Browsing by Author "Petoukhov, V."
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- ItemAlbedo and heat transport in 3-D model simulations of the early Archean climate(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2013) Kienert, H.; Feulner, G.; Petoukhov, V.At the beginning of the Archean eon (ca. 3.8 billion years ago), the Earth's climate state was significantly different from today due to the lower solar luminosity, smaller continental fraction, higher rotation rate and, presumably, significantly larger greenhouse gas concentrations. All these aspects play a role in solutions to the "faint young Sun paradox" which must explain why the ocean surface was not fully frozen at that time. Here, we present 3-D model simulations of climate states that are consistent with early Archean boundary conditions and have different CO2 concentrations, aiming at an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of the early Archean climate system. In order to do so, we have appropriately modified an intermediate complexity climate model that couples a statistical-dynamical atmosphere model (involving parameterizations of the dynamics) to an ocean general circulation model and a thermodynamic-dynamic sea-ice model. We focus on three states: one of them is ice-free, one has the same mean surface air temperature of 288 K as today's Earth and the third one is the coldest stable state in which there is still an area with liquid surface water (i.e. the critical state at the transition to a "snowball Earth"). We find a reduction in meridional heat transport compared to today, which leads to a steeper latitudinal temperature profile and has atmospheric as well as oceanic contributions. Ocean surface velocities are largely zonal, and the strength of the atmospheric meridional circulation is significantly reduced in all three states. These aspects contribute to the observed relation between global mean temperature and albedo, which we suggest as a parameterization of the ice-albedo feedback for 1-D model simulations of the early Archean and thus the faint young Sun problem.
- ItemClimatic response to anthropogenic sulphate aerosols versus well-mixed greenhouse gases from 1850 to 2000 AD in CLIMBER-2(Abingdon : Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2008) Bauer, E.; Petoukhov, V.; Ganopolski, A.; Eliseev, A.V.The Earth system model CLIMBER-2 is extended by a scheme for calculating the climatic response to anthropogenic sulphur dioxide emissions. The scheme calculates the direct radiative forcing, the first indirect cloud albedo effect, and the second indirect cloud lifetime effect induced by geographically resolved sulphate aerosol burden. The simulated anthropogenic sulphate aerosol burden in the year 2000 amounts to 0.47 TgS. The best guesses for the radiative forcing due to the direct effect are -0.4 W m-2 and for the decrease in short-wave radiation due to all aerosol effects -0.8 W m-2. The simulated global warming by 1 K from 1850 to 2000 caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases reduces to 0.6 K when the sulphate aerosol effects are included. The model's hydrological sensitivity of 4%/K is decreased by the second indirect effect to 0.8%/K. The quality of the geographically distributed climatic response to the historic emissions of sulphur dioxide and greenhouse gases makes the extended model relevant to computational efficient investigations of future climate change scenarios.
- ItemThe dynamical core of the Aeolus 1.0 statistical-dynamical atmosphere model: Validation and parameter optimization(Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2018) Totz, S.; Eliseev, A.V.; Petri, S.; Flechsig, M.; Caesar, L.; Petoukhov, V.; Coumou, D.We present and validate a set of equations for representing the atmosphere's large-scale general circulation in an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (EMIC). These dynamical equations have been implemented in Aeolus 1.0, which is a statistical-dynamical atmosphere model (SDAM) and includes radiative transfer and cloud modules (Coumou et al., 2011; Eliseev et al., 2013). The statistical dynamical approach is computationally efficient and thus enables us to perform climate simulations at multimillennia timescales, which is a prime aim of our model development. Further, this computational efficiency enables us to scan large and high-dimensional parameter space to tune the model parameters, e.g., for sensitivity studies.
Here, we present novel equations for the large-scale zonal-mean wind as well as those for planetary waves. Together with synoptic parameterization (as presented by Coumou et al., 2011), these form the mathematical description of the dynamical core of Aeolus 1.0.
We optimize the dynamical core parameter values by tuning all relevant dynamical fields to ERA-Interim reanalysis data (1983-2009) forcing the dynamical core with prescribed surface temperature, surface humidity and cumulus cloud fraction. We test the model's performance in reproducing the seasonal cycle and the influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We use a simulated annealing optimization algorithm, which approximates the global minimum of a high-dimensional function.
With non-tuned parameter values, the model performs reasonably in terms of its representation of zonal-mean circulation, planetary waves and storm tracks. The simulated annealing optimization improves in particular the model's representation of the Northern Hemisphere jet stream and storm tracks as well as the Hadley circulation.
The regions of high azonal wind velocities (planetary waves) are accurately captured for all validation experiments. The zonal-mean zonal wind and the integrated lower troposphere mass flux show good results in particular in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere, the model tends to produce too-weak zonal-mean zonal winds and a too-narrow Hadley circulation. We discuss possible reasons for these model biases as well as planned future model improvements and applications.
- ItemGeoengineering climate by stratospheric sulfur injections: Earth system vulnerability to technological failure(Dordrecht [u.a.] : Springer, 2009) Brovkin, V.; Petoukhov, V.; Claussen, M.; Bauer, E.; Archer, D.; Jaeger, C.We use a coupled climate-carbon cycle model of intermediate complexity to investigate scenarios of stratospheric sulfur injections as a measure to compensate for CO2-induced global warming. The baseline scenario includes the burning of 5,000 GtC of fossil fuels. A full compensation of CO2-induced warming requires a load of about 13 MtS in the stratosphere at the peak of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Keeping global warming below 2°C reduces this load to 9 MtS. Compensation of CO 2 forcing by stratospheric aerosols leads to a global reduction in precipitation, warmer winters in the high northern latitudes and cooler summers over northern hemisphere landmasses. The average surface ocean pH decreases by 0.7, reducing the calcifying ability of marine organisms. Because of the millennial persistence of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere, high levels of stratospheric aerosol loading would have to continue for thousands of years until CO2 was removed from the atmosphere. A termination of stratospheric aerosol loading results in abrupt global warming of up to 5°C within several decades, a vulnerability of the Earth system to technological failure. © 2008 The Author(s).
- ItemIdentifying causal gateways and mediators in complex spatio-temporal systems(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2015) Runge, J.; Petoukhov, V.; Donges, J.F.; Hlinka, J.; Jajcay, N.; Vejmelka, M.; Hartman, D.; Marwan, N.; Paluš, M.; Kurths, J.
- ItemOn statistics of the free-troposphere synoptic component: An evaluation of skewnesses and mixed third-order moments contribution to the synoptic-scale dynamics and fluxes of heat and humidity(Abingdon : Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2008) Petoukhov, V.; Eliseev, A.V.; Klein, R.; Oesterle, H.Based on the ERA40 data for 1976-2002 we calculated skewnesses and mixed third-order statistical moments (TOMs) for the synoptic variations [with (2.5-6) d timescales]of horizontal winds, temperature, vertical velocity and the specific humidity in Eulerian coordinates. All these variables show skewnesses which markedly deviate from zero, basically at the entries and the outlets of the mid-latitude storm tracks. In these regions, high values of skewness for vertical velocity, temperature and the specific humidity are revealed throughout the entire free troposphere, while the marked skewnesses for horizontal winds are traced in the lower free troposphere. We found a notable deviation of the synoptic-component statistics from the Gaussian statistics. We also made an estimate of the contribution from TOMs to the prognostic equations for the synoptic-scale kinetic energy and the meridional fluxes of sensible and latent heat, which appeared to be non-negligible, mainly in the storm tracks in winter. Our analysis attests that the most pronounced contribution of TOMs to the aforementioned equations comes from the self-advection by the horizontal synoptic-scale motions, while the TOMs induced by the metric terms in the original equations, and specifically the TOMs associated with the vertical self-advection by the synoptic-scale motions, are much less important.
- ItemScheme for calculation of multi-layer cloudiness and precipitation for climate models of intermediate complexity(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2013) Eliseev, A.V.; Coumou, D.; Chernokulsky, A.V.; Petoukhov, V.; Petri, S.In this study we present a scheme for calculating the characteristics of multi-layer cloudiness and precipitation for Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs). This scheme considers three-layer stratiform cloudiness and single-column convective clouds. It distinguishes between ice and droplet clouds as well. Precipitation is calculated by using cloud lifetime, which depends on cloud type and phase as well as on statistics of synoptic and convective disturbances. The scheme is tuned to observations by using an ensemble simulation forced by the ERA-40-derived climatology for 1979–2001. Upon calibration, the scheme realistically reproduces basic features of fields of cloud fractions, cloud water path, and precipitation. The simulated globally and annually averaged total cloud fraction is 0.59, and the simulated globally averaged annual precipitation is 100 cm yr−1. Both values agree with empirically derived values. The simulated cloud water path is too small, probably because the simulated vertical extent of stratiform clouds is too small. Geographical distribution and seasonal changes of calculated cloud fraction and precipitation are broadly realistic as well. However, some important regional biases still remain in the scheme, e.g. too little precipitation in the tropics. We discuss possibilities for future improvements in the scheme.
- ItemThree-dimensional parameterizations of the synoptic scale kinetic energy and momentum flux in the Earth's atmosphere(Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2011) Coumou, D.; Petoukhov, V.; Eliseev, A.V.We present a new set of statistical-dynamical equations (SDEs) which can accurately reproduce the three-dimensional atmospheric fields of synoptic scale kinetic energy and momentum flux. The set of equations is closed by finding proper parameterizations for the vertical macro-turbulent diffusion coefficient and ageostrophic terms. The equations have been implemented in a new SD atmosphere model, named Aeolus. We show that the synoptic scale kinetic energy and momentum fluxes generated by the model are in good agreement with empirical data, which were derived from bandpass-filtered ERA-40 data. In addition to present-day climate, the model is tested for substantially colder (last glacial maximum) and warmer (2×CO2) climates, and shown to be in agreement with general circulation model (GCM) results. With the derived equations, one can efficiently study the position and strength of storm tracks under different climate scenarios with calculation time a fraction of those of GCMs. This work prepares ground for the development of a new generation of fast Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity which are able to perform multi-millennia simulations in a reasonable time frame while appropriately accounting for the climatic effect of storm tracks.