Browsing by Author "Müller, Michael Thomas"
Now showing 1 - 10 of 10
Results Per Page
- ItemAbschlussbericht zum BMBF Verbundprojekt: Kompetenznetzwerk für Nanosystemintegration: Anwendung von Nanotechnologien für energieeffiziente Sensorsysteme zu dem Teilvorhaben: LPC-Materialintegrierte Sensorik basierend auf Nanoeffekten - Entwicklung multifunktionaler Polymernanokompositestrukturen ; Laufzeit: 01.11.2009 bis 31.10.2012(Hannover : Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB), 2012) Voit, Brigitte; Staudinger, Ulrike; Müller, Michael Thomas; Demir, Emrah; Pötschke, Petra[no abstract available]
- ItemEffect of Graphite Nanoplate Morphology on the Dispersion and Physical Properties of Polycarbonate Based Composites(Basel : MDPI, 2017-5-18) Müller, Michael Thomas; Hilarius, Konrad; Liebscher, Marco; Lellinger, Dirk; Alig, Ingo; Pötschke, PetraThe influence of the morphology of industrial graphite nanoplate (GNP) materials on their dispersion in polycarbonate (PC) is studied. Three GNP morphology types were identified, namely lamellar, fragmented or compact structure. The dispersion evolution of all GNP types in PC is similar with varying melt temperature, screw speed, or mixing time during melt mixing. Increased shear stress reduces the size of GNP primary structures, whereby the GNP aspect ratio decreases. A significant GNP exfoliation to individual or few graphene layers could not be achieved under the selected melt mixing conditions. The resulting GNP macrodispersion depends on the individual GNP morphology, particle sizes and bulk density and is clearly reflected in the composite's electrical, thermal, mechanical, and gas barrier properties. Based on a comparison with carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon black (CB), CNT are recommended in regard to electrical conductivity, whereas, for thermal conductive or gas barrier application, GNP is preferred.
- ItemEvaluation of electron induced crosslinking of masticated natural rubber at different temperatures(Basel : MDPI, 2019) Huang, Ying; Gohs, Uwe; Müller, Michael Thomas; Zschech, Carsten; Wießner, SvenIn this work, natural rubber (NR) was masticated using an internal mixer to fit the requirements of reactive blending with polylactide and characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and dynamic rheology measurements. Subsequently, the effect of elevated temperatures (25 °C, 80 °C, and 170 °C) on the electron beam (EB) induced crosslinking and degradation of masticated natural rubber (mNR) in a nitrogen atmosphere without adding crosslinking agents has been investigated. The sol gel investigation showed that the gel dose of mNR slightly increased with increasing irradiation temperature, which is also confirmed by the swelling test. The chain scission to crosslinking ratio (Gs/Gx) was found to be less than 1 for irradiated mNR at 25 °C and 80 °C, suggesting a dominating crosslinking behavior of mNR. However, a significant increase of Gs/Gx ratio (~1.12) was observed for mNR irradiated at 170 °C due to the enhanced thermal degradation behavior at high temperature. A remarkably improved elasticity (higher complex viscosity, higher storage modulus, and longer relaxation time) for EB modified mNR was demonstrated by dynamic rheological analysis. Particularly, the samples modified at higher temperatures represented more pronounced elasticity behavior which resulted from the higher number of branches and/or the longer branched chains.
- ItemInfluence of a supplemental filler in twin-screw extruded PP/CNT composites using masterbatch dilution(Melville, NY : AIP, 2019) Müller, Michael Thomas; Krause, Beate; Kretzschmar, Bernd; Pötschke, PetraIn this study commercially available multiwalled carbon nanotubes (2-8 wt.%) were incorporated in polypropylene (PP) by direct powder feeding or by a masterbatch dilution procedure using a twin-screw extruder. The influence of a supplemental, electrical non-conductive talc or electrically conductive carbon black (CB), filler on the resulting composite properties was investigated. In comparison to the direct carbon nanotube (CNT) incorporation the masterbatch dilution step resulted in improved CNT macro dispersion. The use of the supplemental fillers CB or talc does not show a significant influence on the CNT dispersion state. When compared to direct CNT incorporation, the second compounding process involved in masterbatch dilution leads to higher electrical resistivity of injection molded samples. On the other hand, the supplemental fillers talc or CB decreased the electrical resistivity values. With the addition of talc or CB an increase of the Young’s modulus due to the reinforcing effect of the second filler was achieved. However, no synergistic effect between the used supplemental fillers and the CNT on the mechanical properties was obtained.
- ItemInfluence of feeding conditions in twin-screw extrusion of PP/MWCNT composites on electrical and mechanical properties(Barking : Elsevier, 2011) Müller, Michael Thomas; Krause, Beate; Kretzschmar, Bernd; Pötschke, PetraThe influence of feeding conditions of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) materials, namely Baytubes® C150P and Nanocyl™ NC7000, into polypropylene (PP) was investigated with respect to achieving suitable nanotube dispersion, high electrical conductivity, and good mechanical properties. Both MWCNT materials were fed at selected concentrations either in the hopper of the twin-screw extruder or using a side feeder under otherwise identical extrusion conditions (rotation speed, throughput, temperature profile) using a Berstorff ZE 25 twin-screw extruder. Afterwards, injection molding was performed under identical conditions. The results indicate that the more compact Baytubes® C150P agglomerates should be added into the hopper, as the dispersion assessed by light microscopy is better, electrical resistivities measured on compression and injection molded samples are lower, and elastic modulus, yield strength and impact strength are higher as compared to side feeding. On the other hand, for the more loosely packed Nanocyl™ NC7000 agglomerates, addition using the side feeder leads to better dispersion, lower electrical resistivity, and higher mechanical properties. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
- ItemInfluence of talc with different particle sizes in melt-mixed LLDPE/MWCNT composites(Hoboken, NJ [u.a.] : Wiley, 2013) Müller, Michael Thomas; Dreyße, Janine; Häußler, Liane; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, PetraLinear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) was melt-mixed with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and varying amounts of three different kinds of talc (phyllo silicate), each with a different particle size distribution, to examine the effect of these filler combinations with regards to the electrical percolation behavior. The state of the filler dispersion was assessed using transmission light microscopy and electron microscopy. The use of talc as a second filler during the melt mixing of LLDPE/MWCNT composites resulted in an improvement in the dispersion of the MWCNTs and a decrease of the electrical percolation threshold. Talc with lower particle sizes showed a more pronounced effect than talc with larger particle sizes. However, the improvement in dispersion was not reflected in the mechanical properties. Modulus and stress values increase with both, MWCNT and talc addition, but not in a synergistic manner. The crystallization behavior of the composites was studied by differential scanning calorimetry to determine its potential influence on the electrical percolation threshold. It was found that the crystallinity of the matrix increased slightly with the addition of talc but no further increments were observed with the incorporation of the MWCNTs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- ItemLaccase-Enzyme Treated Flax Fibre for Use in Natural Fibre Epoxy Composites(Basel : MDPI, 2020) Brodowsky, Hanna M.; Hennig, Anne; Müller, Michael Thomas; Werner, Anett; Zhandarov, Serge; Gohs, UweNatural fibres have a high potential as reinforcement of polymer matrices, as they combine a high specific strength and modulus with sustainable production and reasonable prices. Modifying the fibre surface is a common method to increase the adhesion and thereby enhance the mechanical properties of composites. In this study, a novel sustainable surface treatment is presented: the fungal enzyme laccase was utilised with the aim of covalently binding the coupling agent dopamine to flax fibre surfaces. The goal is to improve the interfacial strength towards an epoxy matrix. SEM and AFM micrographs showed that the modification changes the surface morphology, indicating a deposition of dopamine on the surface. Fibre tensile tests, which were performed to check whether the fibre structure was damaged during the treatment, showed that no decrease in tensile strength or modulus occurred. Single fibre pullout tests showed a 30% increase in interfacial shear strength (IFSS) due to the laccase-mediated bonding of the coupling agent dopamine. These results demonstrate that a laccase + dopamine treatment modifies flax fibres sustainably and increases the interfacial strength towards epoxy.
- ItemA new strategy to improve viscoelasticity, crystallization and mechanical properties of polylactide(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2021) Huang, Ying; Müller, Michael Thomas; Boldt, Regine; Zschech, Carsten; Gohs, Uwe; Wießner, SvenBiodegradable polylactide/masticated natural rubber (PLA/mNR) blends were prepared by electron induced reactive processing (EIReP) without using any chemical additives. The PLA/mNR blends showed droplet-matrix morphology with decreased mNR particle size after EIReP treatment. The absolute value of complex viscosity and storage modulus increased significantly for the EIReP modified blends, suggesting the improved melt strength and elasticity. The crystallization investigation showed that the cold crystallization peak of PLA phase gradually disappeared after EIReP modification. Instead, the crystallization peak arose during melt cooling process. Consequently, the crystallinity of PLA phase increased from 6.2% to 39.0% as the mNR content increased from 0 to 20 wt%. It was found that the softening temperature of PLA examined by dynamic mechanical analysis increased effectively with the characters of higher modulus compared to the non-modified blends. The EIReP modified blends exhibited excellent mechanical properties with 7-fold increase of impact toughness compared with neat PLA, implying a superior interfacial adhesion and chain interactions between the two polymer phases. Furthermore, the thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the thermal stability was slightly enhanced for the EIReP modified blends.
- ItemOnline Structural-Health Monitoring of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastics Using Different Carbon Allotropes in the Interphase(Basel : MDPI, 2018) Müller, Michael Thomas; Pötzsch, Hendrik Florian; Gohs, Uwe; Heinrich, GertAn electromechanical response behavior is realized by nanostructuring the glass fiber interphase with different highly electrically conductive carbon allotropes like carbon nanotubes (CNT), graphene nanoplatelets (GNP), or conductive carbon black (CB). The operational capability of these multifunctional glass fibers for an online structural-health monitoring is demonstrated in endless glass fiber-reinforced polypropylene. The electromechanical response behavior, during a static or dynamic three-point bending test of various carbon modifications, shows qualitative differences in the signal quality and sensitivity due to the different aspect ratios of the nanoparticles and the associated electrically conductive network densities in the interphase. Depending on the embedding position within the glass fiber-reinforced composite compression, shear and tension loadings of the fibers can be distinguished by different characteristics of the corresponding electrical signal. The occurrence of irreversible signal changes during the dynamic loading can be attributed to filler reorientation processes caused by polymer creeping or by destruction of electrically conductive paths by cracks in the glass fiber interphase.
- ItemA successful approach to disperse MWCNTs in polyethylene by melt mixing using polyethylene glycol as additive(Oxford : Elsevier Science, 2012) Müller, Michael Thomas; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, PetraAn additive-assisted one-step melt mixing approach was developed to produce nanocomposites based on linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT). The polymer granules, nanotube powder (2 wt% Nanocyl™ NC7000) and 1-10 wt% of the non-ionic additives poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with molar masses between 100 g/mol and 100,000 g/mol were simply fed together in the hopper of a small-scale DSM Xplore 15 twin-screw microcompounder. The produced MWCNT/LLDPE composites showed excellent MWCNT dispersion and highly improved electrical properties as compared to samples without the additive, whereas the effects depend on the amount and molar mass of the additive. When 7 wt% PEG (2000 g/mol) were used, a reduction of the electrical percolation threshold from 2.5 wt% to 1.5 wt% was achieved. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.