Browsing by Author "Pauly, S."
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- ItemAmorphous martensite in β-Ti alloys(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2018) Zhang, L.; Zhang, H.; Ren, X.; Eckert, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, Z.; Gemming, T.; Pauly, S.Martensitic transformations originate from a rigidity instability, which causes a crystal to change its lattice in a displacive manner. Here, we report that the martensitic transformation on cooling in Ti-Zr-Cu-Fe alloys yields an amorphous phase instead. Metastable β-Ti partially transforms into an intragranular amorphous phase due to local lattice shear and distortion. The lenticular amorphous plates, which very much resemble α′/α″ martensite in conventional Ti alloys, have a well-defined orientation relationship with the surrounding β-Ti crystal. The present solid-state amorphization process is reversible, largely cooling rate independent and constitutes a rare case of congruent inverse melting. The observed combination of elastic softening and local lattice shear, thus, is the unifying mechanism underlying both martensitic transformations and catastrophic (inverse) melting. Not only do we reveal an alternative mechanism for solid-state amorphization but also establish an explicit experimental link between martensitic transformations and catastrophic melting.
- ItemCorrelation between the microstructures and the deformation mechanisms of CuZr-based bulk metallic glass composites(New York : American Institute of Physics, 2013) Song, K.K.; Pauly, S.; Sun, B.A; Tan, J.; Stoica, M.; Kühn, U.; Eckert, J.The variation of the transformation-mediated deformation behavior with microstructural changes in CuZr-based bulk metallic glass composites is investigated. With increasing crystalline volume fraction, the deformation mechanism gradually changes from a shear-banding dominated process as evidenced by a chaotic serrated flow behavior, to being governed by a martensitic transformation with a pronounced elastic-plastic stage, resulting in different plastic deformations evolving into a self-organized critical state characterized by the power-law distribution of shear avalanches. This is reflected in the stress-strain curves by a single-to-"double"-to-"triple"- double yielding transition and by different mechanical properties with different serrated flow characteristics, which are interpreted based on the microstructural evolutions and a fundamental energy theorem. Our results can assist in understanding deformation behaviors for high-performance metastable alloys.
- ItemGlass-forming ability, phase formation and mechanical properties of glass-forming Cu-Hf-Zr alloys(Amsterdam : Elsevier B.V., 2019) Kosiba, K.; Song, K.; Kühn, U.; Wang, G.; Pauly, S.The influence of Hf additions on the glass-forming ability (GFA), phase formation and mechanical properties of Cu50HfxZr50-x (x = 2,5,10,20 at.%) alloys has been systematically investigated. We report on a distinct correlation between phase formation and GFA of Cu50Zr50-based alloys. Increasing additions of Hf reduce the thermal stability of the high-temperature B2 Cu(Hf,Zr) phase, while the thermal stability of the corresponding undercooled melt is enhanced. The GFA of these alloy series gradually raises up to 10 at.% Hf, whereas at 20 at.%Hf, the GFA is drastically lowered, since the B2 Cu(Hf,Zr) phase becomes unstable and the precipitation of the low-temperature equilibrium phases is favoured. This interrelation determines the microstructure and results in the formation of Cu-Hf-Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites. These composites not only show appreciable macroscopic plastic strain, but also high yield strength.
- ItemGuiding shear bands in bulk metallic glasses using stress fields : A perspective from the activation of flow units(Woodbury, NY : Inst., 2020) Kosiba, K.; Scudino, S.; Bednarcik, J.; Bian, J.; Liu, G.; Kühn, U.; Pauly, S.Controlling shear band propagation is the key to obtain ductile metallic glasses. Here, we use a residual stress field to vary the direction of shear band propagation. We ascribe this behavior to the effect of the stress field on the activation of shear transformation zones (STZs) along their characteristic direction and we quantify this contribution to the energy of the process. Because of the progressively adverse orientation of the stress field, the energy stored as shear in the STZ decreases to a level where shear band propagation at alternative angles becomes energetically more favorable. © 2020 authors.
- ItemIn-situ tensile testing of ZrCu-based metallic glass composites(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2018) Sun, H.C.; Ning, Z.L.; Wang, G.; Liang, W.Z.; Pauly, S.; Huang, Y.J.; Guo, S.; Xue, X.; Sun, J.F.ZrCu-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs) are well known for their plastic deformability, superior to traditional metallic glasses (MGs), which is attributed to a unique dual-phases structure, namely, the glassy matrix and unstable B2 phase. In the present study, in-situ tensile testing is used to trace the deformation process of a ZrCu-based BMGC. Three deformation stages of the BMGC, i.e., the elastic-elastic stage, the elastic-plastic stage, and the plastic-plastic stage are identified. In the elastic-elastic and elastic-plastic stages, the yield strength and elastic limit are major influenced by the volume fraction of the B2 crystals. In the plastic-plastic stage, the B2 phase stimulates the formation of multiple shear bands and deflects the direction of shear bands by disturbing the stress field in front of the crack tip. The deformation-induced martensitic transformation of the metastable B2 phase contributes to the plasticity and work hardening of the composite. This study highlights the formation and propagation of multiple shear bands and reveals the interactions of shear bands with structural heterogeneities in situ. Especially, the blocking of shear bands by crystals and the martensitic transformation of the B2 phase are critical for the mechanistic deformation process and illustrate the function of the B2 phase in the present BMGCs.
- ItemInductive flash-annealing of bulk metallic glasses(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2017) Kosiba, K.; Pauly, S.We developed a temperature-controlled inductive flash-annealing device, which heats bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) at defined rates of up to 200 K/s to a given temperature. Subsequent instantaneous quenching in water allows preserving the microstructures obtained at various stages of crystallization. One Zr-based and two CuZr-based BMGs were flash-annealed at the onset of crystallization with different heating rates in order to prepare advanced BMG-matrix composites. The highly reproducible composite microstructures contain uniformly dispersed crystals and a narrow crystal size distribution. In order to assess the limitations of the present process, which mainly originate from non-uniform inductive heating, the skin depth was calculated. It is determined to be about 2.3 mm, which enables flash-annealing of rather bulky samples. The cooling rate was estimated from the interlamellar spacing of eutectic Al-Cu alloys to be on the order of 103 K/s. This ensures that decomposition of the microstructure during quenching is prevented. The present flash-annealing procedure is applicable to a wide variety of glass-forming liquids and has a large potential for tailoring the microstructure and, consequently, the mechanical properties of BMG-matrix composites.
- ItemLaser powder bed fusion of a superelastic Cu-Al-Mn shape memory alloy(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2021) Babacan, N.; Pauly, S.; Gustmann, T.Dense and crack-free specimens of the shape memory alloy Cu71.6Al17Mn11.4 (at.%) were produced via laser powder bed fusion across a wide range of process parameters. The microstructure, viz. grain size, can be directly tailored within the process and with it the transformation temperatures (TTs) shifted to higher values by raising the energy input. The microstructure, and the superelastic behavior of additively manufactured samples were assessed by a detailed comparison with induction melted material. The precipitation of the α phase, which inhibit the martensitic transformation, were not observed in the additively manufactured samples owing to the high intrinsic cooling rates during the fabrication process. Fine columnar grains with a strong -texture along the building direction lead to an enhanced yield strength compared to the coarse-grained cast samples. A maximum recoverable strain of 2.86% was observed after 5% compressive loading. The first results of our approach imply that laser powder bed fusion is a promising technique to directly produce individually designed Cu-Al-Mn shape memory parts with a pronounced superelasticity at room temperature.
- ItemMaterialien - Realisierung von Nano-Eigenschaften auf Makro-Ebene : Abschlussbericht zum Projekt MaReNaMa(Hannover : Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB), 2015) Bickel, St.; Schwab, H.; Pauly, S.; Kühn, U.; Eckert, Jürgen[no abstract available]
- ItemMechanical performance and corrosion behaviour of Zr-based bulk metallic glass produced by selective laser melting(Amsterdam : Elsevier B.V., 2020) Deng, L.; Gebert, A.; Zhang, L.; Chen, H.Y.; Gu, D.D.; Kühn, U.; Zimmermann, M.; Kosiba, K.; Pauly, S.Nearly fully dense, glassy Zr52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Ti5 bulk specimens were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) and their behaviour during compressive loading, during wear testing and in a corrosive medium was investigated. Their performance was compared with as-cast material of the same composition. The additively manufactured samples exhibit a yield strength around 1700 MPa combined with a plastic strain of about 0.5% after yielding despite the residual porosity of 1.3%, which is distributed uniformly in the samples. The propagation of shear bands in the bulk metallic glass prepared by SLM was studied. The specific wear rate and the worn surfaces demonstrated that similar wear mechanisms are active in the SLM and the as-cast samples. Hence, manufacturing the glass in layers does not adversely affect the wear properties. The same holds for the corrosion tests, which were carried out in 0.01 M Na2SO4 and 0.1 M NaCl electrolyte. The anodic polarization curves of SLM samples and as-cast samples revealed a similar corrosion behaviour. However, the SLM samples have a slightly reduced susceptibility to pitting corrosion and exhibit an improved surface healing ability, which might be attributed to an improved homogeneity of the additively manufactured glass.
- ItemProcessing metallic glasses by selective laser melting(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2013) Pauly, S.; Löber, L.; Petters, R.; Stoica, M.; Scudino, S.; Kühn, U.; Eckert, J.Metallic glasses and their descendants, the so-called bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), can be regarded as frozen liquids with a high resistance to crystallization. The lack of a conventional structure turns them into a material exhibiting near-theoretical strength, low Young's modulus and large elasticity. These unique mechanical properties can be only obtained when the metallic melts are rapidly cooled to bypass the nucleation and growth of crystals. Most of the commonly known and used processing routes, such as casting, melt spinning or gas atomization, have intrinsic limitations regarding the complexity and dimensions of the geometries. Here, it is shown that selective laser melting (SLM), which is usually used to process conventional metallic alloys and polymers, can be applied to implement complex geometries and components from an Fe-base metallic glass. This approach is in principle viable for a large variety of metallic alloys and paves the way for the novel synthesis of materials and the development of parts with advanced functional and structural properties without limitations in size and intricacy.
- ItemSerrated flow of CuZr-based bulk metallic glasses probed by nanoindentation: Role of the activation barrier, size and distribution of shear transformation zones(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2017) Limbach, R.; Kosiba, K.; Pauly, S.; Kühn, U.; Wondraczek, L.We report on the effect of Al and Co alloying in vitreous Cu50Zr50 on local deformation and serrated flow as a model for relating the size and localization of shear transformation zones (STZ) to Poisson ratio and strain-rate sensitivity of metallic glasses. Alloying with Al results in significant variations in mechanical performance, in particular, in Young's modulus, hardness and strain-rate sensitivity. Increasing strain-rate sensitivity with increasing degree of alloying indicates a reduced tendency for shear localization. In parallel, a gradual transition from inhomogeneous to homogeneous plastic flow is observed. Using a statistical analysis of the shear stress associated with the initiation of the first pop-in in the load-displacement curve during spherical indentation, the activation volume for plastic flow at the onset of yielding is reported. This analysis is employed for experimental evaluation of the compositional dependence of activation barrier, size and distribution of STZs. It is demonstrated that the STZ size does not change significantly upon Al alloying and encompasses a local volume of around 22–24 atoms. However, the barrier energy density for the initiation of a single STZ progressively increases. The broader distribution of STZs impedes their accumulation into larger-size flow units, leading to a lower number and reduced size of serrations in the load-displacement curve. On the contrary, lower barrier energy densities enable a larger quantity of STZs to be activated simultaneously. These STZs can easily percolate into large flow units, promoting plastic flow through their interaction. We employ Poisson's ratio as an indicator for plasticity to shown that this interpretation can be transferred to other types of metallic glasses. That is, larger flow units were found for metallic glasses with higher Poisson ratio and more pronounced plasticity, while the flow units in alloys with very low Poisson ratio and high brittleness are significantly reduced in size and more homogeneously distributed throughout the material.
- ItemStructural evolution in Ti-Cu-Ni metallic glasses during heating(New York : American Institute of Physics, 2015) Gargarella, P.; Pauly, S.; Stoica, M.; Vaughan, G.; Afonso, C.R.M.; Kühn, U.; Eckert, J.The structural evolution of Ti50Cu43Ni7 and Ti55Cu35Ni10 metallic glasses during heating was investigated by in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The width of the most intense diffraction maximum of the glassy phase decreases slightly during relaxation below the glass transition temperature. Significant structural changes only occur above the glass transition manifesting in a change in the respective peak positions. At even higher temperatures, nanocrystals of the shape memory B2-Ti(Cu,Ni) phase precipitate, and their small size hampers the occurrence of a martensitic transformation.
- ItemA tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2013) Qiao, J.W.; Zhang, T.; Yang, F.Q.; Liaw, P.K.; Pauly, S.; Xu, B.S.In-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) with a composition of Ti46Zr20V12Cu5Be17 exhibit ultimate tensile strength of 1510 MPa and fracture strain of about 7.6%. A tensile deformation model is established, based on the five-stage classification: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (yield platform), (4) plastic-plastic (work hardening), and (5) plastic-plastic (softening) stages, analogous to the tensile behavior of common carbon steels. The constitutive relations strongly elucidate the tensile deformation mechanism. In parallel, the simulation results by a finite-element method (FEM) are in good agreement with the experimental findings and theoretical calculations. The present study gives a mathematical model to clarify the work-hardening behavior of dendrites and softening of the amorphous matrix. Furthermore, the model can be employed to simulate the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite/MGMCs.
- ItemTwo-phase quasi-equilibrium in β-type Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Zhang, L.; Pauly, S.; Tang, M.Q.; Eckert, J.; Zhang, H.F.The microstructural evolution of cast Ti/Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs) containing β-Ti still remains ambiguous. This is why to date the strategies and alloys suitable for producing such BMGCs with precisely controllable volume fractions and crystallite sizes are still rather limited. In this work, a Ti-based BMGC containing β-Ti was developed in the Ti-Zr-Cu-Co-Be system. The glassy matrix of this BMGC possesses an exceptional glass-forming ability and as a consequence, the volume fractions as well as the composition of the β-Ti dendrites remain constant over a wide range of cooling rates. This finding can be explained in terms of a two-phase quasi-equilibrium between the supercooled liquid and β-Ti, which the system attains on cooling. The two-phase quasi-equilibrium allows predicting the crystalline and glassy volume fractions by means of the lever rule and we succeeded in reproducing these values by slight variations in the alloy composition at a fixed cooling rate. The two-phase quasi-equilibrium could be of critical importance for understanding and designing the microstructures of BMGCs containing the β-phase. Its implications on the nucleation and growth of the crystalline phase are elaborated.