Browsing by Author "Marzban, Nader"
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- ItemChanges in Selected Organic and Inorganic Compounds in the Hydrothermal Carbonization Process Liquid While in Storage(Washington, DC : ACS Publications, 2023) Marzban, Nader; Libra, Judy A.; Rotter, Vera Susanne; Ro, Kyoung S.; Moloeznik Paniagua, Daniela; Filonenko, SvitlanaAlthough many studies have investigated the hydrothermal transformation of feedstock biomass, little is known about the stability of the compounds present in the process liquid after the carbonization process is completed. The physicochemical characteristics of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) liquid products may change over storage time, diminishing the amount of desired products or producing unwanted contaminants. These changes may restrict the use of HTC liquid products. Here, we investigate the effect of storage temperature (20, 4, and −18 °C) and time (weeks 1-12) on structural and compositional changes of selected organic compounds and physicochemical characteristics of the process liquid from the HTC of digested cow manure. ANOVA showed that the storage time has a significant effect on the concentrations of almost all of the selected organic compounds, except acetic acid. Considerable changes in the composition of the process liquid took place at all studied temperatures, including deep freezing at −18 °C. Prominent is the polymerization of aromatic compounds with the formation of precipitates, which settle over time. This, in turn, influences the inorganic compounds present in the liquid phase by chelating or selectively adsorbing them. The implications of these results on the further processing of the process liquid for various applications are discussed.
- ItemChemical insights into the base-tuned hydrothermal treatment of side stream biomasses(Cambridge : Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022) Tkachenko, Vitalii; Marzban, Nader; Vogl, Sarah; Filonenko, Svitlana; Antonietti, MarkusHerein, we analyzed the hydrothermal processes applied to four very different side stream biomasses (chestnut foliage, sugar beet pressing chips, pine bark and branches from park cleaning, bamboo cuts) and identified diverse soluble products depending on the starting pH of the reaction, covering mild to strong basic pH conditions. Despite the biological diversity of the starting products, hydrothermal disintegration of biomass results in a remarkable reduction of chemical diversity towards a controllable number of molecular products, and the well-resolved and rather simple NMR-spectra allow the assignment of the products to only a few families of compounds. It has been revealed that in comparison with the classical hydrothermal treatment, where mostly hydrochar is produced, molar excess of base shifts the hydrothermal treatment towards a humification process. A further increase of the base content causes destruction of the biomass into the more oxygenated homogeneous colloid and thus, for the first time, it can be assigned to the hydrothermal fulvication process. We discuss diverse valorization schemes depending on the biomass and conditions applied.
- ItemEvaluation of Sonocatalytic and Photocatalytic Processes Efficiency for Degradation of Humic Compounds Using Synthesized Transition-Metal-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles in Aqueous Solution(New York, NY [u.a.] : Hindawi, 2021) Maleki, Afshin; Seifi, Mehran; Marzban, NaderThe existence of a humic substance in water causes the growth of microorganisms and reduces the quality of water; therefore, the removal of these materials is crucial. Here, the ZnO nanoparticles doped using transition metals, copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn), were used as an effective catalyst for photocatalytic removal of humic substances in an aqueous environment under ultraviolet, visible light, and light-emitting diode irradiations. Also, we study the effect of the sonocatalytic method. A solvothermal procedure is used for doping, and the Cu- and Mn-doped ZnO nanocatalyst were characterized by means of FTIR, XRD, AFM, SEM, and EDAX analyses. We investigate the effect of operational variables, including doping ratio, initial pH, catalyst dose, initial HS content, and illuminance on the removal efficiency of the processes. The findings of the analyses used for the characterization of the nanoparticles illustrate the appropriate synthesis of the Cu- and Mn-doped ZnO nanocatalysts. We observe the highest removal efficiency rate under acidic conditions and the process efficiency decreased with increasing solution pH, when we tested it in the range of 3–7. Photocatalytic decomposition of HS increases with a rise in catalyst dose, but an increase in initial HS content results in decreasing the removal efficiency. We observe the highest photocatalytic degradation of humic acid while using the visible light, and the highest removal efficiency is obtained using Cu.ZnO. The Cu.ZnO also shows better performance under ultraviolet irradiation compared to other agents.
- ItemExperimental evaluation and application of genetic programming to develop predictive correlations for hydrochar higher heating value and yield to optimize the energy content(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2022) Marzban, Nader; Libra, Judy A.; Hosseini, Seyyed Hossein; Fischer, Marcus G.; Rotter, Vera SusanneThe hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process has been found to consistently improve biomass fuel characteristics by raising the higher heating value (HHV) of the hydrochar as process severity is increased. However, this is usually associated with a decrease in the solid yield (SY) of hydrochar, making it difficult to determine the optimal operating conditions to obtain the highest energy yield (EY), which combines the two parameters. In this study, a graph-based genetic programming (GP) method was used for developing correlations to predict HHV, SY, and EY for hydrochars based on published values from 42 biomasses and a broad range of HTC experimental systems and operating conditions, i.e., 5 ≤ holding time (min) ≤ 2208, 120 ≤ temperature (°C) ≤ 300, and 0. 0096 ≤ biomass to water ratio ≤ 0.5. In addition, experiments were carried out with 5 pomaces at 4 temperatures and two reactor scales, 1 L and 18.75 L. The correlations were evaluated using this experimental data set in order to estimate prediction errors in similar experimental systems. The use of the correlations to predict HTC conditions to achieve the maximum EY is demonstrated for three common feedstocks, wheat straw, sewage sludge, and a fruit pomace. The prediction was confirmed experimentally with pomace at the optimized HTC conditions; we observed 6.9 % error between the measured and predicted EY %. The results show that the correlations can be used to predict the optimal operating conditions to produce hydrochar with the desired fuel characteristics with a minimum of actual HTC runs.