Browsing by Author "Lederer, Albena"
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- ItemCharacterization of Zahari Zograph’s nave wall paintings in the church “The nativity of the virgin” of Rila Monastery (Bulgaria) by vibrational spectroscopy and SEM–EDX analysis(Abingdon, Oxon : Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, 2018) Yancheva, Denitsa; Tapanov, Stefan; Velcheva, Evelina; Stamboliyska, Bistra; Glavcheva, Zornitza; Stoyanov, Simeon; Haralampiev, Nikifor; Fischer, Dieter; Lederer, AlbenaAn analytical study on the nave mural paintings of the church “The Nativity of the Virgin” of Rila monastery, Bulgaria, painted by Zahari Zograph was carried out. Vibrational spectroscopy was applied to identify the pigments and organic materials used in the mural paintings. To complement the spectral information, elemental composition of the samples was determined by SEM-EDX. The data showed that smalt with carbohydrate binder was applied for the blue background, green colour was executed by green earths and red-orange colour – by red lead. Azurite is the pigment used to paint the blue colour of the saints’ hoods. The mordant for gilding was prepared of drying oil, resin and siccative metal oxides as evidenced by SEM-EDX, ATR-FTIR and pyrolysis GC-MS analysis. The use of azurite is related to Zahari Zograph’s works as it was not found in any of the previously studied murals in the church painted by other artists.
- ItemDehydropolymerisation of Methylamine Borane and an N-Substituted Primary Amine Borane Using a PNP Fe Catalyst(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Anke, Felix; Boye, Susanne; Spannenberg, Anke; Lederer, Albena; Heller, Detlef; Beweries, TorstenDehydropolymerisation of methylamine borane (H3B⋅NMeH2) using the well-known iron amido complex [(PNP)Fe(H)(CO)] (PNP=N(CH2CH2PiPr2)2) (1) gives poly(aminoborane)s by a chain-growth mechanism. In toluene, rapid dehydrogenation of H3B⋅NMeH2 following first-order behaviour as a limiting case of a more general underlying Michaelis–Menten kinetics is observed, forming aminoborane H2B=NMeH, which selectively couples to give high-molecular-weight poly(aminoborane)s (H2BNMeH)n and only traces of borazine (HBNMe)3 by depolymerisation after full conversion. Based on a series of comparative experiments using structurally related Fe catalysts and dimethylamine borane (H3B⋅NMe2H) polymer formation is proposed to occur by nucleophilic chain growth as reported earlier computationally and experimentally. A silyl functionalised primary borane H3B⋅N(CH2SiMe3)H2 was studied in homo- and co-dehydropolymerisation reactions to give the first examples for Si containing poly(aminoborane)s. © 2020 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
- ItemEntropy driven chain effects on ligation chemistry(Cambridge : RSC, 2014) Pahnke, Kai; Brandt, Josef; Gryn'ova, Ganna; Lindner, Peter; Schweins, Ralf; Schmidt, Friedrich Georg; Lederer, Albena; Coote, Michelle L.; Barner-Kowollik, ChristopherWe report the investigation of fundamental entropic chain effects that enable the tuning of modular ligation chemistry – for example dynamic Diels–Alder (DA) reactions in materials applications – not only classically via the chemistry of the applied reaction sites, but also via the physical and steric properties of the molecules that are being joined. Having a substantial impact on the reaction equilibrium of the reversible ligation chemistry, these effects are important when transferring reactions from small molecule studies to larger or other entropically very dissimilar systems. The effects on the DA equilibrium and thus the temperature dependent degree of debonding (%debond) of different cyclopentadienyl (di-)functional poly(meth-)acrylate backbones (poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(iso-butyl methacrylate), poly(tert-butyl methacrylate), poly(iso-butyl acrylate), poly(n-butyl acrylate), poly(tert-butyl acrylate), poly(methyl acrylate) and poly(isobornyl acrylate)), linked via a difunctional cyanodithioester (CDTE) were examined via high temperature (HT) NMR spectroscopy as well as temperature dependent (TD) SEC measurements. A significant impact of not only chain mass and length with a difference in the degree of debonding of up to 30% for different lengths of macromonomers of the same polymer type but – remarkably – as well the chain stiffness with a difference in bonding degrees of nearly 20% for isomeric poly(butyl acrylates) is found. The results were predicted, reproduced and interpreted via quantum chemical calculations, leading to a better understanding of the underlying entropic principles.
- ItemGaseous- and Condensed-Phase Activities of Some Reactive P- and N-Containing Fire Retardants in Polystyrenes(Basel : MDPI, 2022) Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; Baby, Aloshy; Joseph, Paul; Pospiech, Doris; Schierz, Eileen; Lederer, Albena; Arun, Malavika; Fontaine, GaëllePolystyrene (PS) was modified by covalently binding P-, P-N- and/or N- containing fire-retardant moieties through co- or ter-polymerization reactions of styrene with diethyl(acryloyloxymethyl)phosphonate (DEAMP), diethyl-p-vinylbenzyl phosphonate (DEpVBP), acrylic acid-2-[(diethoxyphosphoryl)methylamino]ethyl ester (ADEPMAE) and maleimide (MI). In the present study, the condensed-phase and the gaseous-phase activities of the abovementioned fire retardants within the prepared co- and ter-polymers were evaluated for the first time. Pyrolysis–Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry was employed to identify the volatile products formed during the thermal decomposition of the modified polymers. Benzaldehyde, α-methylstyrene, acetophenone, triethyl phosphate and styrene (monomer, dimer and trimer) were detected in the gaseous phase following the thermal cracking of fire-retardant groups and through main chain scissions. In the case of PS modified with ADEPMAE, the evolution of pyrolysis gases was suppressed by possible inhibitory actions of triethyl phosphate in the gaseous phase. The reactive modification of PS by simultaneously incorporating P- (DEAMP or DEpVBP) and N- (MI) monomeric units, in the chains of ter-polymers, resulted in a predominantly condensed-phase mode of action owing to synergistic P and N interactions. The solid-state 31P NMR spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, Inductively-Coupled Plasma/Optical Emission Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of char residues, obtained from ter-polymers, confirmed the retention of the phosphorus species in their structures.
- ItemLight-Driven Proton Transfer for Cyclic and Temporal Switching of Enzymatic Nanoreactors(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Moreno, Silvia; Sharan, Priyanka; Engelke, Johanna; Gumz, Hannes; Boye, Susanne; Oertel, Ulrich; Wang, Peng; Banerjee, Susanta; Klajn, Rafal; Voit, Brigitte; Lederer, Albena; Appelhans, DietmarTemporal activation of biological processes by visible light and subsequent return to an inactive state in the absence of light is an essential characteristic of photoreceptor cells. Inspired by these phenomena, light-responsive materials are very attractive due to the high spatiotemporal control of light irradiation, with light being able to precisely orchestrate processes repeatedly over many cycles. Herein, it is reported that light-driven proton transfer triggered by a merocyanine-based photoacid can be used to modulate the permeability of pH-responsive polymersomes through cyclic, temporally controlled protonation and deprotonation of the polymersome membrane. The membranes can undergo repeated light-driven swelling-contraction cycles without losing functional effectiveness. When applied to enzyme loaded-nanoreactors, this membrane responsiveness is used for the reversible control of enzymatic reactions. This combination of the merocyanine-based photoacid and pH-switchable nanoreactors results in rapidly responding and versatile supramolecular systems successfully used to switch enzymatic reactions ON and OFF on demand.
- ItemMatrix metalloproteinase-1 decorated polymersomes, a surface-active extracellular matrix therapeutic, potentiates collagen degradation and attenuates early liver fibrosis(New York, NY [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2021) Geervliet, Eline; Moreno, Silvia; Baiamonte, Luca; Booijink, Richell; Boye, Susanne; Wang, Peng; Voit, Brigitte; Lederer, Albena; Appelhans, Dietmar; Bansal, RuchiLiver fibrosis affects millions of people worldwide and is rising vastly over the past decades. With no viable therapies available, liver transplantation is the only curative treatment for advanced diseased patients. Excessive accumulation of aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, mostly collagens, produced by activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), is a hallmark of liver fibrosis. Several studies have suggested an inverse correlation between collagen-I degrading matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) serum levels and liver fibrosis progression highlighting reduced MMP-1 levels are associated with poor disease prognosis in patients with liver fibrosis. We hypothesized that delivery of MMP-1 might potentiate collagen degradation and attenuate fibrosis development. In this study, we report a novel approach for the delivery of MMP-1 using MMP-1 decorated polymersomes (MMPsomes), as a surface-active vesicle-based ECM therapeutic, for the treatment of liver fibrosis. The storage-stable and enzymatically active MMPsomes were fabricated by a post-loading of Psomes with MMP-1. MMPsomes were extensively characterized for the physicochemical properties, MMP-1 surface localization, stability, enzymatic activity, and biological effects. Dose-dependent effects of MMP-1, and effects of MMPsomes versus MMP-1, empty polymersomes (Psomes) and MMP-1 + Psomes on gene and protein expression of collagen-I, MMP-1/TIMP-1 ratio, migration and cell viability were examined in TGFβ-activated human HSCs. Finally, the therapeutic effects of MMPsomes, compared to MMP-1, were evaluated in vivo in carbon-tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced early liver fibrosis mouse model. MMPsomes exhibited favorable physicochemical properties, MMP-1 surface localization and improved therapeutic efficacy in TGFβ-activated human HSCs in vitro. In CCl4-induced early liver fibrosis mouse model, MMPsomes inhibited intra-hepatic collagen-I (ECM marker, indicating early liver fibrosis) and F4/80 (marker for macrophages, indicating liver inflammation) expression. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an innovative approach of MMP-1 delivery, using surface-decorated MMPsomes, for alleviating liver fibrosis.
- ItemMolecular Dynamics-Guided Design of a Functional Protein-ATRP Conjugate that eliminates Protein-Protein Interactions(Columbus, Ohio : American Chemical Society, 2021) Kaupbayeva, Bibifatima; Boye, Susanne; Munasinghe, Aravinda; Murata, Hironobu; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Lederer, Albena; Colina, Coray M.; Russell, Alan J.Even the most advanced protein-polymer conjugate therapeutics do not eliminate antibody-protein and receptor-protein recognition. Next-generation bioconjugate drugs will need to replace stochastic selection with rational design to select desirable levels of protein-protein interaction while retaining function. The "Holy Grail" for rational design would be to generate functional enzymes that are fully catalytic with small molecule substrates while eliminating interaction between the protein surface and larger molecules. Using chymotrypsin, an important enzyme that is used to treat pancreatic insufficiency, we have designed a series of molecular chimeras with varied grafting densities and shapes. Guided by molecular dynamic simulations and next-generation molecular chimera characterization with asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation chromatography, we grew linear, branched, and comb-shaped architectures from the surface of the protein by atom-transfer radical polymerization. Comb-shaped polymers, grafted from the surface of chymotrypsin, completely prevented enzyme inhibition with protein inhibitors without sacrificing the ability of the enzyme to catalyze the hydrolysis of a peptide substrate. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multiangle laser light scattering including dynamic light scattering showed that nanoarmor designed with comb-shaped polymers was particularly compact and spherical. The polymer structure significantly increased protein stability and reduced protein-protein interactions. Atomistic molecular dynamic simulations predicted that a dense nanoarmor with long-armed comb-shaped polymer would act as an almost perfect molecular sieve to filter large ligands from substrates. Surprisingly, a conjugate that was composed of 99% polymer was needed before the elimination of protein-protein interactions.
- ItemMultivalent Protein-Loaded pH-Stable Polymersomes: First Step toward Protein Targeted Therapeutics(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Moreno, Silvia; Boye, Susanne; Ajeilat, Hane George Al; Michen, Susanne; Tietze, Stefanie; Voit, Brigitte; Lederer, Albena; Temme, Achim; Appelhans, DietmarSynthetic platforms for mimicking artificial organelles or for designing multivalent protein therapeutics for targeting cell surface, extracellular matrix, and tissues are in the focus of this study. Furthermore, the availability of a multi-functionalized and stimuli-responsive carrier system is required that can be used for sequential in situ and/or post loading of different proteins combined with post-functionalization steps. Until now, polymersomes exhibit excellent key characteristics to fulfill those requirements, which allow specific transport of proteins and the integration of proteins in different locations of polymeric vesicles. Herein, different approaches to fabricate multivalent protein-loaded, pH-responsive, and pH-stable polymersomes are shown, where a combination of therapeutic action and targeting can be achieved, by first choosing two model proteins such as human serum albumin and avidin. Validation of the molecular parameters of the multivalent biohybrids is performed by dynamic light scattering, cryo-TEM, fluorescence spectroscopy, and asymmetrical flow-field flow fractionation combined with light scattering techniques. To demonstrate targeting functions of protein-loaded polymersomes, avidin post-functionalized polymersomes are used for the molecular recognition of biotinylated cell surface receptors. These versatile protein-loaded polymersomes present new opportunities for designing sophisticated biomolecular nanoobjects in the field of (extracellular matrix) protein therapeutics.
- ItemPoly(ethylene oxide)-based block copolymers with very high molecular weights for biomimetic calcium phosphate mineralization(London : RSC Publishing, 2015) Mai, Tobias; Boye, Susanne; Yuan, Jiayin; Völkel, Antje; Gräwert, Marlies; Günter, Christina; Lederer, Albena; Taubert, AndreasThe present article is among the first reports on the effects of poly(ampholyte)s and poly(betaine)s on the biomimetic formation of calcium phosphate. We have synthesized a series of di- and triblock copolymers based on a non-ionic poly(ethylene oxide) block and several charged methacrylate monomers, 2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl methacrylate chloride, 2-((3-cyanopropyl)-dimethylammonium)ethyl methacrylate chloride, 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt, and [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide. The resulting copolymers are either positively charged, ampholytic, or betaine block copolymers. All the polymers have very high molecular weights of over 106 g mol−1. All polymers are water-soluble and show a strong effect on the precipitation and dissolution of calcium phosphate. The strongest effects are observed with triblock copolymers based on a large poly(ethylene oxide) middle block (nominal Mn = 100 000 g mol−1). Surprisingly, the data show that there is a need for positive charges in the polymers to exert tight control over mineralization and dissolution, but that the exact position of the charge in the polymer is of minor importance for both calcium phosphate precipitation and dissolution.
- ItemSize Separation Techniques for the Characterisation of Cross-Linked Casein: A Review of Methods and Their Applications(Basel : MDPI, 2018) Raak, Norbert; Abbate, Raffaele Andrea; Lederer, Albena; Rohm, Harald; Jaros, DorisCasein is the major protein fraction in milk, and its cross-linking has been a topic of scientific interest for many years. Enzymatic cross-linking has huge potential to modify relevant techno-functional properties of casein, whereas non-enzymatic cross-linking occurs naturally during the storage and processing of milk and dairy products. Two size separation techniques were applied for characterisation of these reactions: gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography. This review summarises their separation principles and discusses the outcome of studies on cross-linked casein from the last ~20 years. Both methods, however, show limitations concerning separation range and are applied mainly under denaturing and reducing conditions. In contrast, field flow fractionation has a broad separation range and can be easily applied under native conditions. Although this method has become a powerful tool in polymer and nanoparticle analysis and was used in few studies on casein micelles, it has not yet been applied to investigate cross-linked casein. Finally, the principles and requirements for absolute molar mass determination are reviewed, which will be of increased interest in the future since suitable calibration substances for casein polymers are scarce.
- ItemA smart polymer for sequence-selective binding, pulldown, and release of DNA targets(London : Springer Nature, 2020) Krieg, Elisha; Gupta, Krishna; Dahl, Andreas; Lesche, Mathias; Boye, Susanne; Lederer, Albena; Shih, William M.Selective isolation of DNA is crucial for applications in biology, bionanotechnology, clinical diagnostics and forensics. We herein report a smart methanol-responsive polymer (MeRPy) that can be programmed to bind and separate single- as well as double-stranded DNA targets. Captured targets are quickly isolated and released back into solution by denaturation (sequence-agnostic) or toehold-mediated strand displacement (sequence-selective). The latter mode allows 99.8% efficient removal of unwanted sequences and 79% recovery of highly pure target sequences. We applied MeRPy for the depletion of insulin, glucagon, and transthyretin cDNA from clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) libraries. This step improved the data quality for low-abundance transcripts in expression profiles of pancreatic tissues. Its low cost, scalability, high stability and ease of use make MeRPy suitable for diverse applications in research and clinical laboratories, including enhancement of NGS libraries, extraction of DNA from biological samples, preparative-scale DNA isolations, and sorting of DNA-labeled non-nucleic acid targets. © 2020, The Author(s).
- ItemToward Functional Synthetic Cells: In-Depth Study of Nanoparticle and Enzyme Diffusion through a Cross-Linked Polymersome Membrane(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2019) Gumz, Hannes; Boye, Susanne; Iyisan, Banu; Krönert, Vera; Formanek, Petr; Voit, Brigitte; Lederer, Albena; Appelhans, DietmarUnderstanding the diffusion of nanoparticles through permeable membranes in cell mimics paves the way for the construction of more sophisticated synthetic protocells with control over the exchange of nanoparticles or biomacromolecules between different compartments. Nanoparticles postloading by swollen pH switchable polymersomes is investigated and nanoparticles locations at or within polymersome membrane and polymersome lumen are precisely determined. Validation of transmembrane diffusion properties is performed based on nanoparticles of different origin—gold, glycopolymer protein mimics, and the enzymes myoglobin and esterase—with dimensions between 5 and 15 nm. This process is compared with the in situ loading of nanoparticles during polymersome formation and analyzed by advanced multiple-detector asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). These experiments are supported by complementary i) release studies of protein mimics from polymersomes, ii) stability and cyclic pH switches test for in polymersome encapsulated myoglobin, and iii) cryogenic transmission electron microscopy studies on nanoparticles loaded polymersomes. Different locations (e.g., membrane and/or lumen) are identified for the uptake of each protein. The protein locations are extracted from the increasing scaling parameters and the decreasing apparent density of enzyme-containing polymersomes as determined by AF4. Postloading demonstrates to be a valuable tool for the implementation of cell-like functions in polymersomes.