensity ± 1.5 standard deviations above or below the mean were included, and compared to the average RPE cell at the same location. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Results: Within 420 RPE cells examined, 42 cells were further analyzed due to extremes regarding total granule numbers. In addition, 20 RPE cells had AF 1.5 standard deviations below, 28 RPE cells above the mean local AF intensity. Melanolipofuscin granules predominate in RPE cells with low granule content and low AF intensity. RPE cells with high granule content have nearly twice (1.8 times) as many granules as an average RPE cell. Conclusions: In normal eyes, outliers regarding autofluorescent granule load and AF intensity signals are rare among RPE cells, suggesting that granule deposition and subsequent AF follows intrinsic control mechanisms at a cellular level. The AF of a cell is related to the composition of intracellular granule types. Ongoing studies using AMD donor eyes will examine possible disease related changes in granule distribution and further put lipofuscin´s role in aging and AMD further into perspective.
- ItemDirect supercritical angle localization microscopy for nanometer 3D superresolution([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021) Dasgupta, Anindita; Deschamps, Joran; Matti, Ulf; Hübner, Uwe; Becker, Jan; Strauss, Sebastian; Jungmann, Ralf; Heintzmann, Rainer; Ries, Jonas3D single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) is an emerging superresolution method for structural cell biology, as it allows probing precise positions of proteins in cellular structures. In supercritical angle localization microscopy (SALM), z-positions of single fluorophores are extracted from the intensity of supercritical angle fluorescence, which strongly depends on their distance to the coverslip. Here, we realize the full potential of SALM and improve its z-resolution by more than four-fold compared to the state-of-the-art by directly splitting supercritical and undercritical emission, using an ultra-high NA objective, and applying fitting routines to extract precise intensities of single emitters. We demonstrate nanometer isotropic localization precision on DNA origami structures, and on clathrin coated vesicles and microtubules in cells, illustrating the potential of SALM for cell biology.
- ItemEngineering an achromatic Bessel beam using a phase-only spatial light modulator and an iterative Fourier transformation algorithm(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2016) Walde, Marie; Jost, Aurélie; Wicker, Kai; Heintzmann, RainerBessel illumination is an established method in optical imaging and manipulation to achieve an extended depth of field without compromising the lateral resolution. When broadband or multicolour imaging is required, wavelength-dependent changes in the radial profile of the Bessel illumination can complicate further image processing and analysis. We present a solution for engineering a multicolour Bessel beam that is easy to implement and promises to be particularly useful for broadband imaging applications. A phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) in the image plane and an iterative Fourier Transformation algorithm (IFTA) are used to create an annular light distribution in the back focal plane of a lens. The 2D Fourier transformation of such a light ring yields a Bessel beam with a constant radial profile for different wavelength.
- ItemEx vivo Hyperspectral Autofluorescence Imaging and Localization of Fluorophores in Human Eyes with Age-Related Macular Degeneration(Basel : MDPI, 2018) Mohammed, Taariq; Tong, Yuehong; Agee, Julia; Challa, Nayanika; Heintzmann, Rainer; Hammer, Martin; Curcio , Christine A.; Ach, Thomas; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Smith, R. TheodoreTo characterize fluorophore signals from drusen and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and their changes in age related macular degeneration (AMD), the authors describe advances in ex vivo hyperspectral autofluorescence (AF) imaging of human eye tissue. Ten RPE flatmounts from eyes with AMD and 10 from eyes without AMD underwent 40× hyperspectral AF microscopic imaging. The number of excitation wavelengths tested was initially two (436 nm and 480 nm), then increased to three (436 nm, 480 nm, and 505 nm). Emission spectra were collected at 10 nm intervals from 420 nm to 720 nm. Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) algorithms decomposed the hyperspectral images into individual emission spectra and their spatial abundances. These include three distinguishable spectra for RPE fluorophores (S1, S2, and S3) in both AMD and non-AMD eyes, a spectrum for drusen (SDr) only in AMD eyes, and a Bruch’s membrane spectrum that was detectable in normal eyes. Simultaneous analysis of datacubes excited atthree excitation wavelengths revealed more detailed spatial localization of the RPE spectra and SDr within drusen than exciting only at two wavelengths. Within AMD and non-AMD groups, two different NMF initialization methods were tested on each group and converged to qualitatively similar spectra. In AMD, the peaks of the SDr at ~510 nm (436 nm excitation) were particularly consistent. Between AMD and non-AMD groups, corresponding spectra in common, S1, S2, and S3, also had similar peak locations and shapes, but with some differences and further characterization warranted.
- ItemIMAGE-IN: Interactive web-based multidimensional 3D visualizer for multi-modal microscopy images(San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2022) Gupta, Yubraj; Costa, Carlos; Pinho, Eduardo; A. Bastião Silva, Luís; Heintzmann, RainerAdvances in microscopy hardware and storage capabilities lead to increasingly larger multidimensional datasets. The multiple dimensions are commonly associated with space, time, and color channels. Since “seeing is believing”, it is important to have easy access to user-friendly visualization software. Here we present IMAGE-IN, an interactive web-based multidimensional (N-D) viewer designed specifically for confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) data, with the goal of assisting biologists in their visualization and analysis tasks and promoting digital work-flows. This new visualization platform includes intuitive multidimensional opacity fine-tuning, shading on/off, multiple blending modes for volume viewers, and the ability to handle multichannel volumetric data in volume and surface views. The software accepts a sequence of image files or stacked 3D images as input and offers a variety of viewing options ranging from 3D volume/surface rendering to multiplanar reconstruction approaches. We evaluate the performance by comparing the loading and rendering timings of a heterogeneous dataset of multichannel CLSM and FIB-SEM images on two devices with installed graphic cards, as well as comparing rendered image quality between ClearVolume (the ImageJ open-source desktop viewer), Napari (the Python desktop viewer), Imaris (the closed-source desktop viewer), and our proposed IMAGE-IN web viewer.
- ItemImpact of deuteration on the ultrafast nonlinear optical response of toluene and nitrobenzene(Washington D.C. : Optical Society of America, 2019) Karras, Christian; Chemnitz, Mario; Heintzmann, Rainer; Schmidt, Markus A.Nonlinear pulse propagation inside highly nonlinear media requires accurate knowledge on the temporal response function of the materials used particular in the case of liquids. Here we study the impact of deuteration on the ultrafast dynamics of toluene and nitrobenzene via all optical Kerr gating, showing substantially different electronic and molecular contributions, which was quantified by fitting a multichannel decay model to the data points. Specifically we found that deuteration imposes the time-integrated nonlinearities to reduce particular for toluene which could be caused by both reduced electronic hyperpolarizabilities as well as weaker intermolecular interactions. The results achieved reveal that deuterated organic solvents represent promising materials for infrared photonics since they offer extended infrared transmission compared to their non-deuterated counterparts while maintained strong nonlinear responses.
- ItemLinear and non-linear optical imaging of cancer cells with silicon nanoparticles(Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2016) Tolstik, Elen; Osminkina, Liubov A.; Akimov, Denis; Gongalsky, Maksim B.; Kudryavtsev, Andrew A.; Timoshenko, Victor Yu.; Heintzmann, Rainer; Sivakov, Vladimir; Popp, JürgenNew approaches for visualisation of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) in cancer cells are realised by means of the linear and nonlinear optics in vitro. Aqueous colloidal solutions of SiNPs with sizes of about 10–40 nm obtained by ultrasound grinding of silicon nanowires were introduced into breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cell line). Further, the time-varying nanoparticles enclosed in cell structures were visualised by high-resolution structured illumination microscopy (HR-SIM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the nonlinear optical methods of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) with infrared laser excitation were applied to study the localisation of SiNPs in cells. Advantages of the nonlinear methods, such as rapid imaging, which prevents cells from overheating and larger penetration depth compared to the single-photon excited HR-SIM, are discussed. The obtained results reveal new perspectives of the multimodal visualisation and precise detection of the uptake of biodegradable non-toxic SiNPs by cancer cells and they are discussed in view of future applications for the optical diagnostics of cancer tumours.
- ItemA Metabolic Probe-Enabled Strategy Reveals Uptake and Protein Targets of Polyunsaturated Aldehydes in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum(San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2015) Wolfram, Stefanie; Wielsch, Natalie; Hupfer, Yvonne; Mönch, Bettina; Lu-Walther, Hui-Wen; Heintzmann, Rainer; Werz, Oliver; Svatoš, Aleš; Pohnert, Georg; Harder, TilmannDiatoms are unicellular algae of crucial importance as they belong to the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Several diatom species produce polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) that have been made responsible for chemically mediated interactions in the plankton. PUA-effects include chemical defense by reducing the reproductive success of grazing copepods, allelochemical activity by interfering with the growth of competing phytoplankton and cell to cell signaling. We applied a PUA-derived molecular probe, based on the biologically highly active 2,4-decadienal, with the aim to reveal protein targets of PUAs and affected metabolic pathways. By using fluorescence microscopy, we observed a substantial uptake of the PUA probe into cells of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum in comparison to the uptake of a structurally closely related control probe based on a saturated aldehyde. The specific uptake motivated a chemoproteomic approach to generate a qualitative inventory of proteins covalently targeted by the α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated aldehyde structure element. Activity-based protein profiling revealed selective covalent modification of target proteins by the PUA probe. Analysis of the labeled proteins gave insights into putative affected molecular functions and biological processes such as photosynthesis including ATP generation and catalytic activity in the Calvin cycle or the pentose phosphate pathway. The mechanism of action of PUAs involves covalent reactions with proteins that may result in protein dysfunction and interference of involved pathways.
- ItemMotion artefact detection in structured illumination microscopy for live cell imaging(Washington, DC : Optical Society of America, 2016) Förster, Ronny; Wicker, Kai; Müller, Walter; Jost, Aurélie; Heintzmann, RainerThe reconstruction process of structured illumination microscopy (SIM) creates substantial artefacts if the specimen has moved during the acquisition. This reduces the applicability of SIM for live cell imaging, because these artefacts cannot always be recognized as such in the final image. A movement is not necessarily visible in the raw data, due to the varying excitation patterns and the photon noise. We present a method to detect motion by extracting and comparing two independent 3D wide-field images out of the standard SIM raw data without needing additional images. Their difference reveals moving objects overlaid with noise, which are distinguished by a probability theory-based analysis. Our algorithm tags motion-artefacts in the final high-resolution image for the first time, preventing the end-user from misinterpreting the data. We show and explain different types of artefacts and demonstrate our algorithm on a living cell.
- ItemNonlinear Structured Illumination Using a Fluorescent Protein Activating at the Readout Wavelength(San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2016) Lu-Walther, Hui-Wen; Hou, Wenya; Kielhorn, Martin; Arai, Yoshiyuki; Nagai, Takeharu; Kessels, Michael M.; Qualmann, Britta; Heintzmann, RainerStructured illumination microscopy (SIM) is a wide-field technique in fluorescence microscopy that provides fast data acquisition and two-fold resolution improvement beyond the Abbe limit. We observed a further resolution improvement using the nonlinear emission response of a fluorescent protein. We demonstrated a two-beam nonlinear structured illumination microscope by introducing only a minor change into the system used for linear SIM (LSIM). To achieve the required nonlinear dependence in nonlinear SIM (NL-SIM) we exploited the photoswitching of the recently introduced fluorophore Kohinoor. It is particularly suitable due to its positive contrast photoswitching characteristics. Contrary to other reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent proteins which only have high photostability in living cells, Kohinoor additionally showed little degradation in fixed cells over many switching cycles.
- ItemOne-shot phase-recovery using a cellphone RGB camera on a Jamin-Lebedeff microscope(San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2019) Diederich, Benedict; Marsikova, Barbora; Amos, Brad; Heintzmann, RainerJamin-Lebedeff (JL) polarization interference microscopy is a classical method for determining the change in the optical path of transparent tissues. Whilst a differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy interferes an image with itself shifted by half a point spread function, the shear between the object and reference image in a JL-microscope is about half the field of view. The optical path difference (OPD) between the sample and reference region (assumed to be empty) is encoded into a color by white-light interference. From a color-table, the Michel-Levy chart, the OPD can be deduced. In cytology JL-imaging can be used as a way to determine the OPD which closely corresponds to the dry mass per area of cells in a single image. Like in other interference microscopy methods (e.g. holography), we present a phase retrieval method relying on single-shot measurements only, thus allowing real-time quantitative phase measurements. This is achieved by adding several customized 3D-printed parts (e.g. rotational polarization-filter holders) and a modern cellphone with an RGB-camera to the Jamin-Lebedeff setup, thus bringing an old microscope back to life. The algorithm is calibrated using a reference image of a known phase object (e.g. optical fiber). A gradient-descent based inverse problem generates an inverse look-up-table (LUT) which is used to convert the measured RGB signal of a phase-sample into an OPD. To account for possible ambiguities in the phase-map or phase-unwrapping artifacts we introduce a total-variation based regularization. We present results from fixed and living biological samples as well as reference samples for comparison.
- ItemOptical Sectioning and High Resolution in Single-Slice Structured Illumination Microscopy by Thick Slice Blind-SIM Reconstruction(San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2015) Jost, Aurélie; Tolstik, Elen; Feldmann, Polina; Wicker, Kai; Sentenac, Anne; Heintzmann, Rainer; Degtyar, Vadim E.The microscope image of a thick fluorescent sample taken at a given focal plane is plagued by out-of-focus fluorescence and diffraction limited resolution. In this work, we show that a single slice of Structured Illumination Microscopy (two or three beam SIM) data can be processed to provide an image exhibiting tight sectioning and high transverse resolution. Our reconstruction algorithm is adapted from the blind-SIM technique which requires very little knowledge of the illumination patterns. It is thus able to deal with illumination distortions induced by the sample or illumination optics. We named this new algorithm thick slice blind-SIM because it models a three-dimensional sample even though only a single two-dimensional plane of focus was measured.
- ItemPatterned illumination single molecule localization microscopy (piSMLM): user defined blinking regions of interest cellSTORM - Cost-effective Super-Resolution on a Cellphone using dSTORM(Washington D.C. : Optical Society of America, 2018) Chen, S.-Y.; Bestvater, F.; Heintzmann, Rainer; Cremer, ChristophSingle molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) has been established as an important super-resolution technique for studying subcellular structures with a resolution down to a lateral scale of 10 nm. Usually samples are illuminated with a Gaussian shaped beam and consequently insufficient irradiance on the periphery of the illuminated region leads to artifacts in the reconstructed image which degrades image quality. We present a newly developed patterned illumination SMLM (piSMLM) to overcome the problem of uneven illumination by computer-generated holography. By utilizing a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) in combination with a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm, a user-defined pattern with homogeneous and nearly speckle-free illumination is obtained. Our experimental results show that irradiance 1 to 5 kW/cm2 was achieved by using a laser with an output power of 200 mW in a region of 2000 µm2 to 500 µm2, respectively. Higher irradiance of up to 20 kW/cm2 can be reached by simply reducing the size of the region of interest (ROI). To demonstrate the application of the piSMLM, nuclear structures were imaged based on fluctuation binding-activated localization microscopy (fBALM). The super-resolution fBALM images revealed nuclear structures at a nanometer scale.Single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) has been established as an important super-resolution technique for studying subcellular structures with a resolution down to a lateral scale of 10 nm. Usually samples are illuminated with a Gaussian shaped beam and consequently insufficient irradiance on the periphery of the illuminated region leads to artifacts in the reconstructed image which degrades image quality. We present a newly developed patterned illumination SMLM (piSMLM) to overcome the problem of uneven illumination by computer-generated holography. By utilizing a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) in combination with a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm, a user-defined pattern with homogeneous and nearly speckle-free illumination is obtained. Our experimental results show that irradiance 1 to 5 kW/cm2 was achieved by using a laser with an output power of 200 mW in a region of 2000 µm2 to 500 µm2, respectively. Higher irradiance of up to 20 kW/cm2 can be reached by simply reducing the size of the region of interest (ROI). To demonstrate the application of the piSMLM, nuclear structures were imaged based on fluctuation binding-activated localization microscopy (fBALM). The super-resolution fBALM images revealed nuclear structures at a nanometer scale.
- ItemPEGylation of Guanidinium and Indole Bearing Poly(methacrylamide)s - Biocompatible Terpolymers for pDNA Delivery(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Cokca, Ceren; Hack, Franz J.; Costabel, Daniel; Herwig, Kira; Hülsmann, Juliana; Then, Patrick; Heintzmann, Rainer; Fischer, Dagmar; Peneva, KalinaThis study describes the first example for shielding of a high performing terpolymer that consists of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA), N-(3-guanidinopropyl)methacrylamide (GPMA), and N-(2-indolethyl)methacrylamide monomers (IEMA) by block copolymerization of a polyethylene glycol derivative – poly(nona(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate) (P(MEO9MA)) via reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The molecular weight of P(MEO9MA) is varied from 3 to 40 kg mol–1 while the comonomer content of HPMA, GPMA, and IEMA is kept comparable. The influence of P(MEO9MA) block with various molecular weights is investigated over cytotoxicity, plasmid DNA (pDNA) binding, and transfection efficiency of the resulting polyplexes. Overall, the increase in molecular weight of P(MEO9MA) block demonstrates excellent biocompatibility with higher cell viability in L-929 cells and an efficient binding to pDNA at N/P ratio of 2. The significant transfection efficiency in CHO-K1 cells at N/P ratio 20 is obtained for block copolymers with molecular weight of P(MEO9MA) up to 10 kg mol–1. Moreover, a fluorescently labeled analogue of P(MEO9MA), bearing perylene monoimide methacrylamide (PMIM), is introduced as a comonomer in RAFT polymerization. Polyplexes consisting of labeled block copolymer with 20 kg mol–1 of P(MEO9MA) and pDNA are incubated in Hela cells and investigated through structured illumination microscopy (SIM).
- ItemThe role of risk communication in public health interventions. An analysis of risk communication for a community quarantine in Germany to curb the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic(San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2021) Scholz, Juliane; Wetzker, Wibke; Licht, Annika; Heintzmann, Rainer; Scherag, André; Weis, Sebastian; Pletz, Mathias; Betsch, Cornelia; Bauer, Michael; Dickmann, Petra; Frey, RosemaryBackground: Separating ill or possibly infectious people from their healthy community is one of the core principles of non-pharmaceutical interventions. However, there is scarce evidence on how to successfully implement quarantine orders. We investigated a community quarantine for an entire village in Germany (Neustadt am Rennsteig, March 2020) with the aim of better understanding the successful implementation of quarantine measures. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Neustadt am Rennsteig six weeks after the end of a 14-day mandatory community quarantine. The sample size consisted of 562 adults (64% of the community), and the response rate was 295 adults, or 52% (33% of the community). Findings: National television was reported as the most important channel of information. Contact with local authorities was very limited, and partners or spouses played a more important role in sharing information. Generally, the self-reported information level was judged to be good (211/289 [73.0%]). The majority of participants (212/289 [73.4%]) approved of the quarantine, and the reported compliance was 217/289 (75.1%). A self-reported higher level of concern as well as a higher level of information correlated positively with both a greater acceptance of quarantine and self-reported compliant behaviour. Interpretation: The community quarantine presented a rare opportunity to investigate a public health intervention for an entire community. In order to improve the implementation of public health interventions, public health risk communication activities should be intensified to increase both the information level (potentially leading to better compliance with community quarantine) and the communication level (to facilitate rapport and trust between public health authorities and their communities). © 2021 Scholz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.