Browsing by Author "Laj, Paolo"
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- ItemBiomass burning and urban emission impacts in the Andes Cordillera region based on in situ measurements from the Chacaltaya observatory, Bolivia (5240a.s.l.)(Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2019) Chauvigné, Aurélien; Aliaga, Diego; Sellegri, Karine; Montoux, Nadège; Krejci, Radovan; Močnik, Griša; Moreno, Isabel; Müller, Thomas; Pandolfi, Marco; Velarde, Fernando; Weinhold, Kay; Ginot, Patrick; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Andrade, Marcos; Laj, PaoloThis study documents and analyses a 4-year continuous record of aerosol optical properties measured at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station of Chacaltaya (CHC; 5240a.s.l.), in Bolivia. Records of particle light scattering and particle light absorption coefficients are used to investigate how the high Andean Cordillera is affected by both long-range transport and by the fast-growing agglomeration of La Paz-El Alto, located approximately 20km away and 1.5km below the sampling site. The extended multi-year record allows us to study the properties of aerosol particles for different air mass types, during wet and dry seasons, also covering periods when the site was affected by biomass burning in the Bolivian lowlands and the Amazon Basin. The absorption, scattering, and extinction coefficients (median annual values of 0.74, 12.14, and 12.96Mm-1 respectively) show a clear seasonal variation with low values during the wet season (0.57, 7.94, and 8.68Mm-1 respectively) and higher values during the dry season (0.80, 11.23, and 14.51Mm-1 respectively). The record is driven by variability at both seasonal and diurnal scales. At a diurnal scale, all records of intensive and extensive aerosol properties show a pronounced variation (daytime maximum, night-time minimum), as a result of the dynamic and convective effects. The particle light absorption, scattering, and extinction coefficients are on average 1.94, 1.49, and 1.55 times higher respectively in the turbulent thermally driven conditions than the more stable conditions, due to more efficient transport from the boundary layer. Retrieved intensive optical properties are significantly different from one season to the other, reflecting the changing aerosol emission sources of aerosol at a larger scale. Using the wavelength dependence of aerosol particle optical properties, we discriminated between contributions from natural (mainly mineral dust) and anthropogenic (mainly biomass burning and urban transport or industries) emissions according to seasons and local circulation. The main sources influencing measurements at CHC are from the urban area of La Paz-El Alto in the Altiplano and from regional biomass burning in the Amazon Basin. Results show a 28% to 80% increase in the extinction coefficients during the biomass burning season with respect to the dry season, which is observed in both tropospheric dynamic conditions. From this analysis, long-term observations at CHC provide the first direct evidence of the impact of biomass burning emissions of the Amazon Basin and urban emissions from the La Paz area on atmospheric optical properties at a remote site all the way to the free troposphere. © Author(s) 2019.
- ItemCCN production by new particle formation in the free troposphere(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2017) Rose, Clémence; Sellegri, Karine; Moreno, Isabel; Velarde, Fernando; Ramonet, Michel; Weinhold, Kay; Krejc, Radovan; Andrade, Marcos; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Ginot, Patrick; Laj, PaoloGlobal models predict that new particle formation (NPF) is, in some environments, responsible for a substantial fraction of the total atmospheric particle number concentration and subsequently contributes significantly to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. NPF events were frequently observed at the highest atmospheric observatory in the world, on Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.), Bolivia. The present study focuses on the impact of NPF on CCN population. Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer and mobility particle size spectrometer measurements were simultaneously used to follow the growth of particles from cluster sizes down to ∼ 2 nm up to CCN threshold sizes set to 50, 80 and 100 nm. Using measurements performed between 1 January and 31 December 2012, we found that 61 % of the 94 analysed events showed a clear particle growth and significant enhancement of the CCN-relevant particle number concentration. We evaluated the contribution of NPF, relative to the transport and growth of pre-existing particles, to CCN size. The averaged production of 50 nm particles during those events was 5072, and 1481 cm−3 for 100 nm particles, with a larger contribution of NPF compared to transport, especially during the wet season. The data set was further segregated into boundary layer (BL) and free troposphere (FT) conditions at the site. The NPF frequency of occurrence was higher in the BL (48 %) compared to the FT (39 %). Particle condensational growth was more frequently observed for events initiated in the FT, but on average faster for those initiated in the BL, when the amount of condensable species was most probably larger. As a result, the potential to form new CCN was higher for events initiated in the BL (67 % against 53 % in the FT). In contrast, higher CCN number concentration increases were found when the NPF process initially occurred in the FT, under less polluted conditions. This work highlights the competition between particle growth and the removal of freshly nucleated particles by coagulation processes. The results support model predictions which suggest that NPF is an effective source of CCN in some environments, and thus may influence regional climate through cloud-related radiative processes.
- ItemChanges in black carbon emissions over Europe due to COVID-19 lockdowns(Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Platt, Stephen M.; Eckhardt, Sabine; Lund Myhre, Cathrine; Laj, Paolo; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Backman, John; Brem, Benjamin T.; Fiebig, Markus; Flentje, Harald; Marinoni, Angela; Pandolfi, Marco; Yus-Dìez, Jesus; Prats, Natalia; Putaud, Jean P.; Sellegri, Karine; Sorribas, Mar; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Vratolis, Stergios; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stohl, AndreasFollowing the emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) responsible for COVID-19 in December 2019 in Wuhan (China) and its spread to the rest of the world, the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic in March 2020. Without effective treatment in the initial pandemic phase, social distancing and mandatory quarantines were introduced as the only available preventative measure. In contrast to the detrimental societal impacts, air quality improved in all countries in which strict lockdowns were applied, due to lower pollutant emissions. Here we investigate the effects of the COVID-19 lockdowns in Europe on ambient black carbon (BC), which affects climate and damages health, using in situ observations from 17 European stations in a Bayesian inversion framework. BC emissions declined by 23 kt in Europe (20 % in Italy, 40 % in Germany, 34 % in Spain, 22 % in France) during lockdowns compared to the same period in the previous 5 years, which is partially attributed to COVID-19 measures. BC temporal variation in the countries enduring the most drastic restrictions showed the most distinct lockdown impacts. Increased particle light absorption in the beginning of the lockdown, confirmed by assimilated satellite and remote sensing data, suggests residential combustion was the dominant BC source. Accordingly, in central and Eastern Europe, which experienced lower than average temperatures, BC was elevated compared to the previous 5 years. Nevertheless, an average decrease of 11 % was seen for the whole of Europe compared to the start of the lockdown period, with the highest peaks in France (42 %), Germany (21 %), UK (13 %), Spain (11 %) and Italy (8 %). Such a decrease was not seen in the previous years, which also confirms the impact of COVID-19 on the European emissions of BC.
- ItemA European aerosol phenomenology - 6: Scattering properties of atmospheric aerosol particles from 28 ACTRIS sites(Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2018) Pandolfi, Marco; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Alastuey, Andrés; Andrade, Marcos; Angelov, Christo; Artiñano, Begoña; Backman, John; Baltensperger, Urs; Bonasoni, Paolo; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Collaud Coen, Martine; Conil, Sébastien; Coz, Esther; Crenn, Vincent; Dudoitis, Vadimas; Ealo, Marina; Eleftheriadis, Kostas; Favez, Olivier; Fetfatzis, Prodromos; Fiebig, Markus; Flentje, Harald; Ginot, Patrick; Gysel, Martin; Henzing, Bas; Hoffer, Andras; Holubova Smejkalova, Adela; Kalapov, Ivo; Kalivitis, Nikos; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Kristensson, Adam; Kulmala, Markku; Lihavainen, Heikki; Lunder, Chris; Luoma, Krista; Lyamani, Hassan; Marinoni, Angela; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Moerman, Marcel; Nicolas, José; O'Dowd, Colin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Pichon, Jean Marc; Prokopciuk, Nina; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Rodríguez, Sergio; Sciare, Jean; Sellegri, Karine; Swietlicki, Erik; Titos, Gloria; Tuch, Thomas; Tunved, Peter; Ulevicius, Vidmantas; Vaishya, Aditya; Vana, Milan; Virkkula, Aki; Vratolis, Stergios; Weingartner, Ernest; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Laj, PaoloThis paper presents the light-scattering properties of atmospheric aerosol particles measured over the past decade at 28 ACTRIS observatories, which are located mainly in Europe. The data include particle light scattering (σsp) and hemispheric backscattering (σbsp) coefficients, scattering Ångström exponent (SAE), backscatter fraction (BF) and asymmetry parameter (g). An increasing gradient of σsp is observed when moving from remote environments (arctic/mountain) to regional and to urban environments. At a regional level in Europe, σsp also increases when moving from Nordic and Baltic countries and from western Europe to central/eastern Europe, whereas no clear spatial gradient is observed for other station environments. The SAE does not show a clear gradient as a function of the placement of the station. However, a west-to-east-increasing gradient is observed for both regional and mountain placements, suggesting a lower fraction of fine-mode particle in western/south-western Europe compared to central and eastern Europe, where the fine-mode particles dominate the scattering. The g does not show any clear gradient by station placement or geographical location reflecting the complex relationship of this parameter with the physical properties of the aerosol particles. Both the station placement and the geographical location are important factors affecting the intraannual variability. At mountain sites, higher σsp and SAE values are measured in the summer due to the enhanced boundary layer influence and/or new particle-formation episodes. Conversely, the lower horizontal and vertical dispersion during winter leads to higher σsp values at all low-altitude sites in central and eastern Europe compared to summer. These sites also show SAE maxima in the summer (with corresponding g minima). At all sites, both SAE and g show a strong variation with aerosol particle loading. The lowest values of g are always observed together with low σsp values, indicating a larger contribution from particles in the smaller accumulation mode. During periods of high σsp values, the variation of g is less pronounced, whereas the SAE increases or decreases, suggesting changes mostly in the coarse aerosol particle mode rather than in the fine mode. Statistically significant decreasing trends of σsp are observed at 5 out of the 13 stations included in the trend analyses. The total reductions of σsp are consistent with those reported for PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations over similar periods across Europe.
- ItemA global analysis of climate-relevant aerosol properties retrieved from the network of Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) near-surface observatories(Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2020) Laj, Paolo; Bigi, Alessandro; Rose, Clémence; Andrews, Elisabeth; Lund Myhre, Cathrine; Collaud Coen, Martine; Lin, Yong; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Schulz, Michael; Ogren, John A.; Fiebig, Markus; Prenni, Anthony; Reisen, Fabienne; Romano, Salvatore; Sellegri, Karine; Sharma, Sangeeta; Schauer, Gerhard; Sheridan, Patrick; Sherman, James Patrick; Schütze, Maik; Schwerin, Andreas; Tuch, Thomas; Sohmer, Ralf; Sorribas, Mar; Steinbacher, Martin; Sun, Junying; Titos, Gloria; Toczko, Barbara; Tulet, Pierre; Tunved, Peter; Vakkari, Ville; Velarde, Fernando; Velasquez, Patricio; Villani, Paolo; Vratolis, Sterios; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Weinhold, Kay; Gliß, Jonas; Weller, Rolf; Yela, Margarita; Yus-Diez, Jesus; Zdimal, Vladimir; Zieger, Paul; Zikova, Nadezda; Mortier, Augustin; Pandolfi, Marco; Petäja, Tuukka; Kim, Sang-Woo; Aas, Wenche; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Mayol-Bracero, Olga; Keywood, Melita; Labrador, Lorenzo; Aalto, Pasi; Ahlberg, Erik; Alados Arboledas, Lucas; Alastuey, Andrés; Andrade, Marcos; Artíñano, Begoña; Ausmeel, Stina; Arsov, Todor; Asmi, Eija; Backman, John; Baltensperger, Urs; Bastian, Susanne; Bath, Olaf; Beukes, Johan Paul; Brem, Benjamin T.; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Conil, Sébastien; Couret, Cedric; Day, Derek; Dayantolis, Wan; Degorska, Anna; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Fetfatzis, Prodromos; Favez, Olivier; Flentje, Harald; Gini, Maria I.; Gregorič, Asta; Gysel-Beer, Martin; Hallar, A. Gannet; Hand, Jenny; Hoffer, Andras; Hueglin, Christoph; Hooda, Rakesh K.; Hyvärinen, Antti; Kalapov, Ivo; Kalivitis, Nikos; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Kranjc, Irena; Krejci, Radovan; Kulmala, Markku; Labuschagne, Casper; Lee, Hae-Jung; Lihavainen, Heikki; Lin, Neng-Huei; Löschau, Gunter; Luoma, Krista; Marinoni, Angela; Martins Dos Santos, Sebastiao; Meinhardt, Frank; Merkel, Maik; Metzger, Jean-Marc; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Nguyen, Nhat Anh; Ondracek, Jakub; Pérez, Noemi; Perrone, Maria Rita; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Picard, David; Pichon, Jean-Marc; Pont, Veronique; Prats, NataliaAerosol particles are essential constituents of the Earth's atmosphere, impacting the earth radiation balance directly by scattering and absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. In contrast to most greenhouse gases, aerosol particles have short atmospheric residence times, resulting in a highly heterogeneous distribution in space and time. There is a clear need to document this variability at regional scale through observations involving, in particular, the in situ near-surface segment of the atmospheric observation system. This paper will provide the widest effort so far to document variability of climate-relevant in situ aerosol properties (namely wavelength dependent particle light scattering and absorption coefficients, particle number concentration and particle number size distribution) from all sites connected to the Global Atmosphere Watch network. High-quality data from almost 90 stations worldwide have been collected and controlled for quality and are reported for a reference year in 2017, providing a very extended and robust view of the variability of these variables worldwide. The range of variability observed worldwide for light scattering and absorption coefficients, single-scattering albedo, and particle number concentration are presented together with preliminary information on their long-term trends and comparison with model simulation for the different stations. The scope of the present paper is also to provide the necessary suite of information, including data provision procedures, quality control and analysis, data policy, and usage of the ground-based aerosol measurement network. It delivers to users of the World Data Centre on Aerosol, the required confidence in data products in the form of a fully characterized value chain, including uncertainty estimation and requirements for contributing to the global climate monitoring system.
- ItemMeasurement report: Long-range transport and the fate of dimethyl sulfide oxidation products in the free troposphere derived from observations at the high-altitude research station Chacaltaya (5240ma.s.l.) in the Bolivian Andes(Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2023) Scholz, Wiebke; Shen, Jiali; Aliaga, Diego; Wu, Cheng; Carbone, Samara; Moreno, Isabel; Zha, Qiaozhi; Huang, Wei; Heikkinen, Liine; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc; Uzu, Gaelle; Partoll, Eva; Leiminger, Markus; Velarde, Fernando; Laj, Paolo; Ginot, Patrick; Artaxo, Paolo; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Kulmala, Markku; Mohr, Claudia; Andrade, Marcos; Sinclair, Victoria; Bianchi, Federico; Hansel, ArminDimethyl sulfide (DMS) is the primary natural contributor to the atmospheric sulfur burden. Observations concerning the fate of DMS oxidation products after long-range transport in the remote free troposphere are, however, sparse. Here we present quantitative chemical ionization mass spectrometric measurements of DMS and its oxidation products sulfuric acid (H2SO4), methanesulfonic acid (MSA), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), dimethylsulfone (DMSO2), methanesulfinic acid (MSIA), methyl thioformate (MTF), methanesulfenic acid (MSEA, CH3SOH), and a compound of the likely structure CH3S(O)2OOH in the gas phase, as well as measurements of the sulfate and methanesulfonate aerosol mass fractions. The measurements were performed at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station Chacaltaya in the Bolivian Andes located at 5240m above sea level (a.s.l.). DMS and DMS oxidation products are brought to the Andean high-altitude station by Pacific air masses during the dry season after convective lifting over the remote Pacific ocean to 6000-8000ma.s.l. and subsequent long-range transport in the free troposphere (FT). Most of the DMS reaching the station is already converted to the rather unreactive sulfur reservoirs DMSO2 in the gas phase and methanesulfonate (MS-) in the particle phase, which carried nearly equal amounts of sulfur to the station. The particulate sulfate at Chacaltaya is however dominated by regional volcanic emissions during the time of the measurement and not significantly affected by the marine air masses. In one of the FT events, even some DMS was observed next to reactive intermediates such as methyl thioformate, dimethylsulfoxide, and methanesulfinic acid. Also for this event, back trajectory calculations show that the air masses came from above the ocean (distance >330km) with no local surface contacts. This study demonstrates the potential impact of marine DMS emissions on the availability of sulfur-containing vapors in the remote free troposphere far away from the ocean.
- ItemMultidecadal trend analysis of in situ aerosol radiative properties around the world(Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Collaud Coen, Martine; Andrews, Elisabeth; Alastuey, Andrés; Petkov Arsov, Todor; Backman, John; Brem, Benjamin T.; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Couret, Cédric; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Flentje, Harald; Fiebig, Markus; Gysel-Beer, Martin; Hand, Jenny L.; Hoffer, András; Hooda, Rakesh; Hueglin, Christoph; Joubert, Warren; Keywood, Melita; Eun Kim, Jeong; Kim, Sang-Woo; Labuschagne, Casper; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lin, Yong; Lund Myhre, Cathrine; Luoma, Krista; Lyamani, Hassan; Marinoni, Angela; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Pandolfi, Marco; Prats, Natalia; Prenni, Anthony J.; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Ries, Ludwig; Reisen, Fabienne; Sellegri, Karine; Sharma, Sangeeta; Sheridan, Patrick; Sherman, James Patrick; Sun, Junying; Titos, Gloria; Torres, Elvis; Tuch, Thomas; Weller, Rolf; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Zieger, Paul; Laj, PaoloIn order to assess the evolution of aerosol parameters affecting climate change, a long-term trend analysis of aerosol optical properties was performed on time series from 52 stations situated across five continents. The time series of measured scattering, backscattering and absorption coefficients as well as the derived single scattering albedo, backscattering fraction, scattering and absorption Ångström exponents covered at least 10 years and up to 40 years for some stations. The non-parametric seasonal Mann-Kendall (MK) statistical test associated with several pre-whitening methods and with Sen's slope was used as the main trend analysis method. Comparisons with general least mean square associated with autoregressive bootstrap (GLS/ARB) and with standard least mean square analysis (LMS) enabled confirmation of the detected MK statistically significant trends and the assessment of advantages and limitations of each method. Currently, scattering and backscattering coefficient trends are mostly decreasing in Europe and North America and are not statistically significant in Asia, while polar stations exhibit a mix of increasing and decreasing trends. A few increasing trends are also found at some stations in North America and Australia. Absorption coefficient time series also exhibit primarily decreasing trends. For single scattering albedo, 52 % of the sites exhibit statistically significant positive trends, mostly in Asia, eastern/northern Europe and the Arctic, 22 % of sites exhibit statistically significant negative trends, mostly in central Europe and central North America, while the remaining 26 % of sites have trends which are not statistically significant. In addition to evaluating trends for the overall time series, the evolution of the trends in sequential 10-year segments was also analyzed. For scattering and backscattering, statistically significant increasing 10-year trends are primarily found for earlier periods (10-year trends ending in 2010-2015) for polar stations and Mauna Loa. For most of the stations, the present-day statistically significant decreasing 10-year trends of the single scattering albedo were preceded by not statistically significant and statistically significant increasing 10-year trends. The effect of air pollution abatement policies in continental North America is very obvious in the 10-year trends of the scattering coefficient - there is a shift to statistically significant negative trends in 2009-2012 for all stations in the eastern and central USA. This long-term trend analysis of aerosol radiative properties with a broad spatial coverage provides insight into potential aerosol effects on climate changes. © 2020 Royal Society of Chemistry. All rights reserved.
- ItemStatus and future of numerical atmospheric aerosol prediction with a focus on data requirements(Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2018) Benedetti, Angela; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Knippertz, Peter; Marsham, John H.; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Rémy, Samuel; Basart, Sara; Boucher, Olivier; Brooks, Ian M.; Menut, Laurent; Mona, Lucia; Laj, Paolo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Baklanov, Alexander; Brooks, Malcolm; Colarco, Peter R.; Cuevas, Emilio; da Silva, Arlindo; Escribano, Jeronimo; Flemming, Johannes; Huneeus, Nicolas; Jorba, Oriol; Kazadzis, Stelios; Kinne, Stefan; Popp, Thomas; Quinn, Patricia K.; Sekiyama, Thomas T.; Tanaka, Taichu; Terradellas, EnricNumerical prediction of aerosol particle properties has become an important activity at many research and operational weather centers. This development is due to growing interest from a diverse set of stakeholders, such as air quality regulatory bodies, aviation and military authorities, solar energy plant managers, climate services providers, and health professionals. Owing to the complexity of atmospheric aerosol processes and their sensitivity to the underlying meteorological conditions, the prediction of aerosol particle concentrations and properties in the numerical weather prediction (NWP) framework faces a number of challenges. The modeling of numerous aerosol-related parameters increases computational expense. Errors in aerosol prediction concern all processes involved in the aerosol life cycle including (a) errors on the source terms (for both anthropogenic and natural emissions), (b) errors directly dependent on the meteorology (e.g., mixing, transport, scavenging by precipitation), and (c) errors related to aerosol chemistry (e.g., nucleation, gas-aerosol partitioning, chemical transformation and growth, hygroscopicity). Finally, there are fundamental uncertainties and significant processing overhead in the diverse observations used for verification and assimilation within these systems. Indeed, a significant component of aerosol forecast development consists in streamlining aerosol-related observations and reducing the most important errors through model development and data assimilation. Aerosol particle observations from satellite- and ground-based platforms have been crucial to guide model development of the recent years and have been made more readily available for model evaluation and assimilation. However, for the sustainability of the aerosol particle prediction activities around the globe, it is crucial that quality aerosol observations continue to be made available from different platforms (space, near surface, and aircraft) and freely shared. This paper reviews current requirements for aerosol observations in the context of the operational activities carried out at various global and regional centers. While some of the requirements are equally applicable to aerosol-climate, the focus here is on global operational prediction of aerosol properties such as mass concentrations and optical parameters. It is also recognized that the term "requirements" is loosely used here given the diversity in global aerosol observing systems and that utilized data are typically not from operational sources. Most operational models are based on bulk schemes that do not predict the size distribution of the aerosol particles. Others are based on a mix of "bin" and bulk schemes with limited capability of simulating the size information. However the next generation of aerosol operational models will output both mass and number density concentration to provide a more complete description of the aerosol population. A brief overview of the state of the art is provided with an introduction on the importance of aerosol prediction activities. The criteria on which the requirements for aerosol observations are based are also outlined. Assimilation and evaluation aspects are discussed from the perspective of the user requirements.