Browsing by Author "Pionteck, Jürgen"
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- ItemAdam-Gibbs model in the density scaling regime and its implications for the configurational entropy scaling([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2015) Masiewicz, Elżbieta; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grzybowska, Katarzyna; Pawlus, Sebastian; Pionteck, Jürgen; Paluch, MarianTo solve a long-standing problem of condensed matter physics with determining a proper description of the thermodynamic evolution of the time scale of molecular dynamics near the glass transition, we have extended the well-known Adam-Gibbs model to describe the temperature-volume dependence of structural relaxation times, τα(T, V). We also employ the thermodynamic scaling idea reflected in the density scaling power law, τα = f(T−1V−γ), recently acknowledged as a valid unifying concept in the glass transition physics, to differentiate between physically relevant and irrelevant attempts at formulating the temperature-volume representations of the Adam-Gibbs model. As a consequence, we determine a straightforward relation between the structural relaxation time τα and the configurational entropy SC, giving evidence that also SC(T, V) = g(T−1V−γ) with the exponent γ that enables to scale τα(T, V). This important findings have meaningful implications for the connection between thermodynamics and molecular dynamics near the glass transition, because it implies that τα can be scaled with SC.
- ItemAerogels based on reduced graphene oxide/cellulose composites: Preparation and vapour sensing abilities(Basel : MDPI, 2020) Chen, Yian; Pötschke, Petra; Pionteck, Jürgen; Voit, Brigitte; Qi, HaisongThis paper reports on the preparation of cellulose/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) aerogels for use as chemical vapour sensors. Cellulose/rGO composite aerogels were prepared by dissolving cellulose and dispersing graphene oxide (GO) in aqueous NaOH/urea solution, followed by an in-situ reduction of GO to reduced GO (rGO) and lyophilisation. The vapour sensing properties of cellulose/rGO composite aerogels were investigated by measuring the change in electrical resistance during cyclic exposure to vapours with varying solubility parameters, namely water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, toluene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), and chloroform. The increase in resistance of aerogels on exposure to vapours is in the range of 7 to 40% with methanol giving the highest response. The sensing signal increases almost linearly with the vapour concentration, as tested for methanol. The resistance changes are caused by the destruction of the conductive filler network due to a combination of swelling of the cellulose matrix and adsorption of vapour molecules on the filler surfaces. This combined mechanism leads to an increased sensing response with increasing conductive filler content. Overall, fast reaction, good reproducibility, high sensitivity, and good differentiation ability between different vapours characterize the detection behaviour of the aerogels. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- ItemCellulose-carbon nanotube composite aerogels as novel thermoelectric materials(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2018) Gnanaseelan, Minoj; Chen, Yian; Luo, Jinji; Krause, Beate; Pionteck, Jürgen; Pötschke, Petra; Qu, HaisongThermoelectric materials based on cellulose/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites have been developed by a facile approach and the effects of amount (2–10 wt%) and types of CNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)) on the morphology (films and aerogels) and the thermoelectric properties of the nanocomposites have been investigated. Composite films based on SWCNTs showed significantly higher electrical conductivity (5 S/cm at 10 wt%) and Seebeck coefficient (47.2 μV/K at 10 wt%) compared to those based on MWCNTs (0.9 S/cm and 11 μV/K, respectively). Lyophilization, leading to development of aerogels with sub-micron sized pores, decreased the electrical conductivity for both types by one order of magnitude, but did not affect the Seebeck coefficient of MWCNT based nanocomposites. For SWCNT containing aerogels, higher Seebeck coefficients than for films were measured at 3 and 4 wt% but significantly lower values at higher loadings. CNT addition increased the thermal conductivity from 0.06 to 0.12 W/(m∙K) in the films, whereas the lyophilization significantly reduced it towards values between 0.01 and 0.09 W/(m∙K) for the aerogels. The maximum Seebeck coefficient, power factor, and ZT observed in this study are 49 μV/K for aerogels with 3 wt% SWCNTs, 1.1 μW/(m∙K2) for composite films with 10 wt% SWCNTs, and 7.4 × 10−4 for films with 8 wt% SWCNTs, respectively.
- ItemCuxCo1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.33, 0.67, 1) Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Based Thermoplastic Polyurethane Nanocomposites with Reduced Graphene Oxide for Highly Efficient Electromagnetic Interference Shielding(Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2022-2-26) Anju; Yadav, Raghvendra Singh; Pötschke, Petra; Pionteck, Jürgen; Krause, Beate; Kuřitka, Ivo; Vilčáková, Jarmila; Škoda, David; Urbánek, Pavel; Machovský, Michal; Masař, Milan; Urbánek, MichalCuxCo1-x Fe2O4 (x = 0.33,0.67,1)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanocomposites exhibiting highly efficient electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding were prepared by a melt-mixing approach using a microcompounder. Spinel ferrite Cu0.33Co0.67Fe2O4 (Cu-CoF1), Cu0.67Co0.33Fe2O4 (CuCoF2) and CuFe2O4 (CuF3) nanoparticles were synthesized using the sonochemical method. The CuCoF1 and CuCoF2 exhibited typical ferromagnetic features, whereas CuF3 displayed superparamagnetic characteristics. The maximum value of EMI total shielding effectiveness (SEt) was noticed to be 42.9 dB, 46.2 dB, and 58.8 dB for CuCoF1-rGO-TPU, CuCoF2-rGO-TPU, and CuF3-rGO-TPU nanocomposites, respectively, at a thickness of 1 mm. The highly efficient EMI shielding performance was attributed to the good impedance matching, conductive, dielectric, and magnetic loss. The demonstrated nanocomposites are promising candidates for a lightweight, flexible, and highly efficient EMI shielding material.
- ItemDetermination of Pressure Dependence of Polymer Phase Transitions by pVT Analysis(Basel : MDPI, 2018) Pionteck, JürgenGlass transitions, melting, crystallization, and the isotropization of polymers are connected with changes in the density, respectively the specific volume (Vsp), which can be analyzed by dilatometric methods. Here, the pressure dependence of such transitions is determined by pressure volume temperature (pVT) analysis for different thermoplastic polymers in the pressure range of 10 to 200 MPa, and the temperature range from room temperature to 350 °C. The values for ambient pressure are extrapolated. It is shown that polymer transitions always increase with pressure, and that the melting temperature and glass transition temperature are nearly linearly dependent on pressure. This information, as well as the observed density changes with pressure and temperature, is very important for the processing of thermoplastics, including their simulation, as well as for the thermodynamic interpretations of the transition’s nature.
- ItemElectrically conductive and piezoresistive polymer nanocomposites using multiwalled carbon nanotubes in a flexible copolyester: Spectroscopic, morphological, mechanical and electrical properties(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2022) Dhakal, Kedar Nath; Khanal, Santosh; Krause, Beate; Lach, Ralf; Grellmann, Wolfgang; Le, Hai Hong; Das, Amit; Wießner, Sven; Heinrich, Gert; Pionteck, Jürgen; Adhikari, RameshwarNanocomposites of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT), a flexible aromatic–aliphatic copolyester, were prepared by melt mixing followed by compression moulding to investigate their spectroscopic, morphological, mechanical and electrical properties. A comparison of the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the neat polymer matrix and the composites showed no difference, implying a physical mixing of the matrix and the filler. A morphological investigation revealed the formation of a continuous and interconnected MWCNT network embedded in the polymer matrix with partial agglomeration. Increasing Martens hardness and indentation modulus and decreasing maximum indentation depth with increasing filler concentration demonstrated the reinforcement of the polymer by the MWCNTs. A volume resistivity of 4.6 × 105 Ω cm of the materials was achieved by the incorporation of only 1 wt.-% of the MWCNTs, which confirmed a quite low percolation threshold (below 1 wt.-%) of the nanocomposites. The electrical volume resistivity of the flexible nanocomposites was achieved up to 1.6 × 102 Ω cm, depending on the filler content. The elongation at the break of the nanocomposites at 374% and the maximum relative resistance changes (ΔR/R0) of 20 and 200 at 0.9 and 7.5% strains, respectively, were recorded in the nanocomposites (3 wt.-% MWCNTs) within the estimated volume resistivity range. A cyclic strain experiment shows the most stable and reproducible ΔR/R0 values in the 2%–5% strain range. The electrical conductivity and piezoresistivity of the investigated nanocomposites in correlation with the mechanical properties and observed morphology make them applicable for low-strain deformation-sensing.
- ItemFe3O4 Nanoparticles Grown on Cellulose/GO Hydrogels as Advanced Catalytic Materials for the Heterogeneous Fenton-like Reaction(Washington, DC : ACS Publications, 2019) Chen, Yian; Pötschke, Petra; Pionteck, Jürgen; Voit, Brigitte; Qi, HaisongCellulose/graphene oxide (GO)/iron oxide (Fe3O4) composites were prepared by coprecipitating iron salts onto cellulose/GO hydrogels in a basic solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared, and X-ray diffraction characterization showed that Fe3O4 was successfully coated on GO sheets and cellulose. Cellulose/GO/Fe3O4 composites showed excellent catalytic activity by maintaining almost 98% of the removal of acid orange 7 (AO7) and showed stability over 20 consecutive cycles. This performance is attributable to the synergistic effect of Fe3O4 and GO during the heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction. Especially, the cellulose/GO/Fe3O4 composites preserve their activity by keeping the ratio of Fe3+/Fe2+ at 2 even after 20 catalysis cycles, which is supported by XPS analysis.
- ItemHigh-Performance, Lightweight, and Flexible Thermoplastic Polyurethane Nanocomposites with Zn2+-Substituted CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles and Reduced Graphene Oxide as Shielding Materials against Electromagnetic Pollution(Washington, DC : ACS Publications, 2021-10-11) Anju; Yadav, Raghvendra Singh; Pötschke, Petra; Pionteck, Jürgen; Krause, Beate; Kuřitka, Ivo; Vilcakova, Jarmila; Skoda, David; Urbánek, Pavel; Machovsky, Michal; Masař, Milan; Urbánek, Michal; Jurca, Marek; Kalina, Lukas; Havlica, JaromirThe development of flexible, lightweight, and thin high-performance electromagnetic interference shielding materials is urgently needed for the protection of humans, the environment, and electronic devices against electromagnetic radiation. To achieve this, the spinel ferrite nanoparticles CoFe2O4 (CZ1), Co0.67Zn0.33Fe2O4 (CZ2), and Co0.33Zn0.67Fe2O4 (CZ3) were prepared by the sonochemical synthesis method. Further, these prepared spinel ferrite nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were embedded in a thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) matrix. The maximum electromagnetic interference (EMI) total shielding effectiveness (SET) values in the frequency range 8.2-12.4 GHz of these nanocomposites with a thickness of only 0.8 mm were 48.3, 61.8, and 67.8 dB for CZ1-rGO-TPU, CZ2-rGO-TPU, and CZ3-rGO-TPU, respectively. The high-performance electromagnetic interference shielding characteristics of the CZ3-rGO-TPU nanocomposite stem from dipole and interfacial polarization, conduction loss, multiple scattering, eddy current effect, natural resonance, high attenuation constant, and impedance matching. The optimized CZ3-rGO-TPU nanocomposite can be a potential candidate as a lightweight, flexible, thin, and high-performance electromagnetic interference shielding material.
- ItemInfluence of different carbon nanotubes on the electrical and mechanical properties of melt mixed poly(ether sulfone)-multi walled carbon nanotube composites(Barking : Elsevier, 2012) Chakraborty, Sourav; Pionteck, Jürgen; Krause, Beate; Banerjee, Susanta; Voit, BrigitteCommercial Udel® poly(ether sulfone) (PSU) was filled with three different commercially available multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by small scale melt mixing. The MWCNTs were as grown NC 7000 and two of its derivatives prepared by ball milling treatment. One of them was unmodified (NC 3150); the other was amino modified (NC 3152). The main difference beside the reactivity was the reduced aspect ratio of NC 3150 and NC 3152 caused by ball milling process. All PSU/MWCNT composites with similar filler content were prepared under fixed processing conditions and comparative analysis of their electrical and mechanical properties were performed and were correlated with their microstructure, characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A non-uniform MWCNT dispersion was observed in all composites. The MWCNTs were present in form of agglomerates in the size of 10-60. μm whereas the deagglomerated part was homogeneously distributed in the PSU matrix. The differences in the agglomeration states correlate with the variations of properties between different PSU/MWCNT composites. The lowest electrical percolation threshold of 0.25-0.5. wt.% was observed for the shortened non-functionalized MWCNT composites and the highest for amine-modified MWCNT composites (ca. 1.5. wt.%). The tensile behavior of the three composites was only slightly altered with CNT loading as compared to the pure PSU. However, the elongation at break showed a reduction with MWCNT loading and the reduction was least for composite with best MWCNT dispersion. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
- ItemMWCNT induced negative real permittivity in a copolyester of Bisphenol-A with terephthalic and isophthalic acids(Bristol : IOP Publ., 2020) Özdemir, Zeynep Güven; Daşdan, Dolunay Şakar; Kavak, Pelin; Pionteck, Jürgen; Pötschke, Petra; Voit, Brigitte; SüngüMısırlıoğlu, BanuIn the present study, the negative real permittivity behavior of a copolyester of bisphenol-A with terephthalic acid and isophthalic acid (PAr) containing 1.5 to 7.5 wt% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been investigated in detail. The structural and morphological analysis of the melt-mixed composites was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and light microscopy. The influences of the MWCNT filler on the AC impedance, complex permittivity, and AC conductivity of the PAr polymer matrix were investigated at different operating temperatures varied between 296 K and 373 K. The transition from a negative to positive real permittivity was observed at different crossover frequencies depending on the MWCNT content of the composites whereas pure PAr showed positive values at all frequencies. The negative real permittivity characteristic of the composites was discussed in the context of Drude model. © 2020 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.
- ItemOrganic vapor sensing behavior of polycarbonate/polystyrene/multi-walled carbon nanotube blend composites with different microstructures(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2019) Li, Yilong; Pionteck, Jürgen; Pötschke, Petra; Voit, BrigitteWith the focus on the use as leakage detectors, the vapor sensing behavior of conductive polymer composites (CPCs) based on polycarbonate/polystyrene/multi-walled carbon nanotube (PC/PS/MWCNT) blends with different blend ratios was studied as well as their morphological and electrical properties. In the melt mixed blend composites, the MWCNTs are preferentially localized in PC. At the PC/PS ratio of 70/30 wt%, the composites showed a sea-island structure, while for blends containing 40 wt% or 50 wt% PS co-continuous structures were developed resulting in a reduction in the MWCNT percolation threshold. The saturated vapors of the selected solvents have good interactions to PS but different interactions to PC. At 0.75 wt% MWCNT, sea-island CPCs showed high relative resistance change (Rrel) but poor reversibility towards moderate vapors like ethyl acetate and toluene, while CPCs with co-continuous structure exhibited lower Rrel and better reversibility. All CPCs showed poor reversibility towards vapor of the good solvent dichloromethane due to strong interactions between polymers and vapor. In the vapor of the poor solvent cyclohexane, CPCs with higher PS content showed increased Rrel. After extraction of the PS component by cyclohexane, the sensing response was decreased and the Rrel of the co-continuous blend even reached negative values.
- ItemPolyethylene glycol-modified poly(styrene-co-ethylene/butylene-co-styrene)/carbon nanotubes composite for humidity sensing(Lausanne : Frontiers Media, 2019) Mičušík, Matej; Chatzimanolis, Christos; Tabačiarová, Jana; Kollár, Jozef; Kyritsis, Apostolos; Pissis, Polycarpos; Pionteck, Jürgen; Vegso, Karol; Siffalovic, Peter; Majkova, Eva; Omastová, MáriaPolymeric composites of the linear triblock copolymer poly(styrene-co-ethylene/butylene-co-styrene) grafted with maleic anhydride units (SEBS-MA) or MA modified by hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) and containing various amounts of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as conducting filler—were prepared by solvent casting. The MWCNT surface was modified by a non-covalent approach with a pyrene-based surfactant to achieve a homogeneous dispersion of the conducting filler within the polymeric matrix. The dispersion of the unmodified and surfactant-modified MWCNTs within the elastomeric SEBS-MA and SEBS-MA-PEG matrices was characterized by studying the morphology by TEM and SAXS. Dynamical mechanical analysis was used to evaluate the interaction between the MWCNTs and copolymer matrix. The electrical conductivity of the prepared composites was measured by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, and the percolation threshold was calculated. The prepared elastomeric composites were characterized and studied as humidity sensor. Our results demonstrated that at MWCNTs concentration slightly above the percolation threshold could result in large signal changes. In our system, good results were obtained for MWCNT loading of 2 wt% and an ~0.1 mm thin composite film. The thickness of the tested elastomeric composites and the source current appear to be very important factors that influence the sensing performance. © 2019 Mičušík, Chatzimanolis, Tabačiarová, Kollár, Kyritsis, Pissis, Pionteck, Vegso, Siffalovic, Majkova and Omastová.
- ItemThermal annealing to influence the vapor sensing behavior of co-continuous poly(lactic acid)/polystyrene/multiwalled carbon nanotube composites(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2020) Li, Yilong; Pionteck, Jürgen; Pötschke, Petra; Voit, BrigitteWith the main purpose of being used as vapor leakage detector, the volatile organic compound (VOC) vapor sensing properties of conductive polymer blend composites were studied. Poly(lactic acid)/polystyrene/multi-walled carbon nanotube (PLA/PS/MWCNT) based conductive polymer composites (CPCs) in which the polymer components exhibit different interactions with the vapors, were prepared by melt mixing. CPCs with a blend composition of 50/50 wt% resulted in the finest co-continuous structure and selective MWCNT localization in PLA. Therefore, these composites were selected for sensor tests. Thermal annealing was applied aiming to maintain the blend structure but improving the sensing reversibility of CPC sensors towards high vapor concentrations. Different sensing protocols were applied using acetone (good solvent for PS and PLA) and cyclohexane (good solvent for PS but poor solvent for PLA) vapors. Increasing acetone vapor concentration resulted in increased relative resistance change (Rrel) of CPCs. Saturated cyclohexane vapor resulted in lower response than nearly saturated acetone vapor. The thermal annealing at 150 °C did not change the blend morphology but increased the PLA crystallinity, making the CPC sensors more resistant to vapor stimulation, resulting in lower Rrel but better reversibility after vapor exposure.
- ItemAn updated micromechanical model based on morphological characterization of carbon nanotube nanocomposites(Oxford [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2017) Talò, Michela; Krause, Beate; Pionteck, Jürgen; Lanzara, Giulia; Lacarbonara, WalterBy leveraging on extensive morphological analysis of carbon nanotube nanocomposites, an update of the Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka method is proposed for a more accurate estimation of the nanocomposites effective elastic response. The experimental results are employed to overcome the main modeling limitations inherent in most common micromechanical theories, such as the perfect dispersion of the nanofiller and the uniformity of the nanofiller's aspect ratio within the nanocomposite. The actual variability of the CNTs aspect ratio and the CNTs degree of dispersion are experimentally measured and introduced in the proposed model by averaging the Eshelby tensor over the actual CNT lengths distribution and by accounting for the effective CNT volume fraction. The effects of the nanofiller morphology on the mechanical response of three different thermoplastic nanocomposites with low- and high-aspect ratio CNTs are explored, and monotonic tensile tests are performed to validate the predictions of the proposed model. A good agreement is found between the predicted nanocomposites elastic moduli and the experimental data.