Browsing by Author "Lübken, F.-J."
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- ItemAbsolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2002) Rapp, M.; Gumbel, J.; Lübken, F.-J.In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N) to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT) region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.
- ItemAtmospheric band fitting coefficients derived from a self-consistent rocket-borne experiment(Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2019) Grygalashvyly, M.; Eberhart, M.; Hedin, J.; Strelnikov, B.; Lübken, F.-J.; Rapp, M.; Löhle, S.; Fasoulas, S.; Khaplanov, M.; Gumbel, J.; Vorobeva, E.Based on self-consistent rocket-borne measurements of temperature, the densities of atomic oxygen and neutral air, and the volume emission of the atmospheric band (762 nm), we examined the one-step and two-step excitation mechanism of O2 + b16C g for nighttime conditions. Following McDade et al. (1986), we derived the empirical fitting coefficients, which parameterize the atmospheric band emission O2 + b16C g X36 g .0;0/. This allows us to derive the atomic oxygen concentration from nighttime observations of atmospheric band emission O2 + b16C g X36 g .0; 0/. The derived empirical parameters can also be utilized for atmospheric band modeling. Additionally, we derived the fit function and corresponding coefficients for the combined (one- and two-step) mechanism. The simultaneous common volume measurements of all the parameters involved in the theoretical calculation of the observed O2 + b16C g X36 g .0; 0/ emission, i.e., temperature and density of the background air, atomic oxygen density, and volume emission rate, is the novelty and the advantage of this work. © Author(s) 2019.
- ItemCoincident measurements of PMSE and NLC above ALOMAR (69° N, 16° E) by radar and lidar from 1999-2008(Göttingen : Copernicus, 2011) Kaifler, N.; Baumgarten, G.; Fiedler, J.; Latteck, R.; Lübken, F.-J.; Rapp, M.Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) and Noctilucent Clouds (NLC) have been routinely measured at the ALOMAR research facility in Northern Norway (69° N, 16° E) by lidar and radar, respectively. 2900 h of lidar measurements by the ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar were combined with almost 18 000 h of radar measurements by the ALWIN VHF radar, all taken during the years 1999 to 2008, to study simultaneous and common-volume observations of both phenomena. PMSE and NLC are known from both theory and observations to be positively linked. We quantify the occurrences of PMSE and/or NLC and relations in altitude, especially with respect to the lower layer boundaries. The PMSE occurrence rate is with 75.3% considerably higher than the NLC occurrence rate of 19.5%. For overlapping PMSE and NLC observations, we confirm the coincidence of the lower boundaries and find a standard deviation of 1.26 km, hinting at very fast sublimation rates. However, 10.1% of all NLC measurements occur without accompanying PMSE. Comparison of occurrence rates with solar zenith angle reveals that NLC without PMSE mostly occur around midnight indicating that the ice particles were not detected by the radar due to the reduced electron density.
- ItemCombined wind measurements by two different lidar instruments in the Arctic middle atmosphere(Göttingen : Copernicus, 2012) Hildebrand, J.; Baumgarten, G.; Fiedler, J.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Kaifler, B.; Lübken, F.-J.; Williams, B.P.During a joint campaign in January 2009, the Rayleigh/Mie/Raman (RMR) lidar and the sodium lidar at the ALOMAR Observatory (69 N, 16 E) in Northern Norway were operated simultaneously for more than 40 h, collecting data for wind measurements in the middle atmosphere from 30 up to 110 km altitude. As both lidars share the same receiving telescopes, the upper altitude range of the RMR lidar and the lower altitude range of the sodium lidar overlap in the altitude region of ≈80-85 km. For this overlap region we are thus able to present the first simultaneous wind measurements derived from two different lidar instruments. The comparison of winds derived by RMR and sodium lidar is excellent for long integration times of 10 h as well as shorter ones of 1 h. Combination of data from both lidars allows identifying wavy structures between 30 and 110 km altitude, whose amplitudes increase with height. We have also performed vertical wind measurements and measurements of the same horizontal wind component using two independent lasers and telescopes of the RMR lidar and show how to use this data to calibrate and validate the wind retrieval. For the latter configuration we found a good agreement of the results but also identified inhomogeneities in the horizontal wind at about 55 km altitude of up to 20 ms-1 for an integration time of nearly 4 h. Such small-scale inhomogeneities in the horizontal wind field are an essential challenge when comparing data from different instruments.
- ItemComparing turbulent parameters obtained from LITOS and radiosonde measurements(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2015) Schneider, A.; Gerding, M.; Lübken, F.-J.Stratospheric turbulence is important for the mixing of trace species and the energy balance, but direct measurements are sparse due to the required resolution and accuracy. Recently, turbulence parameters such as the energy dissipation rate ε were inferred from standard radiosonde data by means of a Thorpe analysis. To this end, layers with vertically decreasing potential temperature are analysed, which is expected to indicate turbulence. Such an application assumes a proportionality between the Thorpe length LT and the Ozmidov scale LO. While this relation is accepted for the ocean, experimental evidence for such proportionality in the stratosphere is sparse. We have developed a high-resolution (8 kHz) turbulence measurement system called LITOS (Leibniz Institute Turbulence Observations in the Stratosphere), which for the first time resolves the inner scale of turbulence in the stratosphere. Therewith the energy dissipation rate ε can be determined by spectral analysis. This independent value for ε enables us to check the relation LO ∝ LT. In our measurements no such proportionality can be seen, although the mean of the ratio LO/LT is close to what is assumed in radiosonde analyses. Dissipation rates for individual layers obtained from radiosondes deviate up to a factor of ~3000 from those obtained by spectral analysis. Some turbulent layers measured by LITOS are not observed by the radiosonde at all, and vice versa. However, statements about the statistical mean seem to be possible by Thorpe analysis.
- ItemEvaluation of wake influence on high-resolution balloon-sonde measurements(Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2019) Söder, J.; Gerding, M.; Schneider, A.; Dörnbrack, A.; Wilms, H.; Wagner, J.; Lübken, F.-J.Balloons are used for various in situ measurements in the atmosphere. On turbulence measurements from rising balloons there is a potential for misinterpreting wake-created fluctuations in the trail of the balloon for atmospheric turbulence. These wake effects have an influence on temperature and humidity measurements from radiosondes as well. The primary aim of this study is to assess the likelihood for wake encounter on the payload below a rising balloon. Therefore, we present a tool for calculating this probability based on radiosonde wind data. This includes a retrieval of vertical winds from the radiosonde and an uncertainty analysis of the wake assessment. Our wake evaluation tool may be used for any balloon-gondola distance and provides a significant refinement compared to existing assessments. We have analysed wake effects for various balloon-gondola distances applying atmospheric background conditions from a set of 30 radiosondes. For a standard radiosonde we find an average probability for wake encounter of 28 %, pointing out the importance of estimating wake effects on sounding balloons. Furthermore, we find that even millimetre-sized objects in the payload can have significant effects on high-resolution turbulence measurements, if they are located upstream of the turbulence sensor. © Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under.
- ItemFirst observation of one noctilucent cloud by a twin lidar in two different directions(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2002) Baumgarten, G.; Lübken, F.-J.; Fricke, K.-H.In the early morning hours of 14 July 1999, a noctilucent cloud (NLC) was observed simultaneously by the two branches of a twin lidar system located at the ALOMAR observatory in northern Norway (69° N). The telescopes of the two lidars were pointing vertical (L^) and off the zenith by 30° (L30°). The two lidars detected an enhancement in the altitude profile of backscattered light (relative to the molecular background) for more than 5 h, starting approximately at 01:00 UT. These measurements constitute the detection of one NLC by two lidars under different directions and allow for a detailed study of the morphology of the NLC layer. A cross-correlation analysis of the NLC signals demonstrates that the main structures seen by both lidars are practically identical. This implies that a temporal evolution of the microphysics within the NLC during its drift from one lidar beam to the other is negligible. From the time delay of the NLC structures, a drift velocity of 55–65 m/s is derived which agrees nicely with radar wind measurements. During the observation period, the mean NLC altitude decreases by ~0.5 km/h (=14 cm/s) at both observation volumes. Further-more, the NLC is consistently observed approximately 500 m lower in altitude at L30° compared to L^. Supplementing these data by observations from rocket-borne and ground-based instruments, we show that the general downward progression of the NLC layer through the night, as seen by both lidars, is caused by a combination of particle sedimentation by 4–5 cm/s and a downward directed vertical wind by 9–10 cm/s, whereas a tilt of the layer in drift direction can be excluded.
- ItemFirst observations of noctilucent clouds by lidar at Svalbard, 78° N(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2003) Höffner, J.; Fricke-Begemann, C.; Lübken, F.-J.In summer 2001 a potassium lidar was installed near Longyearbyen (78° N) on the north polar island of Spitsbergen which is part of the archipelago Svalbard. At the same place a series of meteorological rockets ("falling spheres", FS) were launched which gave temperatures from the lower thermosphere to the stratosphere. The potassium lidar is capable of detecting noctilucent clouds (NLCs) and of measuring temperatures in the lower thermosphere, both under daylight conditions. In this paper we give an overview on the NLC measurements (the first at this latitude) and compare the results with temperatures from meteorological rockets which have been published recently (Lübken and Mülleman, 2003) NLCs were observed from 12 June (the first day of operation) until 12 August when a period of bad weather started. When the lidar was switched on again on 26 August, no NLC was observed. The mean occurrence frequency in the period 12 June -- 12 August ("lidar NLC period") is 77%. The mean of all individual NLC peak altitudes is 83.6 km (variability: 1.1 km). The mean peak NLC altitude does not show a significant variation with season. The average top and bottom altitude of the NLC layer is 85.1 and 82.5 km, respectively, with a variability of ~1.2 km. The mean of the maximum volume backscatter coefficient bmax at our wavelength of 770 nm is 3.9 x 10-10/m/sr with a large variability of ±3.8 x 10-10/m/sr. Comparison of NLC characteristics with measurements at ALOMAR (69° N) shows that the peak altitude and the maximum volume backscatter coefficient are similar at both locations but NLCs occur more frequently at higher latitudes. Simultaneous temperature and NLC measurements are available for 3 flights and show that the NLC layer occurs in the lower part of the height range with super-saturation. The NLC peak occurs over a large range of degree of saturation (S) whereas most models predict the peak at S = 1. This demonstrates that steady-state considerations may not be applicable when relating individual NLC properties to background conditions. On the other hand, the mean variation of the NLC appearance with height and season is in agreement with the climatological variation of super-saturation derived from the FS temperature measurements.
- ItemImpact of particle shape on the morphology of noctilucent clouds(Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2015) Kiliani, J.; Baumgarten, G.; Lübken, F.-J.; Berger, U.Noctilucent clouds (NLCs) occur during summer in the polar region at altitudes around 83 km. They consist of ice particles with a typical size around 50 nm. The shape of NLC particles is less well known but is important both for interpreting optical measurements and modeling ice cloud characteristics. In this paper, NLC modeling of microphysics and optics is adapted to use cylindrical instead of spherical particle shape. The optical properties of the resulting ice clouds are compared directly to NLC three-color measurements by the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR) Rayleigh/Mie/Raman (RMR) lidar between 1998 and 2014. Shape distributions including both needle- and disc-shaped particles are consistent with lidar measurements. The best agreement occurs if disc shapes are 60 % more common than needles, with a mean axis ratio of 2.8. Cylindrical particles cause stronger ice clouds on average than spherical shapes with an increase of backscatter at 532 nm by ≈ 30 % and about 20 % in ice mass density. This difference is less pronounced for bright than for weak ice clouds. Cylindrical shapes also cause NLCs to have larger but a smaller number of ice particles than for spherical shapes.
- ItemLITOS - A new balloon-borne instrument for fine-scale turbulence soundings in the stratosphere(Göttingen : Copernicus, 2011) Theuerkauf, A.; Gerding, M.; Lübken, F.-J.We have developed a new compact balloon payload called LITOS (Leibniz-Institute Turbulence Observations in the Stratosphere) for high resolution wind turbulence soundings in the stratosphere up to 35 km altitude. The wind measurements are performed using a constant temperature anemometer (CTA) with a vertical resolution of ∼2.5 mm, i.e. 2 kHz sampling rate at 5 m/s ascent speed. Thereby, for the first time, it is possible to study the entire turbulence spectrum down to the viscous subrange in the stratosphere. Including telemetry, housekeeping, batteries and recovery unit, the payload weighs less than 5 kg and can be launched from any radiosonde station. Since autumn 2007, LITOS has been successfully launched several times from the Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) in Kühlungsborn, Germany (54° N, 12° E). Two additional soundings were carried out in 2008 and 2009 in Kiruna, Sweden (67° N, 21° E) as part of the BEXUS program (Balloon-borne EXperiments for University Students). We describe here the basic principle of CTA measurements and prove the validity of this method in the stratosphere. A first case study allows a clear distinction between non-turbulent regions and a turbulent layer with a thickness of some tens of meters. Since our measurements cover the transition between the inertial and viscous subrange, energy dissipation rates can be calculated with high reliability.
- ItemA new description of probability density distributions of polar mesospheric clouds(Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2019) Berger, U.; Baumgarten, G.; Fiedler, J.; Lübken, F.-J.In this paper we present a new description of statistical probability density functions (pdfs) of polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). The analysis is based on observations of maximum backscatter, ice mass density, ice particle radius, and number density of ice particles measured by the ALOMAR Rayleigh-Mie-Raman lidar for all PMC seasons from 2002 to 2016. From this data set we derive a new class of pdfs that describe the statistics of PMC events that is different from previous statistical methods using the approach of an exponential distribution commonly named the g distribution. The new analysis describes successfully the probability distributions of ALOMAR lidar data. It turns out that the former g-function description is a special case of our new approach. In general the new statistical function can be applied to many kinds of different PMC parameters, e.g., maximum backscatter, integrated backscatter, ice mass density, ice water content, ice particle radius, ice particle number density, or albedo measured by satellites. As a main advantage the new method allows us to connect different observational PMC distributions of lidar and satellite data, and also to compare with distributions from ice model studies. In particular, the statistical distributions of different ice parameters can be compared with each other on the basis of a common assessment that facilitates, for example, trend analysis of PMC. © Author(s) 2019.
- ItemNLC and the background atmosphere above ALOMAR(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2011) Fiedler, J.; Baumgarten, G.; Berger, U.; Hoffmann, P.; Kaifler, N.; Lübken, F.-J.Noctilucent clouds (NLC) have been measured by the Rayleigh/Mie/Raman-lidar at the ALOMAR research facility in Northern Norway (69° N, 16° E). From 1997 to 2010 NLC were detected during more than 1850 h on 440 different days. Colocated MF-radar measurements and calculations with the Leibniz-Institute Middle Atmosphere (LIMA-) model are used to characterize the background atmosphere. Temperatures as well as horizontal winds at 83 km altitude show distinct differences during NLC observations compared to when NLC are absent. The seasonally averaged temperature is lower and the winds are stronger westward when NLC are detected. The wind separation is a robust feature as it shows up in measurements as well as in model results and it is consistent with the current understanding that lower temperatures support the existence of ice particles. For the whole 14-year data set there is no statistically significant relation between NLC occurrence and solar Lyman-α radiation. On the other hand NLC occurrence and temperatures at 83 km show a significant anti-correlation, which suggests that the thermal state plays a major role for the existence of ice particles and dominates the pure Lyman-α influence on water vapor during certain years. We find the seasonal mean NLC altitudes to be correlated to both Lyman-α radiation and temperature. NLC above ALOMAR are strongly influenced by atmospheric tides. The cloud water content varies by a factor of 2.8 over the diurnal cycle. Diurnal and semidiurnal amplitudes and phases show some pronounced year-to-year variations. In general, amplitudes as well as phases vary in a different manner. Amplitudes change by a factor of more than 3 and phases vary by up to 7 h. Such variability could impact long-term NLC observations which do not cover the full diurnal cycle.
- ItemPolar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE): Review of observations and current understanding(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2004) Rapp, M.; Lübken, F.-J.Polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) are very strong radar echoes primarily studied in the VHF wavelength range from altitudes close to the polar summer mesopause. Radar waves are scattered at irregularities in the radar refractive index which at mesopause altitudes is effectively determined by the electron number density. For efficient scatter, the electron number density must reveal structures at the radar half wavelength (Bragg condition for monostatic radars; ~3 m for typical VHF radars). The question how such small scale electron number density structures are created in the mesopause region has been a longstanding open scientific question for almost 30 years. This paper reviews experimental and theoretical milestones on the way to an advanced understanding of PMSE. Based on new experimental results from in situ observations with sounding rockets, ground based observations with radars and lidars, numerical simulations with microphysical models of the life cycle of mesospheric aerosol particles, and theoretical considerations regarding the diffusivity of electrons in the ice loaded complex plasma of the mesopause region, a consistent explanation for the generation of these radar echoes has been developed. The main idea is that mesospheric neutral air turbulence in combination with a significantly reduced electron diffusivity due to the presence of heavy charged ice aerosol particles (radii ~5–50 nm) leads to the creation of structures at spatial scales significantly smaller than the inner scale of the neutral gas turbulent velocity field itself. Importantly, owing to their very low diffusivity, the plasma structures acquire a very long lifetime, i.e., 10 min to hours in the presence of particles with radii between 10 and 50 nm. This leads to a temporal decoupling of active neutral air turbulence and the existence of small scale plasma structures and PMSE and thus readily explains observations proving the absence of neutral air turbulence at PMSE altitudes. With this explanation at hand, it becomes clear that PMSE are a suitable tool to permanently monitor the thermal and dynamical structure of the mesopause region allowing insights into important atmospheric key parameters like neutral temperatures, winds, gravity wave parameters, turbulence, solar cycle effects, and long term changes.
- ItemRocket measurements of positive ions during polar mesosphere winter echo conditions(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2006) Brattli, A.; Blix, T.A.; Lie-Svendsen, Ø.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Lübken, F.-J.; Rapp, M.; Singer, W.; Latteck, R.; Friedrich, M.On 18 January 2005, two small, instrumented rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range (69.3° N, 16° E) during conditions with Polar Mesosphere Winter Echoes (PMWE). Each of the rockets was equipped with a Positive Ion Probe (PIP) and a Faraday rotation/differential absorption experiment, and was launched as part of a salvo of meteorological rockets measuring temperature and wind using falling spheres and chaff. Layers of PMWE were detected between 55 and 77 km by the 53.5 MHz ALWIN radar. The rockets were launched during a solar proton event, and measured extremely high ion densities, of order 1010 m−3, in the region where PMWE were observed. The density measurements were analyzed with the wavelet transform technique. At large length scales, ~103 m, the power spectral density can be fitted with a k−3 wave number dependence, consistent with saturated gravity waves. Outside the PMWE layers the k−3 spectrum extends down to approximately 102 m where the fluctuations are quickly damped and disappear into the instrumental noise. Inside the PMWE layers the spectrum at smaller length scales is well fitted with a k−5/3 dependence over two decades of scales. The PMWE are therefore clearly indicative of turbulence, and the data are consistent with the turbulent dissipation of breaking gravity waves. We estimate a lower limit for the turbulent energy dissipation rate of about 10−2 W/kg in the upper (72 km) layer.
- ItemSeasonal variation of nocturnal temperatures between 1 and 105 km altitude at 54° N observed by lidar(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2008) Gerding, M.; Höffner, J.; Lautenbach, J.; Rauthe, M.; Lübken, F.-J.Temperature soundings are performed by lidar at the mid-latitude station of Kühlungsborn (Germany, 54° N, 12° E). The profiles cover the complete range from the lower troposphere (~1 km) to the lower thermosphere (~105 km) by simultaneous and co-located operation of a Rayleigh-Mie-Raman lidar and a potassium resonance lidar. Observations have been done during 266 nights between June 2002 and July 2007, each of 3–15 h length. This large and unique data set provides comprehensive information on the altitudinal and seasonal variation of temperatures from the troposphere to the lower thermosphere. The remaining day-to-day-variability is strongly reduced by harmonic fits at constant altitude levels and a representative data set is achieved. This data set reveals a two-level mesopause structure with an altitude of about 86–87 km (~144 K) in summer and ~102 km (~170 K) during the rest of the year. The average stratopause altitude is ~48 km throughout the whole year, with temperatures varying between 258 and 276 K. From the fit parameters amplitudes and phases of annual, semi-annual, and quarter-annual variations are derived. The amplitude of the annual component is largest with amplitudes of up to 30 K in 85 km, while the quarter-annual variation is smallest and less than 3 K at all altitudes. The lidar data set is compared with ECMWF temperatures below about 70 km altitude and reference data from the NRLMSISE-00 model above. Apart from the temperature soundings the aerosol backscatter ratio is measured between 20 and 35 km. The seasonal variation of these values is presented here for the first time.
- ItemSeasonal variations in the horizontal wind structure from 0-100 km above Rothera station, Antarctica (67° S, 68° W)(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2005) Hibbins, R.E.; Shanklin, J.D.; Espy, P.J.; Jarvis, M.J.; Riggin, D.M.; Fritts, D.C.; Lübken, F.-J.A medium frequency spaced-antenna radar has been operating at Rothera station, Antarctica (67° S, 68° W) for two periods, between 1997-1998 and since 2002, measuring winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. In this paper monthly mean winds are derived and presented along with three years of radiosonde balloon data for comparison with the HWM-93 model atmosphere and other high latitude southern hemisphere sites. The observed meridional winds are slightly more northwards than those predicted by the model above 80 km in the winter months and below 80 km in summer. In addition, the altitude of the summer time zero crossing of the zonal winds above the westward jet is overestimated by the model by up to 8 km. These data are then merged with the wind climatology obtained from falling sphere measurements made during the PORTA campaign at Rothera in early 1998 and the HWM-93 model atmosphere to generate a complete zonal wind climatology between 0 and 100 km as a benchmark for future studies at Rothera. A westwards (eastwards) maximum of 44 ms-1 at 67 km altitude occurs in mid December (62 ms-1 at 37 km in mid July). The 0 ms-1 wind contour reaches a maximum altitude of 90 km in mid November and a minimum altitude of 18 km in January extending into mid March at 75 km and early October at 76 km.
- ItemSimultaneous in situ measurements of small-scale structures in neutral, plasma, and atomic oxygen densities during the WADIS sounding rocket project(Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2019) Strelnikov, B.; Eberhart, M.; Friedrich, M.; Hedin, J.; Khaplanov, M.; Baumgarten, G.; Williams, B.P.; Staszak, T.; Asmus, H.; Strelnikova, I.; Latteck, R.; Grygalashvyly, M.; Lübken, F.-J.; Höffner, J.; Wörl, R.; Gumbel, J.; Löhle, S.; Fasoulas, S.; Rapp, M.; Barjatya, A.; Taylor, M.J.; Pautet, P.-D.In this paper we present an overview of measurements conducted during the WADIS-2 rocket campaign. We investigate the effect of small-scale processes like gravity waves and turbulence on the distribution of atomic oxygen and other species in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) region. Our analysis suggests that density fluctuations of atomic oxygen are coupled to fluctuations of other constituents, i.e., plasma and neutrals. Our measurements show that all measured quantities, including winds, densities, and temperatures, reveal signatures of both waves and turbulence. We show observations of gravity wave saturation and breakdown together with simultaneous measurements of generated turbulence. Atomic oxygen inside turbulence layers shows two different spectral behaviors, which might imply a change in its diffusion properties. © 2019 Author(s).
- ItemSimultaneous observations of NLCs and MSEs at midlatitudes: Implications for formation and advection of ice particles(Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2018) Gerding, M.; Zöllner, J.; Zecha, M.; Baumgarten, K.; Höffner, J.; Stober, G.; Lübken, F.-J.We combined ground-based lidar observations of noctilucent clouds (NLCs) with collocated, simultaneous radar observations of mesospheric summer echoes (MSEs) in order to compare ice cloud altitudes at a midlatitude site (Kühlungsborn, Germany, 54° N, 12° E). Lidar observations are limited to larger particles ( > 10 nm), while radars are also sensitive to small particles ( < 10 nm), but require sufficient ionization and turbulence at the ice cloud altitudes. The combined lidar and radar data set thus includes some information on the size distribution within the cloud and through this on the of the cloud. The soundings for this study are carried out by the IAP Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidar and the OSWIN VHF radar. On average, there is no difference between the lower edges (lowNLC and lowMSE). The mean difference of the upper edges upNLC and upMSE is g1/4 500 m, which is much less than expected from observations at higher latitudes. In contrast to high latitudes, the MSEs above our location typically do not reach much higher than the NLCs. In addition to earlier studies from our site, this gives additional evidence for the supposition that clouds containing large enough particles to be observed by lidar are not formed locally but are advected from higher latitudes. During the advection process, the smaller particles in the upper part of the cloud either grow and sediment, or they sublimate. Both processes result in a thinning of the layer. High-altitude MSEs, usually indicating nucleation of ice particles, are rarely observed in conjunction with lidar observations of NLCs at Kühlungsborn. © Author(s) 2018.
- ItemSmall scale density variations of electrons and charged particles in the vicinity of polar mesosphere summer echoes(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2003) Rapp, M.; Lübken, F.-J.; Blix, T.A.We present small scale variations of electron number densities and particle charge number densities measured in situ in the presence of polar mesosphere summer echoes. It turns out that the small scale fluctuations of electrons and negatively charged particles show a strong anticorrelation down to the smallest scales observed. Comparing these small scale structures with the simultaneously measured radar signal to noise profile, we find that the radar profile is well described by the power spectral density of both electrons and charged particles at the radar half wavelength (=the Bragg scale). Finally, we consider the shape of the power spectra of the observed plasma fluctuations and find that both charged particles and electrons show spectra that can be explained in terms of either neutral air turbulence acting on the distribution of a low diffusivity tracer or the fossil remnants of a formerly active turbulent region. All these results are consistent with the theoretical ideas by Rapp and Lübken (2003) suggesting that PMSE can be explained by a combination of active and fossil neutral air turbulence acting on the large and heavy charged aerosol particles which are subsequently mirrored in the electron number density distribution that becomes visible to a VHF radar when small scale fluctuations are present.
- ItemTen-year climatology of potassium number density at 54° N, 12° E(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2017) Lautenbach, J.; Höffner, J.; Lübken, F.-J.; Kopp, M.; Gerding, M.In the years from 2002 to 2012 potassium densities observations were performed in the mesopause region at Kühlungsborn using a potassium Doppler lidar. The 10-year diurnal data set comprises 5090 h of potassium number densities at 741 days with 25.2% under full daylight conditions. Potassium number densities show a clear semi-annual variation with two broad maxima reoccurring every year. The first maximum occurs in summer and lasts for about 4 months (May–August) with number densities up to 60 atoms/cc. The second maximum is observed from early December to late February with densities up to 30 atoms/cc. Both the peak density and the column density are higher at solstices than at equinoxes. The large data set shows little variation of the mean layer over the 10 years.