Browsing by Author "Nielsch, Kornelius"
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- ItemAero-TiO2 Prepared on the Basis of Networks of ZnO Tetrapods(Basel : MDPI, 2022) Ciobanu, Vladimir; Ursaki, Veaceslav V.; Lehmann, Sebastian; Braniste, Tudor; Raevschi, Simion; Zalamai, Victor V.; Monaico, Eduard V.; Colpo, Pascal; Nielsch, Kornelius; Tiginyanu, Ion M.In this paper, new aeromaterials are proposed on the basis of titania thin films deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a sacrificial network of ZnO microtetrapods. The technology consists of two technological steps applied after ALD, namely, thermal treatment at different temperatures and etching of the sacrificial template. Two procedures are applied for etching, one of which is wet etching in a citric acid aqua solution, while the other one is etching in a hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) system with HCl and hydrogen chemicals. The morphology, composition, and crystal structure of the produced aeromaterials are investigated depending on the temperature of annealing and the sequence of the technological steps. The performed photoluminescence analysis suggests that the developed aeromaterials are potential candidates for photocatalytic applications.
- ItemAnalysis of the high-speed rotary motion of a superconducting magnetic bearing during ring spinning(Bristol : IOP Publishing, 2020) Sparing, Maria; Espenhahn, Tilo; Fuchs, Günter; Hossain, Mahmud; Abdkader, Anwar; Nielsch, Kornelius; Cherif, Chokri; Hühne, RubenRing spinning is the leading textile technology for the production of short staple yarn, which runs commercially up to a maximum speed of 25 000 rpm. Higher speeds result in yarn damage mainly due to frictional heat. To eliminate this limitation, a friction-free superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) was introduced as alternative high-speed yarn twist element consisting of a cryostat with an array of superconductors and a levitating permanent magnet ring with a yarn guide. Whereas stable spinning was possible until 30 000 rpm, it turned out that the new SMB twist element is more susceptible to external disturbances resulting in oscillating movements of the magnet. Therefore, a measurement system with an array of 5 synchronized optical laser triangulation sensors and one tachometer was implemented to analyse this motion in detail during spinning with high speeds. To test the system, the spinning speed was varied between 10 000 rpm and 21 000 rpm for different yarn qualities. In general, the magnetic ring oscillates around its centre position with the rotation frequency and a peak amplitude between 10 μm and 14 μm, which might be due to a small imbalance of the magnet. At the same time, the small tilt of the ring remained fixed with respect to the machine for all speeds. In addition, larger oscillation amplitudes of up to 300 μm are observed at 18 Hz for selected spinning parameters arising most probably from resonance effects with machine vibrations.
- ItemAtom size electron vortex beams with selectable orbital angular momentum(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2017) Pohl, Darius; Schneider, Sebastian; Zeiger, Paul; Rusz, Ján; Tiemeijer, Peter; Lazar, Sorin; Nielsch, Kornelius; Rellinghaus, BerndThe decreasing size of modern functional magnetic materials and devices cause a steadily increasing demand for high resolution quantitative magnetic characterization. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based measurements of the electron energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism (EMCD) may serve as the needed experimental tool. To this end, we present a reliable and robust electron-optical setup that generates and controls user-selectable single state electron vortex beams with defined orbital angular momenta. Our set-up is based on a standard high-resolution scanning TEM with probe aberration corrector, to which we added a vortex generating fork aperture and a miniaturized aperture for vortex selection. We demonstrate that atom size probes can be formed from these electron vortices and that they can be used for atomic resolution structural and spectroscopic imaging – both of which are prerequisites for future atomic EMCD investigations.
- ItemBerry phase and band structure analysis of the Weyl semimetal NbP(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Sergelius, Philip; Gooth, Johannes; Bäßler, Svenja; Zierold, Robert; Wiegand, Christoph; Niemann, Anna; Reith, Heiko; Shekhar, Chandra; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai; Nielsch, KorneliusWeyl semimetals are often considered the 3D-analogon of graphene or topological insulators. The evaluation of quantum oscillations in these systems remains challenging because there are often multiple conduction bands. We observe de Haas-van Alphen oscillations with several frequencies in a single crystal of the Weyl semimetal niobium phosphide. For each fundamental crystal axis, we can fit the raw data to a superposition of sinusoidal functions, which enables us to calculate the characteristic parameters of all individual bulk conduction bands using Fourier transform with an analysis of the temperature and magnetic field-dependent oscillation amplitude decay. Our experimental results indicate that the band structure consists of Dirac bands with low cyclotron mass, a non-trivial Berry phase and parabolic bands with a higher effective mass and trivial Berry phase.
- ItemBuilding Hierarchical Martensite(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Schwabe, Stefan; Niemann, Robert; Backen, Anja; Wolf, Daniel; Damm, Christine; Walter, Tina; Seiner, Hanuš; Heczko, Oleg; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fähler, SebastianMartensitic materials show a complex, hierarchical microstructure containing structural domains separated by various types of twin boundaries. Several concepts exist to describe this microstructure on each length scale, however, there is no comprehensive approach bridging the whole range from the nano- up to the macroscopic scale. Here, it is described for a Ni-Mn-based Heusler alloy how this hierarchical microstructure is built from scratch with just one key parameter: the tetragonal distortion of the basic building block at the atomic level. Based on this initial block, five successive levels of nested building blocks are introduced. At each level, a larger building block is formed by twinning the preceding one to minimize the relevant energy contributions locally. This naturally explains the coexistence of different types of twin boundaries. The scale-bridging approach of nested building blocks is compared with experiments in real and reciprocal space. The approach of nested building blocks is versatile as it can be applied to the broad class of functional materials exhibiting diffusionless transformations. © 2020 The Authors. Advanced Functional Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemCan gadolinium compete with La-Fe-Co-Si in a thermomagnetic generator?(Abingdon : Taylor & Francis, 2021) Dzekan, Daniel; Diestel, Anett; Berger, Dietmar; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fähler, SebastianA thermomagnetic generator is a promising technology to harvest low-grade waste heat and convert it into electricity. To make this technology competitive with other technologies for energy harvesting near room temperature, the optimum thermomagnetic material is required. Here we compare the performance of a state of the art thermomagnetic generator using gadolinium and La-Fe-Co-Si as thermomagnetic material, which exhibit strong differences in thermal conductivity and type of magnetic transition. gadolinium is the established benchmark material for magnetocaloric cooling, which follows the reverse energy conversion process as compared to thermomagnetic energy harvesting. Surprisingly, La-Fe-Co-Si outperforms gadolinium in terms of voltage and power output. Our analysis reveals the differences in thermal conductivity are less important than the particular shape of the magnetization curve. In gadolinium an unsymmetrical magnetization curve is responsible for an uncompensated magnetic flux, which results in magnetic stray fields. These stray fields represent an energy barrier in the thermodynamic cycle and reduce the output of the generator. Our detailed experiments and simulations of both, thermomagnetic materials and generator, clearly reveal the importance to minimize magnetic stray fields. This is only possible when using materials with a symmetrical magnetization curve, such as La-Fe-Co-Si.
- ItemCharting lattice thermal conductivity for inorganic crystals and discovering rare earth chalcogenides for thermoelectrics(Cambridge : RSC Publ., 2021) Zhu, Taishan; He, Ran; Gong, Sheng; Xie, Tian; Gorai, Prashun; Nielsch, Kornelius; Grossman, Jeffrey C.Thermoelectric power generation represents a promising approach to utilize waste heat. The most effective thermoelectric materials exhibit low thermal conductivity κ. However, less than 5% out of about 105 synthesized inorganic materials are documented with their κ values, while for the remaining 95% κ values are missing and challenging to predict. In this work, by combining graph neural networks and random forest approaches, we predict the thermal conductivity of all known inorganic materials in the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database, and chart the structural chemistry of κ into extended van-Arkel triangles. Together with the newly developed κ map and our theoretical tool, we identify rare-earth chalcogenides as promising candidates, of which we measured ZT exceeding 1.0. We note that the κ chart can be further explored, and our computational and analytical tools are applicable generally for materials informatics.
- ItemComparative Study of Onion-like Carbons Prepared from Different Synthesis Routes towards Li-Ion Capacitor Application(Basel : MDPI, 2022) Permana, Antonius Dimas Chandra; Ding, Ling; Gonzalez-Martinez, Ignacio Guillermo; Hantusch, Martin; Nielsch, Kornelius; Mikhailova, Daria; Omar, AhmadLi-ion capacitors (LIC) have emerged as a promising hybrid energy storage system in response to increasing energy demands. However, to achieve excellent LIC performance at high rates, along with cycling stability, an alternative anode to graphite is needed. Porous high-surface-area carbons, such as onion-like carbons (OLCs), have been recently found to hold high potential as high-rate-capable LIC anodes. However, a systematic understanding of their synthesis route and morphology is lacking. In this study, OLCs prepared from self-made metal organic frameworks (MOFs) Fe-BTC and Fe-MIL100 by a simple pyrolysis method were compared to OLCs obtained via high-temperature annealing of nanodiamonds. The LICs with OLCs produced from Fe-BTC achieved a maximum energy density of 243 Wh kg−1 and a power density of 20,149 W kg−1. Furthermore, excellent capacitance retention of 78% after 10,000 cycles was demonstrated. LICs with MOF-derived OLCs surpassed the energy and power density of LICs with nanodiamond-derived OLCs. We determined the impact of the MOF precursor structure and morphology on the resulting OLC properties, as well as on the electrochemical performance. Thus, MOF-derived OLCs offer significant potential toward high-performance anode material for LICs, enabling control over structure and morphology, as well as easy scalability for industrial implementation.
- ItemControl of Positive and Negative Magnetoresistance in Iron Oxide : Iron Nanocomposite Thin Films for Tunable Magnetoelectric Nanodevices(2020) Nichterwitz, Martin; Honnali, Shashank; Zehner, Jonas; Schneider, Sebastian; Pohl, Darius; Schiemenz, Sandra; Goennenwein, Sebastian T.B.; Nielsch, Kornelius; Leistner, KarinThe perspective of energy-efficient and tunable functional magnetic nanostructures has triggered research efforts in the fields of voltage control of magnetism and spintronics. We investigate the magnetotransport properties of nanocomposite iron oxide/iron thin films with a nominal iron thickness of 5-50 nm and find a positive magnetoresistance at small thicknesses. The highest magnetoresistance was found for 30 nm Fe with +1.1% at 3 T. This anomalous behavior is attributed to the presence of Fe3O4-Fe nanocomposite regions due to grain boundary oxidation. At the Fe3O4/Fe interfaces, spin-polarized electrons in the magnetite can be scattered and reoriented. A crossover to negative magnetoresistance (-0.11%) is achieved at a larger thickness (>40 nm) when interface scattering effects become negligible as more current flows through the iron layer. Electrolytic gating of this system induces voltage-triggered redox reactions in the Fe3O4 regions and thereby enables voltage-tuning of the magnetoresistance with the locally oxidized regions as the active tuning elements. In the low-magnetic-field region (<1 T), a crossover from positive to negative magnetoresistance is achieved by a voltage change of only 1.72 V. At 3 T, a relative change of magnetoresistance about -45% during reduction was achieved for the 30 nm Fe sample. The present low-voltage approach signifies a step forward to practical and tunable room-temperature magnetoresistance-based nanodevices, which can boost the development of nanoscale and energy-efficient magnetic field sensors with high sensitivity, magnetic memories, and magnetoelectric devices in general. Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society.
- ItemCore–Shell GaAs-Fe Nanowire Arrays: Fabrication Using Electrochemical Etching and Deposition and Study of Their Magnetic Properties(Basel : MDPI, 2022) Monaico, Eduard V.; Morari, Vadim; Ursaki, Veaceslav V.; Nielsch, Kornelius; Tiginyanu, Ion M.The preparation of GaAs nanowire templates with the cost-effective electrochemical etching of (001) and (111)B GaAs substrates in a 1 M HNO3 electrolyte is reported. The electrochemical etching resulted in the obtaining of GaAs nanowires with both perpendicular and parallel orientations with respect to the wafer surface. Core–shell GaAs-Fe nanowire arrays have been prepared by galvanostatic Fe deposition into these templates. The fabricated arrays have been investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The magnetic properties of the polycrystalline Fe nanotubes constituting the shells of the cylindrical structures, such as the saturation and remanence moment, squareness ratio, and coercivity, were analyzed in relation to previously reported data on ferromagnetic nanowires and nanotubes.
- ItemCore–Shell Structures Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition on GaAs Nanowires(Basel : MDPI, 2022) Ursaki, Veaceslav V.; Lehmann, Sebastian; Zalamai, Victor V.; Morari, Vadim; Nielsch, Kornelius; Tiginyanu, Ion M.; Monaico, Eduard V.GaAs nanowire arrays have been prepared by anodization of GaAs substrates. The nanowires produced on (111)B GaAs substrates were found to be oriented predominantly perpendicular to the substrate surface. The prepared nanowire arrays have been coated with thin ZnO or TiO2 layers by means of thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD), thus coaxial core–shell hybrid structures are being fabricated. The hybrid structures have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the morphology investigations, by Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis for the composition and crystal structure assessment, and by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for obtaining an insight on emission polarization related to different recombination channels in the prepared core–shell structures.
- ItemCurrent State-of-the-Art in the Interface/Surface Modification of Thermoelectric Materials(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) He, Shiyang; Lehmann, Sebastian; Bahrami, Amin; Nielsch, KorneliusThermoelectric (TE) materials are prominent candidates for energy converting applications due to their excellent performance and reliability. Extensive efforts for improving their efficiency in single-/multi-phase composites comprising nano/micro-scale second phases are being made. The artificial decoration of second phases into the thermoelectric matrix in multi-phase composites, which is distinguished from the second-phase precipitation occurring during the thermally equilibrated synthesis of TE materials, can effectively enhance their performance. Theoretically, the interfacial manipulation of phase boundaries can be extended to a wide range of materials. High interface densities decrease thermal conductivity when nano/micro-scale grain boundaries are obtained and certain electronic structure modifications may increase the power factor of TE materials. Based on the distribution of second phases on the interface boundaries, the strategies can be divided into discontinuous and continuous interfacial modifications. The discontinuous interfacial modifications section in this review discusses five parts chosen according to their dispersion forms, including metals, oxides, semiconductors, carbonic compounds, and MXenes. Alternatively, gas- and solution-phase process techniques are adopted for realizing continuous surface changes, like the core–shell structure. This review offers a detailed analysis of the current state-of-the-art in the field, while identifying possibilities and obstacles for improving the performance of TE materials.
- ItemDensity-Dependence of Surface Transport in Tellurium-Enriched Nanograined Bulk Bi2Te3(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2023) Izadi, Sepideh; Bhattacharya, Ahana; Salloum, Sarah; Han, Jeong Woo; Schnatmann, Lauritz; Wolff, Ulrike; Perez, Nicolas; Bendt, Georg; Ennen, Inga; Hütten, Andreas; Nielsch, Kornelius; Schulz, Stephan; Mittendorff, Martin; Schierning, GabiThree-dimensional topological insulators (3D TI) exhibit conventional parabolic bulk bands and protected Dirac surface states. A thorough investigation of the different transport channels provided by the bulk and surface carriers using macroscopic samples may provide a path toward accessing superior surface transport properties. Bi2Te3 materials make promising 3D TI models; however, due to their complicated defect chemistry, these materials have a high number of charge carriers in the bulk that dominate the transport, even as nanograined structures. To partially control the bulk charge carrier density, herein the synthesis of Te-enriched Bi2Te3 nanoparticles is reported. The resulting nanoparticles are compacted into nanograined pellets of varying porosity to tailor the surface-to-volume ratio, thereby emphasizing the surface transport channels. The nanograined pellets are characterized by a combination of resistivity, Hall- and magneto-conductance measurements together with (THz) time-domain reflectivity measurements. Using the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka (HLN) model, a characteristic coherence length of ≈200 nm is reported that is considerably larger than the diameter of the nanograins. The different contributions from the bulk and surface carriers are disentangled by THz spectroscopy, thus emphasizing the dominant role of the surface carriers. The results strongly suggest that the surface transport carriers have overcome the hindrance imposed by nanoparticle boundaries.
- ItemDoping High-Mobility Donor : Acceptor Copolymer Semiconductors with an Organic Salt for High-Performance Thermoelectric Materials(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, 2020) Guo, Jing; Li, Guodong; Reith, Heiko; Jiang, Lang; Wang, Ming; Li, Yuhao; Wang, Xinhao; Zeng, Zebing; Zhao, Huaizhou; Lu, Xinhui; Schierning, Gabi; Nielsch, Kornelius; Liao, Lei; Hu, YuanyuanOrganic semiconductors (OSCs) are attractive for fabrication of thermoelectric devices with low cost, large area, low toxicity, and high flexibility. In order to achieve high-performance organic thermoelectric devices (OTEs), it is essential to develop OSCs with high conductivity (σ), large Seebeck coefficient (S), and low thermal conductivity (κ). It is equally important to explore efficient dopants matching the need of thermoelectric devices. The thermoelectric performance of a high-mobility donor–acceptor (D–A) polymer semiconductor, which is doped by an organic salt, is studied. Both a high p-type electrical conductivity approaching 4 S cm−1 and an excellent power factor (PF) of 7 µW K−2 m−1 are obtained, which are among the highest reported values for polymer semiconductors. Temperature-dependent conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and power factor of the doped materials are systematically investigated. Detailed analysis on the results of thermoelectric measurements has revealed a hopping transport in the materials, which verifies the empirical relationship: S ∝ σ−1/4 and PF ∝ σ1/2. The results demonstrate that D–A copolymer semiconductors with proper combination of dopants have great potential for fabricating high-performance thermoelectric devices. © 2020 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
- ItemEffect of Silver Doping on the Superconducting and Structural Properties of YBCO Films Grown by PLD on Different Templates(Basel : MDPI, 2022) Shipulin, Ilya A.; Thomas, Aleena Anna; Holleis, Sigrid; Eisterer, Michael; Nielsch, Kornelius; Hühne, RubenWe report the local structural and superconducting properties of undoped and Ag-doped YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO) films with a thickness of up to 1 µm prepared by pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO3 (STO) single crystals and on ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) and rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrate (RABiTS)-based metal templates. X-ray diffraction demonstrates the high crystalline quality of the films on both single crystalline substrates and metal-based templates, respectively. Although there was only a slight decrease in Tc of up to 1.5 K for the Ag-doped YBCO films on all substrates, we found significant changes in their transport characteristics. The effect of the silver doping mainly depended on the concentration of silver, the type of substrate, and the temperature and magnetic field. In general, the greatest improvement in Jc over a wide range of magnetic fields and temperatures was observed for the 5%Ag-doped YBCO films on STO substrates, showing a significant increase compared to undoped films. Furthermore, a slight Jc improvement was observed for the 2%Ag-doped YBCO films on the RABiTS templates at temperatures below 65 K, whereas Jc decreased for the Ag-doped films on IBAD-MgO-based templates compared to undoped YBCO films. Using detailed electron microscopy studies, small changes in the local microstructure of the Ag-doped YBCO films were revealed; however, no clear correlation was found with the transport properties of the films.
- ItemEfficient and affordable thermomagnetic materials for harvesting low grade waste heat(College Park, ML : American Institute of Physics, 2021) Dzekan, Daniel; Waske, Anja; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fähler, SebastianIndustrial processes release substantial quantities of waste heat, which can be harvested to generate electricity. At present, the conversion of low grade waste heat to electricity relies solely on thermoelectric materials, but such materials are expensive and have low thermodynamic efficiencies. Although thermomagnetic materials may offer a promising alternative, their performance remains to be evaluated, thereby hindering their real-world application. Here, the efficiency and cost effectiveness of thermomagnetic materials are evaluated for the usage in motors, oscillators, and generators for converting waste heat to electricity. The analysis reveals that up to temperature differences of several 10 K, the best thermomagnetic materials have the potential to compete with thermoelectric materials. Importantly, it is found that the price per watt of some thermomagnetic materials is much lower compared to that of present-day thermoelectrics, which can become competitive with conventional power plants. This materials library enables the selection of the best available thermomagnetic materials for harvesting waste heat and gives guidelines for their future development.
- ItemElectrochemical nanostructuring of (111) oriented GaAs crystals: From porous structures to nanowires(Frankfurt, M. : Beilstein-Institut zur Förderung der Chemischen Wissenschaften, 2020) Monaico, Elena I.; Monaico, Eduard V.; Ursaki, Veaceslav V.; Honnali, Shashank; Postolache, Vitalie; Leistner, Karin; Nielsch, Kornelius; Tiginyanu, Ion M.A comparative study of the anodization processes occurring at the GaAs(111)A and GaAs(111)B surfaces exposed to electrochemical etching in neutral NaCl and acidic HNO3 aqueous electrolytes is performed in galvanostatic and potentiostatic anodization modes. Anodization in NaCl electrolytes was found to result in the formation of porous structures with porosity controlled either by current under the galvanostatic anodization, or by the potential under the potentiostatic anodization. Possibilities to produce multilayer porous structures are demonstrated. At the same time, one-step anodization in a HNO3 electrolyte is shown to lead to the formation of GaAs triangular shape nanowires with high aspect ratio (400 nm in diameter and 100 μm in length). The new data are compared to those previously obtained through anodizing GaAs(100) wafers in alkaline KOH electrolyte. An IR photodetector based on the GaAs nanowires is demonstrated. © 2020 Monaico et al.
- ItemEncapsulation of locally welded silver nanowire with water-free ALD-SbOx for flexible thin-film transistors(Melville, NY : American Inst. of Physics, 2022) Yang, Jun; Bahrami, Amin; Ding, Xingwei; Lehmann, Sebastian; Nielsch, KorneliusTransparent conductive electrodes are essential in the application of flexible electronics. In this work, we successfully demonstrated a novel strategy for improving mechanical/electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO)-free flexible silver nanowire (Ag NW) thin films. To reduce the contact resistance of Ag NWs, an ethanol-mist was used to weld the cross junction of wires at room temperature. The nano-welded Ag NWs (W-Ag NWs) were then coated with an aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) solution, which significantly reduce the roughness of the Ag NW thin film. Finally, an ultrathin SbOx thin film of 2 nm was deposited on the film surface using a water-free low-temperature atomic layer deposition technique to protect the W-Ag NW/AZO layer from water or oxygen degradation. The treated Ag NWs have a high transmittance of 87% and a low sheet resistance of about 15 ω/sq, which is comparable with the ITO electrode's property. After 1000 cycles of bending testing, the W-Ag NW/AZO/SbOx film practically retains its initial conductivity. Furthermore, the samples were immersed in a solution with pH values ranging from 3 to 13 for 5 min. When compared to untreated Ag NWs or those coated with AlOx thin films, W-Ag NW/AZO/SbOx had superior electrical stability. The W-Ag NW/AZO/SbOxlayer was integrated as a gate electrode on low-power operating flexible Ti-ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs). The 5% Ti-ZnO TFT has a field-effect mobility of 19.7 cm2 V s-1, an Ion/Ioff ratio of 107, and a subthreshold swing of 147 mV decade-1.
- ItemEuropium Clustering and Glassy Magnetic Behavior in Inorganic Clathrate-VIII Eu8Ga16Ge30(Basel : MDPI, 2022) Pérez, Nicolás; Sahoo, Manaswini; Schierning, Gabi; Nielsch, Kornelius; Nolas, George S.The temperature- and field-dependent, electrical and thermal properties of inorganic clathrate-VIII Eu8Ga16Ge30 were investigated. The type VIII clathrates were obtained from the melt of elements as reported previously. Specifically, the electrical resistivity data show hysteretic magnetoresistance at low temperatures, and the Seebeck coefficient and Hall data indicate magnetic interactions that affect the electronic structure in this material. Heat capacity and thermal conductivity data corroborate these findings and reveal the complex behavior due to Eu2+ magnetic ordering and clustering from approximately 13 to 4 K. Moreover, the low-frequency dynamic response indicates Eu8Ga16Ge30 to be a glassy magnetic system. In addition to advancing our fundamental understanding of the physical properties of this material, our results can be used to further the research for potential applications of interest in the fields of magnetocalorics or thermoelectrics.
- ItemExchange Bias Effect of Ni@(NiO,Ni(OH)2) Core/Shell Nanowires Synthesized by Electrochemical Deposition in Nanoporous Alumina Membranes(Basel : MDPI, 2023) García, Javier; Gutiérrez, Ruth; González, Ana S.; Jiménez-Ramirez, Ana I.; Álvarez, Yolanda; Vega, Víctor; Reith, Heiko; Leistner, Karin; Luna, Carlos; Nielsch, Kornelius; Prida, Víctor M.Tuning and controlling the magnetic properties of nanomaterials is crucial to implement new and reliable technologies based on magnetic hyperthermia, spintronics, or sensors, among others. Despite variations in the alloy composition as well as the realization of several post material fabrication treatments, magnetic heterostructures as ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic coupled layers have been widely used to modify or generate unidirectional magnetic anisotropies. In this work, a pure electrochemical approach has been used to fabricate core (FM)/shell (AFM) Ni@(NiO,Ni(OH)2) nanowire arrays, avoiding thermal oxidation procedures incompatible with integrative semiconductor technologies. Besides the morphology and compositional characterization of these core/shell nanowires, their peculiar magnetic properties have been studied by temperature dependent (isothermal) hysteresis loops, thermomagnetic curves and FORC analysis, revealing the existence of two different effects derived from Ni nanowires’ surface oxidation over the magnetic performance of the array. First of all, a magnetic hardening of the nanowires along the parallel direction of the applied magnetic field with respect their long axis (easy magnetization axis) has been found. The increase in coercivity, as an effect of surface oxidation, has been observed to be around 17% (43%) at 300 K (50 K). On the other hand, an increasing exchange bias effect on decreasing temperature has been encountered when field cooling (3T) the oxidized Ni@(NiO,Ni(OH)2) nanowires below 100 K along their parallel lengths.