Browsing by Author "Lehmann, Jens"
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- ItemAnalysing the evolution of computer science events leveraging a scholarly knowledge graph: a scientometrics study of top-ranked events in the past decade(Dordrecht [u.a.] : Springer Science + Business Media B.V., 2021) Lackner, Arthur; Fathalla, Said; Nayyeri, Mojtaba; Behrend, Andreas; Manthey, Rainer; Auer, Sören; Lehmann, Jens; Vahdati, SaharThe publish or perish culture of scholarly communication results in quality and relevance to be are subordinate to quantity. Scientific events such as conferences play an important role in scholarly communication and knowledge exchange. Researchers in many fields, such as computer science, often need to search for events to publish their research results, establish connections for collaborations with other researchers and stay up to date with recent works. Researchers need to have a meta-research understanding of the quality of scientific events to publish in high-quality venues. However, there are many diverse and complex criteria to be explored for the evaluation of events. Thus, finding events with quality-related criteria becomes a time-consuming task for researchers and often results in an experience-based subjective evaluation. OpenResearch.org is a crowd-sourcing platform that provides features to explore previous and upcoming events of computer science, based on a knowledge graph. In this paper, we devise an ontology representing scientific events metadata. Furthermore, we introduce an analytical study of the evolution of Computer Science events leveraging the OpenResearch.org knowledge graph. We identify common characteristics of these events, formalize them, and combine them as a group of metrics. These metrics can be used by potential authors to identify high-quality events. On top of the improved ontology, we analyzed the metadata of renowned conferences in various computer science communities, such as VLDB, ISWC, ESWC, WIMS, and SEMANTiCS, in order to inspect their potential as event metrics.
- ItemContextual Language Models for Knowledge Graph Completion(Aachen, Germany : RWTH Aachen, 2021) Russa, Biswas; Sofronova, Radina; Alam, Mehwish; Sack, Harald; Mehwish, Alam; Ali, Medi; Groth, Paul; Hitzler, Pascal; Lehmann, Jens; Paulheim, Heiko; Rettinger, Achim; Sack, Harald; Sadeghi, Afshin; Tresp, VolkerKnowledge Graphs (KGs) have become the backbone of various machine learning based applications over the past decade. However, the KGs are often incomplete and inconsistent. Several representation learning based approaches have been introduced to complete the missing information in KGs. Besides, Neural Language Models (NLMs) have gained huge momentum in NLP applications. However, exploiting the contextual NLMs to tackle the Knowledge Graph Completion (KGC) task is still an open research problem. In this paper, a GPT-2 based KGC model is proposed and is evaluated on two benchmark datasets. The initial results obtained from the _ne-tuning of the GPT-2 model for triple classi_cation strengthens the importance of usage of NLMs for KGC. Also, the impact of contextual language models for KGC has been discussed.
- ItemEncoding Knowledge Graph Entity Aliases in Attentive Neural Network for Wikidata Entity Linking(Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer, 2020) Mulang’, Isaiah Onando; Singh, Kuldeep; Vyas, Akhilesh; Shekarpour, Saeedeh; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Lehmann, Jens; Auer, Sören; Huang, Zhisheng; Beek, Wouter; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Rui; Zhang, YanchunThe collaborative knowledge graphs such as Wikidata excessively rely on the crowd to author the information. Since the crowd is not bound to a standard protocol for assigning entity titles, the knowledge graph is populated by non-standard, noisy, long or even sometimes awkward titles. The issue of long, implicit, and nonstandard entity representations is a challenge in Entity Linking (EL) approaches for gaining high precision and recall. Underlying KG in general is the source of target entities for EL approaches, however, it often contains other relevant information, such as aliases of entities (e.g., Obama and Barack Hussein Obama are aliases for the entity Barack Obama). EL models usually ignore such readily available entity attributes. In this paper, we examine the role of knowledge graph context on an attentive neural network approach for entity linking on Wikidata. Our approach contributes by exploiting the sufficient context from a KG as a source of background knowledge, which is then fed into the neural network. This approach demonstrates merit to address challenges associated with entity titles (multi-word, long, implicit, case-sensitive). Our experimental study shows ≈8% improvements over the baseline approach, and significantly outperform an end to end approach for Wikidata entity linking.
- ItemMachine Learning with Symbolic Methods and Knowledge Graphs(Aachen : RWTH Aachen, 2021) Alam, Mehwish; Ali, Mehdi; Groth, Paul; Hitzler, Pascal; Lehmann, Jens; Paulheim, Heiko; Rettinger, Achim; Sack, Harald; Sadeghi, Afshi; Tresp, Volker[no abstract available]
- ItemOntology Design for Pharmaceutical Research Outcomes(Cham : Springer, 2020) Say, Zeynep; Fathalla, Said; Vahdati, Sahar; Lehmann, Jens; Auer, Sören; Hall, Mark; Merčun, Tanja; Risse, Thomas; Duchateau, FabienThe network of scholarly publishing involves generating and exchanging ideas, certifying research, publishing in order to disseminate findings, and preserving outputs. Despite enormous efforts in providing support for each of those steps in scholarly communication, identifying knowledge fragments is still a big challenge. This is due to the heterogeneous nature of the scholarly data and the current paradigm of distribution by publishing (mostly document-based) over journal articles, numerous repositories, and libraries. Therefore, transforming this paradigm to knowledge-based representation is expected to reform the knowledge sharing in the scholarly world. Although many movements have been initiated in recent years, non-technical scientific communities suffer from transforming document-based publishing to knowledge-based publishing. In this paper, we present a model (PharmSci) for scholarly publishing in the pharmaceutical research domain with the goal of facilitating knowledge discovery through effective ontology-based data integration. PharmSci provides machine-interpretable information to the knowledge discovery process. The principles and guidelines of the ontological engineering have been followed. Reasoning-based techniques are also presented in the design of the ontology to improve the quality of targeted tasks for data integration. The developed ontology is evaluated with a validation process and also a quality verification method.
- ItemSemantic Representation of Physics Research Data(Setúbal, Portugal : Science and Technology Publications, Lda, 2020) Say, Aysegul; Fathalla, Said; Vahdati, Sahar; Lehmann, Jens; Auer, Sören; Aveiro, David; Dietz, Jan; Filipe, JoaquimImprovements in web technologies and artificial intelligence enable novel, more data-driven research practices for scientists. However, scientific knowledge generated from data-intensive research practices is disseminated with unstructured formats, thus hindering the scholarly communication in various respects. The traditional document-based representation of scholarly information hampers the reusability of research contributions. To address this concern, we developed the Physics Ontology (PhySci) to represent physics-related scholarly data in a machine-interpretable format. PhySci facilitates knowledge exploration, comparison, and organization of such data by representing it as knowledge graphs. It establishes a unique conceptualization to increase the visibility and accessibility to the digital content of physics publications. We present the iterative design principles by outlining a methodology for its development and applying three different evaluation approaches: data-driven and criteria-based evaluation, as well as ontology testing.
- ItemUnveiling Relations in the Industry 4.0 Standards Landscape Based on Knowledge Graph Embeddings(Cham : Springer, 2020) Rivas, Ariam; Grangel-González, Irlán; Collarana, Diego; Lehmann, Jens; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Hartmann, Sven; Küng, Josef; Kotsis, Gabriele; Tjoa, A Min; Khalil, IsmailIndustry 4.0 (I4.0) standards and standardization frameworks have been proposed with the goal of empowering interoperability in smart factories. These standards enable the description and interaction of the main components, systems, and processes inside of a smart factory. Due to the growing number of frameworks and standards, there is an increasing need for approaches that automatically analyze the landscape of I4.0 standards. Standardization frameworks classify standards according to their functions into layers and dimensions. However, similar standards can be classified differently across the frameworks, producing, thus, interoperability conflicts among them. Semantic-based approaches that rely on ontologies and knowledge graphs, have been proposed to represent standards, known relations among them, as well as their classification according to existing frameworks. Albeit informative, the structured modeling of the I4.0 landscape only provides the foundations for detecting interoperability issues. Thus, graph-based analytical methods able to exploit knowledge encoded by these approaches, are required to uncover alignments among standards. We study the relatedness among standards and frameworks based on community analysis to discover knowledge that helps to cope with interoperability conflicts between standards. We use knowledge graph embeddings to automatically create these communities exploiting the meaning of the existing relationships. In particular, we focus on the identification of similar standards, i.e., communities of standards, and analyze their properties to detect unknown relations. We empirically evaluate our approach on a knowledge graph of I4.0 standards using the Trans∗ family of embedding models for knowledge graph entities. Our results are promising and suggest that relations among standards can be detected accurately.