Browsing by Author "Mäder, Edith"
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- ItemCoating of Carbon Nanotube Fibers: Variation of Tensile Properties, Failure Behavior, and Adhesion Strength(Lausanne : Frontiers Media, 2015) Mäder, Edith; Liu, Jianwen; Hiller, Janett; Lu, Weibang; Li, Qingwen; Zhandarov, Serge; Chou, Tsu-WeiAn experimental study of the tensile properties of CNT fibers and their interphasial behavior in epoxy matrices is reported. One of the most promising applications of CNT fibers is their use as reinforcement in multifunctional composites. For this purpose, an increase of the tensile strength of the CNT fibers in unidirectional composites as well as strong interfacial adhesion strength is desirable. However, the mechanical performance of the CNT fiber composites manufactured so far is comparable to that of commercial fiber composites. The interfacial properties of CNT fiber/polymer composites have rarely been investigated and provided CNT fiber/epoxy interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of 14.4 MPa studied by the microbond test. In order to improve the mechanical performance of the CNT fibers, an epoxy compatible coating with nano-dispersed aqueous-based polymeric film formers and low viscous epoxy resin, respectively, was applied. For impregnation of high homogeneity, low molecular weight epoxy film formers and polyurethane film formers were used. The aqueous-based epoxy film formers were not crosslinked and able to interdiffuse with the matrix resin after impregnation. Due to good wetting of the individual CNT fibers by the film formers, the degree of activation of the fibers was improved, leading to increased tensile strength and Young’s modulus. Cyclic tensile loading and simultaneous determination of electric resistance enabled to characterize the fiber’s durability in terms of elastic recovery and hysteresis. The pull-out tests and SEM study reveal different interfacial failure mechanisms in CNT fiber/epoxy systems for untreated and film former treated fibers, on the one hand, and epoxy resin treated ones, on the other hand. The epoxy resin penetrated between the CNT bundles in the reference or film former coated fiber, forming a relatively thick CNT/epoxy composite layer and thus shifting the fracture zone within the fiber. In contrast to this, shear sliding along the interface between the matrix and the outer fiber layer impregnated with the resin was observed for epoxy resin-coated fibers. These fibers have been successfully pulled out of the matrix droplets and shown that the average local interfacial shear stress value was 63 MPa (with apparent IFSS values 33–60 MPa). The interfacial frictional stress between the fiber and the matrix was rather high (9.5 MPa), which can be attributed to the complex structure of the interface and the fiber twisting.
- ItemCommingled Yarn Spinning for Thermoplastic/Glass Fiber Composites(Basel : MDPI, 2017) Wiegand, Niclas; Mäder, EdithOnline commingled yarns were spun with three different polymeric matrices, namely polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA) and polylactic acid (PLA) and glass fibers. Tailored sizings were applied for the three matrices and the resulting mechanical performance of unidirectional composites was evaluated and compared. Significant improvements in the fiber/matrix bonding were achieved by employed sizing chemistry in order to achieve multifunctional interphases. The pure silane coupling agents provide the best performance for all matrices investigated. However, an additional film former has to be added in order to achieve fiber processing. Film formers compatible to the matrices investigated were adapted. The consolidation behavior during isothermal molding was investigated for polypropylene matrix. Different fiber volume contents could be realized and the resulting mechanical properties were tested.
- ItemCVD-Grown CNTs on Basalt Fiber Surfaces for Multifunctional Composite Interphases(Basel : MDPI, 2016) Förster, Theresa; Hao, Bin; Mäder, Edith; Simon, Frank; Wölfel, Enrico; Ma, Peng-ChengChemical vapor deposition (CVD) is used as a method for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNT) on substrates, most commonly pre-treated by a metal-catalyst. In this work, the capability of basalt fiber surfaces was investigated in order to stimulate catalyst-free growth of carbon nanotubes. We have carried out CVD experiments on unsized, sized, and NaOH-treated basalt fibers modified by growth temperature and a process gas mixture. Subsequently, we investigated the fiber surfaces by SEM, AFM, XPS and carried out single fiber tensile tests. Growth temperatures of 700 °C as well as 800 °C may induce CNT growth, but depending on the basalt fiber surface, the growth process was differently affected. The XPS results suggest surficial iron is not crucial for the CNT growth. We demonstrate that the formation of a corrosion shell is able to support CNT networks. However, our investigations do not expose distinctively the mechanisms by which unsized basalt fibers sometimes induce vertically aligned CNT carpets, isotropically arranged CNTs or no CNT growth. Considering data from the literature and our AFM results, it is assumed that the nano-roughness of surfaces could be a critical parameter for CNT growth. These findings will motivate the design of future experiments to discover the role of surface roughness as well as surface defects on the formation of hierarchical interphases.
- ItemInvestigation of transcrystalline interphases in polypropylene/glass fiber composites using micromechanical tests(Basel : MDPI, 2018) Brodowsky, Hanna; Mäder, EdithIn composites, a strong interphase between the components is essential for mechanical properties. By using a suitable sizing (i.e., surface modification) of the fiber, the interphase may be varied, e.g., by suppressing or promoting heterogeneous nucleation of a thermoplastic matrix. In the latter case, three-dimensional transcrystallized interphases with properties differing from those of the bulk matrix are formed. Polypropylene-glass fiber composites are prepared as single-fiber model composites with (a) sizings either inducing or suppressing a transcrystalline interphase, (b) different amounts of modifier maleic acid anhydride grafted polypropylene, and (c) different molecular weights of the matrix polymer. These are studied in quasi-static or cyclic load tests. Static tests permit insights in the interfacial characteristics such as critical interface energy release rate, adhesion strength and frictional stress. Cyclic tests on these model composites can be used to study the nature of dissipative processes and the damage behavior. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigations of the fiber fracture surfaces provide supplementary information. The transcrystalline layer can indeed improve the mechanical parameters (a 70–100% increase of strength and a 25 or 125% increase in toughness, depending on the molecular weight (MW) of the matrix polymer at low modifier concentration). However, the effect is partially neutralized by an opposing effect: high nucleation in the bulk in samples with commonly used concentrations of modifier.
- ItemProjekt: Hydrolyse- und korrosionsbeständiger Glascord, kurz: Glascord, Teilvorhaben: Glasfaserherstellung und Grenzschichtdesign : Abschlussbericht zum Teilvorhaben ; Berichtszeitraum: 01.07.2008 - 31.12.2011(Hannover : Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB), 2012) Malanin, Mikhail; Scheffler, Christina; Mäder, Edith[no abstract available]
- ItemWhy Should the “Alternative” Method of Estimating Local Interfacial Shear Strength in a Pull-Out Test Be Preferred to Other Methods?(Basel : MDPI, 2018) Zhandarov, Serge; Mäder, Edith; Gohs, UweOne of the most popular micromechanical techniques of determining the local interfacial shear strength (local IFSS, τd) between a fiber and a matrix is the single fiber pull-out test. The τd values are calculated from the characteristic forces determined from the experimental force–displacement curves using a model which relates their values to local interfacial strength parameters. Traditionally, the local IFSS is estimated from the debond force, Fd, which corresponds to the crack initiation and manifests itself by a “kink” in the force–displacement curve. However, for some specimens the kink point is hardly discernible, and the “alternative” method based on the post-debonding force, Fb, and the maximum force reached in the test, Fmax, has been proposed. Since the experimental force–displacement curve includes three characteristic points in which the relationship between the current values of the applied load and the crack length is reliably established, and, at the same time, it is fully determined by only two interfacial parameters, τd and the interfacial frictional stress, τf, several methods for the determination of τd and τf can be proposed. In this paper, we analyzed several theoretical and experimental force–displacement curves for different fiber-reinforced materials (thermoset, thermoplastic and concrete) and compared all seven possible methods of τd and τf calculation. It was shown that the “alternative” method was the most accurate and reliable one, while the traditional approach often yielded the worst results. Therefore, we proposed that the “alternative” method should be preferred for the experimental force–displacement curves analysis.