Browsing by Author "Pötschke, Petra"
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- ItemAbschlussbericht zum BMBF Verbundprojekt: Kompetenznetzwerk für Nanosystemintegration: Anwendung von Nanotechnologien für energieeffiziente Sensorsysteme zu dem Teilvorhaben: LPC-Materialintegrierte Sensorik basierend auf Nanoeffekten - Entwicklung multifunktionaler Polymernanokompositestrukturen ; Laufzeit: 01.11.2009 bis 31.10.2012(Hannover : Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB), 2012) Voit, Brigitte; Staudinger, Ulrike; Müller, Michael Thomas; Demir, Emrah; Pötschke, Petra[no abstract available]
- ItemAbschlussbericht zum Teilprojekt: CarboDis - Dispergierung und Konfektionierung : BMBF-Innovationsallianz CNT - Kohlenstoffnanomaterialien erobern Märkte (Inno.CNT) ; Laufzeit: 01.04.2008 bis 31.03.2012(Hannover : Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB), 2013) Pötschke, Petra; Krause, Beate; Socher, Robert[no abstract available]
- ItemAchieving electrical conductive tracks by laser treatment of non-conductive polypropylene/polycarbonate blends filled with MWCNTs(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2014) Liebscher, Marco; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, Petra; Barz, Andrea; Bliedtner, Jens; Möhwald, Michael; Letzsch, AlexanderElectrical non-conductive polymer blends consisting of a polypropylene (PP) matrix and dispersed particles of polycarbonate (PC) were melt compounded with 3 wt.% multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loading and processed into plates by injection molding. The morphological analysis confirmed the selective localization of the MWCNTs in the PC component. By local irradiation with a CO2 laser beam, depending on the laser conditions, conductive tracks with dimensions of about 2 mm width, 80 to 370 μm depth and line resistances as low as 1.5 kΩ · cm-1 were created on the surface of the non-conductive plates. The factors affecting the line resistance are the PC content, the laser speed and laser power, as well as laser direction with respect to the melt flow direction. After the irradiation an enrichment of MWCNTs in the laser lines was detected indicating that conductive paths were generated by percolation of nanotubes selectively within these lines in otherwise non-conductive plates. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
- ItemAerogels based on reduced graphene oxide/cellulose composites: Preparation and vapour sensing abilities(Basel : MDPI, 2020) Chen, Yian; Pötschke, Petra; Pionteck, Jürgen; Voit, Brigitte; Qi, HaisongThis paper reports on the preparation of cellulose/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) aerogels for use as chemical vapour sensors. Cellulose/rGO composite aerogels were prepared by dissolving cellulose and dispersing graphene oxide (GO) in aqueous NaOH/urea solution, followed by an in-situ reduction of GO to reduced GO (rGO) and lyophilisation. The vapour sensing properties of cellulose/rGO composite aerogels were investigated by measuring the change in electrical resistance during cyclic exposure to vapours with varying solubility parameters, namely water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, toluene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), and chloroform. The increase in resistance of aerogels on exposure to vapours is in the range of 7 to 40% with methanol giving the highest response. The sensing signal increases almost linearly with the vapour concentration, as tested for methanol. The resistance changes are caused by the destruction of the conductive filler network due to a combination of swelling of the cellulose matrix and adsorption of vapour molecules on the filler surfaces. This combined mechanism leads to an increased sensing response with increasing conductive filler content. Overall, fast reaction, good reproducibility, high sensitivity, and good differentiation ability between different vapours characterize the detection behaviour of the aerogels. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- ItemAspect ratio effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of polycarbonate/MWCNT composites(Hoboken, NJ [u.a.] : Wiley, 2014) Guo, Jiaxi; Liu, Yanjun; Prada-Silvy, Ricardo; Tan, Yongqiang; Azad, Samina; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, Petra; Grady, Brian P.Two multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) having relatively high aspect ratios of 313 and 474 with approximately the same diameter were melt mixed with polycarbonate (PC) in a twin-screw conical micro compounder. The effects of aspect ratio on the electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the PC/MWCNT composites were investigated. Electrical conductivities and storage moduli of the filled samples are found to be independent of the starting aspect ratio for these high aspect ratio tubes; although the conductivities and storage moduli are still significantly higher than values of composites made with nanotubes having more commercially common aspect ratios of ∼100. Transmission electron microscopy results suggest that melt-mixing reduces these longer nanotubes to the same length, but still approximately two times longer than the length of commercially common aspect ratio tubes after melt-mixing. Molecular weight measurements show that during melt-mixing the longer nanotubes significantly degrade the molecular weight of the polymer as compared to very similar nanotubes with aspect ratio ∼100. Because of the molecular weight reduction glass transition temperatures predictably show a large decrease with increasing nanotube concentration. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- ItemBidirectional and Stretchable Piezoresistive Sensors Enabled by Multimaterial 3D Printing of Carbon Nanotube/Thermoplastic Polyurethane Nanocomposites(Basel : MDPI, 2018-12-21) Christ, Josef F.; Aliheidari, Nahal; Pötschke, Petra; Ameli, AmirFabricating complex sensor platforms is still a challenge because conventional sensors are discrete, directional, and often not integrated within the system at the material level. Here, we report a facile method to fabricate bidirectional strain sensors through the integration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and multimaterial additive manufacturing. Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/MWCNT filaments were first made using a two-step extrusion process. TPU as the platform and TPU/MWCNT as the conducting traces were then 3D printed in tandem using multimaterial fused filament fabrication to generate uniaxial and biaxial sensors with several conductive pattern designs. The sensors were subjected to a series of cyclic strain loads. The results revealed excellent piezoresistive responses with cyclic repeatability in both the axial and transverse directions and in response to strains as high as 50%. It was shown that the directional sensitivity could be tailored by the type of pattern design. A wearable glove, with built-in sensors, capable of measuring finger flexure was also successfully demonstrated where the sensors are an integral part of the system. These sensors have potential applications in wearable electronics, soft robotics, and prosthetics, where complex design, multi-directionality, embedding, and customizability are demanded.
- ItemBio-inspired deposition of electrochemically exfoliated graphene layers for electrical resistance heating applications(Bristol : IOP Publishing, 2020-12-4) Utech, Toni; Pötschke, Petra; Simon, Frank; Janke, Andreas; Kettner, Hannes; Paiva, Maria; Zimmerer, CordeliaElectrochemically exfoliated graphene (eeG) layers possess a variety of potential applications, e.g. as susceptor material for contactless induction heating in dynamic electro-magnetic fields, and as flexible and transparent electrode or resistivity heating elements. Spray coating of eeG dispersions was investigated in detail as a simple and fast method to deposit both, thin conducting layers and ring structures on polycarbonate substrates. The spray coating process was examined by systematic variation of dispersion concentration and volume applied to heated substrates. Properties of the obtained layers were characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy, SEM and Confocal Scanning Microscopy. Electrical conductivity of eeG ring structures was measured using micro-four-point measurements. Modification of eeG with poly(dopamine) and post-thermal treatment yields in the reduction of the oxidized graphene proportion, an increase in electrical conductivity, and mechanical stabilization of the deposited thin layers. The chemical composition of modified eeG layer was analyzed via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy pointing to the reductive behavior of poly(dopamine). Application oriented experiments demonstrate the direct electric current heating (Joule-Heating) effect of spray-coated eeG layers.
- ItemBlend Structure and n-Type Thermoelectric Performance of PA6/SAN and PA6/PMMA Blends Filled with Singlewalled Carbon Nanotubes(Basel : MDPI, 2021-4-28) Krause, Beate; Liguoro, Alice; Pötschke, PetraThe present study investigates how the formation of melt-mixed immiscible blends based on PA6/SAN and PA6/PMMA filled with single walled nanotubes (SWCNTs) affects the thermoelectric (TE) properties. In addition to the detailed investigation of the blend morphology with compositions between 100/0 wt.% and 50/50 wt.%, the thermoelectric properties are investigated on blends with different SWCNT concentrations (0.25–3.0 wt.%). Both PA6 and the blend composites with the used type of SWCNTs showed negative Seebeck coefficients. It was shown that the PA6 matrix polymer, in which the SWCNTs are localized, mainly influenced the thermoelectric properties of blends with high SWCNT contents. By varying the blend composition, an increase in the absolute Seebeck coefficient, power factor (PF), and figure of merit (ZT) was achieved compared to the PA6 composite which is mainly related to the selective localization and enrichment of SWCNTs in the PA6 matrix at constant SWCNT loading. The maximum PFs achieved were 0.22 µW/m·K2 for PA6/SAN/SWCNT 70/30/3 wt.% and 0.13 µW/m·K2 for PA6/PMMA/SWCNT 60/40/3 wt.% compared to 0.09 µW/m·K2 for PA6/3 wt.% SWCNT which represent increases to 244% and 144%, respectively. At higher PMMA or SAN concentration, the change from matrix-droplet to a co-continuous morphology started, which, despite higher SWCNT enrichment in the PA6 matrix, disturbed the electrical conductivity, resulting in reduced PFs with still increasing Seebeck coefficients. At SWCNT contents between 0.5 and 3 wt.% the increase in the absolute Seebeck coefficient was compensated by lower electrical conductivity resulting in lower PF and ZT as compared to the PA6 composites.
- ItemBMBF-Innovationsallianz CNT-Kohlenstoffnanomaterialien erobern Märkte (Inno.CNT) : Abschlussbericht zum Teilprojekt : CarboTube ; Volumenmärkte für Polymercomposites ; Laufzeit: 01.02.2009 bis 31.01.2012(Hannover : Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB), 2012) Pötschke, Petra; Krause, Beate; Müller, Michael T.[no abstract available]
- ItemBoron doping of SWCNTs as a way to enhance the thermoelectric properties of melt‐mixed polypropylene/SWCNT composites(Basel : MDPI, 2020) Krause, Beate; Bezugly, Viktor; Khavrus, Vyacheslav; Ye, Liu; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Pötschke, PetraComposites based on the matrix polymer polypropylene (PP) filled with single‐walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and boron‐doped SWCNTs (B‐SWCNTs) were prepared by melt‐mixing to analyze the influence of boron doping of SWCNTs on the thermoelectric properties of these nanocomposites. It was found that besides a significantly higher Seebeck coefficient of B‐SWCNT films and powder packages, the values for B‐SWCNT incorporated in PP were higher than those for SWCNTs. Due to the higher electrical conductivity and the higher Seebeck coefficients of B‐SWCNTs, the power factor (PF) and the figure of merit (ZT) were also higher for the PP/B‐SWCNT composites. The highest value achieved in this study was a Seebeck coefficient of 59.7 μV/K for PP with 0.5 wt% B‐SWCNT compared to 47.9 μV/K for SWCNTs at the same filling level. The highest PF was 0.78 μW/(m∙K2) for PP with 7.5 wt% B‐SWCNT. SWCNT macro‐ and microdispersions were found to be similar in both composite types, as was the very low electrical percolation threshold between 0.075 and 0.1 wt% SWCNT. At loadings between 0.5 and 2.0 wt%, B‐SWCNT‐based composites have one order of magnitude higher electrical conductivity than those based on SWCNT. The crystallization behavior of PP is more strongly influenced by B‐SWCNTs since their composites have higher crystallization temperatures than composites with SWCNTs at a comparable degree of crystallinity. Boron doping of SWCNTs is therefore a suitable way to improve the electrical and thermoelectric properties of composites. © 2020 by the authors.
- ItemCellulose-carbon nanotube composite aerogels as novel thermoelectric materials(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2018) Gnanaseelan, Minoj; Chen, Yian; Luo, Jinji; Krause, Beate; Pionteck, Jürgen; Pötschke, Petra; Qu, HaisongThermoelectric materials based on cellulose/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites have been developed by a facile approach and the effects of amount (2–10 wt%) and types of CNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)) on the morphology (films and aerogels) and the thermoelectric properties of the nanocomposites have been investigated. Composite films based on SWCNTs showed significantly higher electrical conductivity (5 S/cm at 10 wt%) and Seebeck coefficient (47.2 μV/K at 10 wt%) compared to those based on MWCNTs (0.9 S/cm and 11 μV/K, respectively). Lyophilization, leading to development of aerogels with sub-micron sized pores, decreased the electrical conductivity for both types by one order of magnitude, but did not affect the Seebeck coefficient of MWCNT based nanocomposites. For SWCNT containing aerogels, higher Seebeck coefficients than for films were measured at 3 and 4 wt% but significantly lower values at higher loadings. CNT addition increased the thermal conductivity from 0.06 to 0.12 W/(m∙K) in the films, whereas the lyophilization significantly reduced it towards values between 0.01 and 0.09 W/(m∙K) for the aerogels. The maximum Seebeck coefficient, power factor, and ZT observed in this study are 49 μV/K for aerogels with 3 wt% SWCNTs, 1.1 μW/(m∙K2) for composite films with 10 wt% SWCNTs, and 7.4 × 10−4 for films with 8 wt% SWCNTs, respectively.
- ItemCharacterization of highly filled PP/graphite composites for adhesive joining in fuel cell applications(Basel : MDPI, 2019) Rzeczkowski, Piotr; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, PetraIn order to evaluate the suitability of graphite composite materials for use as bipolar plates in fuel cells, polypropylene (PP) was melt compounded with expanded graphite as conductive filler to form composites with different filler contents of 10–80 wt %. Electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and mechanical properties were measured and evaluated as a function of filler content. The electrical and thermal conductivities increased with filler content. Tensile and flexural strengths decreased with the incorporation of expanded graphite in PP. With higher graphite contents, however, both strength values remained more or less unchanged and were below the values of pure PP. Young’s-modulus and flexural modulus increased almost linearly with increasing filler content. The results of the thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the actual filler content in the composite materials. In order to evaluate the wettability and suitability for adhesive joining of graphite composites, contact angle measurements were conducted and surface tensions of composite surfaces were calculated. The results showed a significant increase in the surface tension of graphite composites with increasing filler content. Furthermore, graphite composites were adhesively joined and the strength of the joints was evaluated in the lap-shear test. Increasing filler content in the substrate material resulted in higher tensile lap-shear strength. Additionally, the influence of surface treatment (plasma and chemical) on surface tension and tensile lap-shear strength was investigated. The surface treatment led to a significant improvement of both properties.
- ItemCharacterization of the state of dispersion of carbon nanotubes in polymer nanocomposites(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH Verl., 2011) Buschhorn, Samuel T.; Wichmann, Malte H. G.; Sumfleth, Jan; Schulte, Karl; Pegel, Sven; Kasaliwal, Gaurav R.; Villmow, Tobias; Krause, Beate; Göldel, Andreas; Pötschke, PetraA practical overview of possibilities and limits to characterize the state of dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in polymer based nanocomposites is given. The most important and widely available methods are discussed with practical employment in mind. One focus is the quantitative characterization of the state of dispersion in solid samples using microscopy techniques such as optical microscopy or transmission electron microscopy. For dispersions of CNTs in aqueous media, solvents or monomers a sedimentation analysis is presented. This way dispersability and dispersion state of CNTs can be assessed. Indirect methods such as electrical conductivity measurements and rheological tests, dynamic differential scanning calorimetry and mechanical test are discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
- ItemComparative study of singlewalled, multiwalled, and branched carbon nanotubes melt mixed in different thermoplastic matrices(Oxford : Elsevier Science, 2018) Krause, Beate; Barbier, Carine; Kunz, Karina; Pötschke, PetraIn this contribution, three different types of CNTs, namely single-walled (SWCNT), multi-walled (MWCNT) and branched MWCNTs were melt mixed in amounts of 0.1–10 wt.-% in polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) using a small-scale microcompounder. The filler dispersion of compression-moulded samples was characterized using light and electron microscopy, and the electrical and thermal properties were measured. The lowest electrical percolation thresholds were found for composites of PP/SWCNT, PP/branched MWCNT and PC/branched MWCNT, which percolated already at <0.1 wt.-% CNT loading. Low values of electrical volume resistivity of about 3 Ohm·cm (PVDF), 7 Ohm·cm (PP) and 2 Ohm·cm (PC) could be reached when loading with 2 wt.-% branched MWCNT. A homogeneous dispersion in the macro- and microlevel was observed especially for composites containing branched MWCNTs. For all CNT types, a matrix nucleation effect was found in PP and PVDF using differential scanning calorimetry.
- ItemComparison of nanotubes produced by fixed bed and aerosol-CVD methods and their electrical percolation behaviour in melt mixed polyamide 6.6 composites(Barking : Elsevier, 2010) Krause, Beate; Ritschel, M.; Täschner, C.; Oswald, S.; Gruner, W.; Leonhardt, A.; Pötschke, PetraThe electrical percolation behaviour of five different kinds of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesised by two CVD techniques was investigated on melt mixed composites based on an insulating polyamide 6.6 matrix. The electrical percolation behaviour was found to be strongly dependent on the properties of CNTs which varied with the synthesis conditions. The lowest electrical percolation threshold (0.04 wt.%) was determined for as grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes without any purification or chemical treatment. Such carbon nanotubes were synthesised by the aerosol method using acetonitrile as ferrocene containing solvent and show relatively low oxygen content near the surface, high aspect ratio, and good dispersability. Similar properties could be found for nanotubes produced by the aerosol method using cyclohexane, whereas CNTs produced by the fixed bed method using different iron contents in the catalyst material showed much higher electrical percolation thresholds between 0.35 and 1.02 wt.%. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- ItemCorrelation of carbon nanotube dispersability in aqueous surfactant solutions and polymers(New York, NY [u.a.] : Pergamon Press, 2009) Krause, Beate; Petzold, Gudrun; Pegel, Sven; Pötschke, PetraIn order to assess the dispersability of carbon nanotube materials, tubes produced under different synthesis conditions were dispersed in aqueous surfactant solutions and the sedimentation behaviour under centrifugation forces was investigated using a LUMiFuge stability analyzer. The electrical percolation threshold of the nanotubes after melt mixing in polyamide 6.6 was determined and the state of dispersion was studied. As a general tendency, the nanotubes having better aqueous dispersion stability showed lower electrical percolation threshold and better nanotube dispersion in the composites. This indicates that the investigation of the stability of aqueous dispersions is also able to give information about the nanotubes inherent dispersability in polymer melts, both strongly influenced by the entanglement and agglomerate structure of the tubes within the as-produced nanotube materials. The shape of the nanotubes in the aqueous dispersions was assessed using a SYSMEX flow particle image analyzer and found to correspond to the shape observed from cryofractured surfaces of the polymer composites. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- ItemCuxCo1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.33, 0.67, 1) Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Based Thermoplastic Polyurethane Nanocomposites with Reduced Graphene Oxide for Highly Efficient Electromagnetic Interference Shielding(Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2022-2-26) Anju; Yadav, Raghvendra Singh; Pötschke, Petra; Pionteck, Jürgen; Krause, Beate; Kuřitka, Ivo; Vilčáková, Jarmila; Škoda, David; Urbánek, Pavel; Machovský, Michal; Masař, Milan; Urbánek, MichalCuxCo1-x Fe2O4 (x = 0.33,0.67,1)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanocomposites exhibiting highly efficient electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding were prepared by a melt-mixing approach using a microcompounder. Spinel ferrite Cu0.33Co0.67Fe2O4 (Cu-CoF1), Cu0.67Co0.33Fe2O4 (CuCoF2) and CuFe2O4 (CuF3) nanoparticles were synthesized using the sonochemical method. The CuCoF1 and CuCoF2 exhibited typical ferromagnetic features, whereas CuF3 displayed superparamagnetic characteristics. The maximum value of EMI total shielding effectiveness (SEt) was noticed to be 42.9 dB, 46.2 dB, and 58.8 dB for CuCoF1-rGO-TPU, CuCoF2-rGO-TPU, and CuF3-rGO-TPU nanocomposites, respectively, at a thickness of 1 mm. The highly efficient EMI shielding performance was attributed to the good impedance matching, conductive, dielectric, and magnetic loss. The demonstrated nanocomposites are promising candidates for a lightweight, flexible, and highly efficient EMI shielding material.
- ItemDevelopment of a polymer composite with high electrical conductivity and improved impact strength for the application as bipolar plate(Melville, NY : AIP, 2016) Hopmann, C.; Windeck, C.; Cohnen, A.; Onken, J.; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, Petra; Hickmann, T.Bipolar plates constitute the most important structural component in fuel cell stacks. Highly filled thermoplastic composites with high electrical conductivity obtain an increasing importance in the design of bipolar plates as alternative to conventional metallic systems. Thermoplastics (e.g. PP) have suitable properties such as a good processability, chemical resistance, light weight and low production costs. As thermoplastics have low electrical conductivities, conductive fillers have to be included in the matrix. A high content of such fillers (e.g. graphite) in excess of 80 wt.-% is necessary to achieve the desired electrical properties. However, materials with such high filler contents embrittle readily. The workability in injection and compression molding is difficult and the mechanical stability is insufficient in case of strain deformation. As consequence, material failure and an inacceptable amount of damaged goods can be observed during the processing. As no suitable thermoplastic system is available for better mechanical properties, the induction and dispersion of a rubber phase in the thermoplastic matrix can be used to increase the impact strength of the conductive composite. In this research work a ternary composite, based on PP as matrix, EPDM as impact modifier and synthetic graphite as conductive filler, was developed. The material was produced using a 26 mm co-rotating, intermeshing twin-screw extruder. The amounts of PP, EPDM and graphite were varied systematically and a process window was defined that enables improved impact strength and high electrical conductivity of the new material. The results indicate that impact strength can be enhanced by about 99 % with an EPDM content of 30 wt.-% in the PP matrix. The electrical conductivity decreases in a small range with increasing content of EPDM, but the conductivity is still excellent for producing bipolar plates.
- ItemDevelopment of joining methods for highly filled Graphite/PP composite based bipolar plates for fuel cells: Adhesive joining and welding(Melville, NY : AIP, 2019) Rzeczkowski, P.; Lucia, M.; Müller, A.; Facklam, M.; Cohnen, A.; Schäfer, P.; Hopmann, C.; Hickmann, T.; Pötschke, Petra; Krause, BeateNovel material solutions for bipolar plates in fuel cells require adapted ways of joining and sealing technologies. Safe and life time enduring leak-tight contacts must be achieved by automatic processes using reasonable joint forces. A proper sealing should manage such challenges as good ageing properties, excellent leaktightness, high thermal conductivity and low gas permeability. Hence in this work, adhesive bonding and welding are considered as suitable methods, which can fulfill the requirements mentioned above. Adhesive systems seem to be more easy to apply than conventional sealing (hand layed-up rubber gaskets), e.g. with automatic dispensers. Additionally, the properties of an adhesive joint can be enhanced by a process-specific surface pre-treatment. This work focuses on the characterization of adhesive systems and their joints with highly filled graphite composites. Mechanical properties of the joints were characterized through lap-shear tests. The influence of ageing caused by humidity or acidic solvent at increased temperature on the bond line properties as well as neat adhesive was examined. The thermal conductivities of neat adhesives and through the entire joint were examined. In order to improve above conductivities, roughening, substrate pre-heating, post-curing and various contact pressure weights were applied. Plasma treatment was chosen as surface pre-treatment method for improving substrate's surface energy. An alternative to bonding is plastic welding, which does not require the use of sealants and adhesives. Based on former study of influences of filler content on the welding process using ultrasonic, hot plate or infrared welding, a welding method for joining the graphite compounds was derived.
- ItemDirection dependent electrical conductivity of polymer/carbon filler composites(Basel : MDPI, 2019) Kunz, Karina; Krause, Beate; Kretzschmar, Bernd; Juhasz, Levente; Kobsch, Oliver; Jenschke, Wolfgang; Ullrich, Mathias; Pötschke, PetraThe method of measuring electrical volume resistivity in different directions was applied to characterize the filler orientation in melt mixed polymer composites containing different carbon fillers. For this purpose, various kinds of fillers with different geometries and aspect ratios were selected, namely carbon black (CB), graphite (G) and expanded graphite (EG), branched multiwalled carbon nanotubes (b-MWCNTs), non-branched multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). As it is well known that the shaping process also plays an important role in the achieved electrical properties, this study compares results for compression molded plates with random filler orientations in the plane as well as extruded films, which have, moreover, conductivity differences between extrusion direction and perpendicular to the plane. Additionally, the polymer matrix type (poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyamide 6 (PA6)) and filler concentration were varied. For the electrical measurements, a device able to measure the electrical conductivity in two directions was developed and constructed. The filler orientation was analyzed using the ratio σin/th calculated as in-plane conductivity σin-plane (σin) divided by through-plane conductivity σthrough-plane (σth). The ratio σin/th is expected to increase with more pronounced filler orientation in the processing direction. In the extruded films, alignment within the plane was assigned by dividing the in-plane conductivity in the extrusion direction (x) by the in-plane conductivity perpendicular to the extrusion direction (y). The conductivity ratios depend on filler type and concentration and are higher the higher the filler aspect ratio and the closer the filler content is to the percolation concentration.