Browsing by Author "Kuttner, Christian"
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- ItemNanorattles with tailored electric field enhancement(Cambridge : RSC Publ., 2017) Schnepf, Max J.; Mayer, Martin; Kuttner, Christian; Tebbe, Moritz; Wolf, Daniel; Dulle, Martin; Altantzis, Thomas; Formanek, Petr; Förster, Stephan; Bals, Sara; König, Tobias A. F.; Fery, AndreasNanorattles are metallic core-shell particles with core and shell separated by a dielectric spacer. These nanorattles have been identified as a promising class of nanoparticles, due to their extraordinary high electric-field enhancement inside the cavity. Limiting factors are reproducibility and loss of axial symmetry owing to the movable metal core; movement of the core results in fluctuation of the nanocavity dimensions and commensurate variations in enhancement factor. We present a novel synthetic approach for the robust fixation of the central gold rod within a well-defined box, which results in an axisymmetric nanorattle. We determine the structure of the resulting axisymmetric nanorattles by advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Optical absorption and scattering cross-sections obtained from UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy quantitatively agree with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations based on the structural model derived from SAXS. The predictions of high and homogenous field enhancement are evidenced by scanning TEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (STEM-EELS) measurement on single-particle level. Thus, comprehensive understanding of structural and optical properties is achieved for this class of nanoparticles, paving the way for photonic applications where a defined and robust unit cell is crucial.
- ItemPH-Responsive Biohybrid Carrier Material for Phenol Decontamination in Wastewater(Columbus, Ohio : American Chemical Soc., 2018) Pretscher, Martin; Pineda-Contreras, Beatriz A.; Kaiser, Patrick; Reich, Steffen; Schöbel, Judith; Kuttner, Christian; Freitag, Ruth; Fery, Andreas; Schmalz, Holger; Agarwal, SeemaSmart polymers are a valuable platform to protect and control the activity of biological agents over a wide range of conditions, such as low pH, by proper encapsulation. Such conditions are present in olive oil mill wastewater with phenol as one of the most problematic constituents. We show that elastic and pH-responsive diblock copolymer fibers are a suitable carrier for Corynebacterium glutamicum, i.e., bacteria which are known for their ability to degrade phenol. Free C. glutamicum does not survive low pH conditions and fails to degrade phenol at low pH conditions. Our tea-bag like biohybrid system, where the pH-responsive diblock copolymer acts as a protecting outer shell for the embedded bacteria, allows phenol degradation even at low pH. Utilizing a two-step encapsulation process, planktonic cells were first encapsulated in poly(vinyl alcohol) to protect the bacteria against the organic solvents used in the second step employing coaxial electrospinning.
- ItemProtein-Assisted Assembly of Modular 3D Plasmonic Raspberry-like Core/Satellite Nanoclusters: Correlation of Structure and Optical Properties(Washington, DC : Soc., 2016) Höller, Roland P. M.; Dulle, Martin; Thomä, Sabrina; Mayer, Martin; Steiner, Anja Maria; Förster, Stephan; Fery, Andreas; Kuttner, Christian; Chanana, MunishWe present a bottom-up assembly route for a large-scale organization of plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) into three-dimensional (3D) modular assemblies with core/satellite structure. The protein-assisted assembly of small spherical gold or silver NPs with a hydrophilic protein shell (as satellites) onto larger metal NPs (as cores) offers high modularity in sizes and composition at high satellite coverage (close to the jamming limit). The resulting dispersions of metal/metal nanoclusters exhibit high colloidal stability and therefore allow for high concentrations and a precise characterization of the nanocluster architecture in dispersion by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Strong near-field coupling between the building blocks results in distinct regimes of dominant satellite-to-satellite and core-to-satellite coupling. High robustness against satellite disorder was proved by UV/vis diffuse reflectance (integrating sphere) measurements. Generalized multiparticle Mie theory (GMMT) simulations were employed to describe the electromagnetic coupling within the nanoclusters. The close correlation of structure and optical property allows for the rational design of core/satellite nanoclusters with tailored plasmonics and well-defined near-field enhancement, with perspectives for applications such as surface-enhanced spectroscopies.
- ItemSeeded Growth Synthesis of Gold Nanotriangles: Size Control, SAXS Analysis, and SERS Performance(Washington, DC : Soc., 2018) Kuttner, Christian; Mayer, Martin; Dulle, Martin; Moscoso, Ana; López-Romero, Juan Manuel; Förster, Stephan; Fery, Andreas; Pérez-Juste, Jorge; Contreras-Cáceres, RafaelWe studied the controlled growth of triangular prismatic Au nanoparticles with different beveled sides for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications. First, in a seedless synthesis using 3-butenoic acid (3BA) and benzyldimethylammonium chloride (BDAC), gold nanotriangles (AuNTs) were synthesized in a mixture with gold nanooctahedra (AuNOCs) and separated by depletion-induced flocculation. Here, the influence of temperature, pH, and reducing agent on the reaction kinetics was initially investigated by UV–vis and correlated to the size and yield of AuNT seeds. In a second step, the AuNT size was increased by seed-mediated overgrowth with Au. We show for the first time that preformed 3BA-synthesized AuNT seeds can be overgrown up to a final edge length of 175 nm and a thickness of 80 nm while maintaining their triangular shape and tip sharpness. The NT morphology, including edge length, thickness, and tip rounding, was precisely characterized in dispersion by small-angle X-ray scattering and in dry state by transmission electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. For sensor purposes, we studied the size-dependent SERS performance of AuNTs yielding analytical enhancement factors between 0.9 × 104 and 5.6 × 104 and nanomolar limit of detection (10–8–10–9 M) for 4-mercaptobenzoic acid and BDAC. These results confirm that the 3BA approach allows the fabrication of AuNTs in a whole range of sizes maintaining the NT morphology. This enables tailoring of localized surface plasmon resonances between 590 and 740 nm, even in the near-infrared window of a biological tissue, for use as colloidal SERS sensing agents or for optoelectronic applications.
- ItemSERS and plasmonic heating efficiency from anisotropic core/satellite superstructures(Cambridge : RSC Publ., 2019) Kuttner, Christian; Höller, Roland P. M.; Quintanilla, Marta; Schnepf, Max J.; Dulle, Martin; Fery, Andreas; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.The optical properties of nanoparticle assemblies can be tailored via hybridization of plasmon modes. Isotropic core/satellite superstructures made of spherical nanoparticles are known to exhibit coupled modes with a strongly scattering (radiative) character, and provide hot spots yielding high activity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). However, to complement this functionality with plasmonic heating, additional absorbing (non-radiative) modes are required. We introduce herein anisotropic superstructures formed by decorating a central nanorod with spherical satellite nanoparticles, which feature two coupled modes that allow application for both SERS and heating. On the basis of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and electromagnetic simulations, the origin of the coupled modes is disclosed and thus serves as a basis toward alternative designs of functional superstructures. This work represents a proof-of-principle for the combination of high SERS efficiency with efficient plasmonic heating by near-infrared irradiation.
- ItemTemplate-assisted colloidal self-assembly of macroscopic magnetic metasurfaces(Cambridge [u.a.] : Soc., 2016) Mayer, Martin; Tebbe, Moritz; Kuttner, Christian; Schnepf, Max J.; König, Tobias A. F.; Fery, AndreasWe demonstrate a template-assisted colloidal self-assembly approach for magnetic metasurfaces on macroscopic areas. The choice of anisotropic colloidal particle geometry, assembly pattern and metallic film is based on rational design criteria, taking advantage of mirror-charge effects for gold nanorods placed on gold film. Monodisperse gold nanorods prepared utilizing wet-chemistry are arranged with high precision on wrinkled templates to form linear array-type assemblies and subsequently transferred to a thin gold film. Due to the obtained particle-to-film distance of 1.1 nm, the plasmonic mode of the nanorod is able to couple efficiently with the supporting metallic film, giving rise to a magnetic mode in the visible spectrum (721 nm). Conventional UV-vis-NIR measurements in close correlation with electromagnetic simulations provide evidence for the presence of a magnetic resonance on the macroscopic area. The herein presented scalable lithography-free fabrication process paves the road towards colloidal functional metasurfaces with an optical response in the effective magnetic permeability.
- ItemWafer-sized multifunctional polyimine-based two-dimensional conjugated polymers with high mechanical stiffness([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2016) Sahabudeen, Hafeesudeen; Qi, Haoyuan; Glatz, Bernhard Alexander; Tranca, Diana; Dong, Renhao; Hou, Yang; Zhang, Tao; Kuttner, Christian; Lehnert, Tibor; Seifert, Gotthard; Kaiser, Ute; Fery, Andreas; Zheng, Zhikun; Feng, XinliangOne of the key challenges in two-dimensional (2D) materials is to go beyond graphene, a prototype 2D polymer (2DP), and to synthesize its organic analogues with structural control at the atomic- or molecular-level. Here we show the successful preparation of porphyrin-containing monolayer and multilayer 2DPs through Schiff-base polycondensation reaction at an air-water and liquid-liquid interface, respectively. Both the monolayer and multilayer 2DPs have crystalline structures as indicated by selected area electron diffraction. The monolayer 2DP has a thickness of∼0.7 nm with a lateral size of 4-inch wafer, and it has a Young's modulus of 267±30 GPa. Notably, the monolayer 2DP functions as an active semiconducting layer in a thin film transistor, while the multilayer 2DP from cobalt-porphyrin monomer efficiently catalyses hydrogen generation from water. This work presents an advance in the synthesis of novel 2D materials for electronics and energy-related applications.