Browsing by Author "Rümmeli, M.H."
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- ItemCarbon nanostructures as a multi-functional platform for sensing applications(Basel : MDPI AG, 2018) Mendes, R.G.; Wróbel, P.S.; Bachmatiuk, A.; Sun, J.; Gemming, T.; Liu, Z.; Rümmeli, M.H.The various forms of carbon nanostructures are providing extraordinary new opportunities that can revolutionize the way gas sensors, electrochemical sensors and biosensors are engineered. The great potential of carbon nanostructures as a sensing platform is exciting due to their unique electrical and chemical properties, highly scalable, biocompatible and particularly interesting due to the almost infinite possibility of functionalization with a wide variety of inorganic nanostructured materials and biomolecules. This opens a whole new pallet of specificity into sensors that can be extremely sensitive, durable and that can be incorporated into the ongoing new generation of wearable technology. Within this context, carbon-based nanostructures are amongst the most promising structures to be incorporated in a multi-functional platform for sensing. The present review discusses the various 1D, 2D and 3D carbon nanostructure forms incorporated into different sensor types as well as the novel functionalization approaches that allow such multi-functionality.
- ItemConfined crystals of the smallest phase-change material(Washington, DC : American Chemical Society, 2013) Giusca, C.E.; Stolojan, V.; Sloan, J.; Börrnert, F.; Shiozawa, H.; Sader, K.; Rümmeli, M.H.; Büchner, B.; Silva, S.R.P.The demand for high-density memory in tandem with limitations imposed by the minimum feature size of current storage devices has created a need for new materials that can store information in smaller volumes than currently possible. Successfully employed in commercial optical data storage products, phase-change materials, that can reversibly and rapidly change from an amorphous phase to a crystalline phase when subject to heating or cooling have been identified for the development of the next generation electronic memories. There are limitations to the miniaturization of these devices due to current synthesis and theoretical considerations that place a lower limit of 2 nm on the minimum bit size, below which the material does not transform in the structural phase. We show here that by using carbon nanotubes of less than 2 nm diameter as templates phase-change nanowires confined to their smallest conceivable scale are obtained. Contrary to previous experimental evidence and theoretical expectations, the nanowires are found to crystallize at this scale and display amorphous-to-crystalline phase changes, fulfilling an important prerequisite of a memory element. We show evidence for the smallest phase-change material, extending thus the size limit to explore phase-change memory devices at extreme scales.
- ItemDirect chemical vapor deposition synthesis of large area single-layer brominated graphene(Cambridge : Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019) Hasan, M.; Meiou, W.; Yulian, L.; Ullah, S.; Ta, H.Q.; Zhao, L.; Mendes, R.G.; Malik, Z.P.; Ahmad, N.M.; Liu, Z.; Rümmeli, M.H.Graphene and its derivatives such as functionalized graphene are considered to hold significant promise in numerous applications. Within that context, halogen functionalization is exciting for radical and nucleophilic substitution reactions as well as for the grafting of organic moieties. Historically, the successful covalent doping of sp2 carbon with halogens, such as bromine, was demonstrated with carbon nanotubes. However, the direct synthesis of brominated graphene has thus far remained elusive. In this study we show how large area brominated graphene with C-Br bonds can be achieved directly (i.e. a single step) using hydrogen rich low pressure chemical vapor deposition. The direct synthesis of brominated graphene could lead to practical developments. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.
- ItemOn the efficiency of bile salt for stable suspension and isolation of single-walled carbon nanotubes-spectroscopic and microscopic investigations(Berlin : Springer Verlag, 2010) Lukaszczuk, P.; Borowiak-Palen, E.; Rümmeli, M.H.; Kalenczuk, R.J.In this contribution we present a systematic study on the dispersion of SWCNTs in a water-based solution of biocompatible detergent: sodium deoxycholate (DOC). By avoiding harsh chemical conditions, which are known to damage nanotubes structure, a stable SWCNTs suspension was created. Long term stirring of the solution led to preparation of a stable transparent solution, containing welldispersed isolated SWCNTs. The as-prepared dispersion remained stable and clear for two months. Optical absorption spectroscopy was employed to measure SWCNTs suspension stability. Nanotube aggregation was evaluated through the tangential mode (G mode) present in the Raman spectrum. High-resolution transmission electronmicroscopy was employed to observe the mechanism of debundling process. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
- ItemSubstrate Developments for the Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis of Graphene(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2020) Shi, Q.; Tokarska, K.; Ta, H.Q.; Yang, X.; Liu, Y.; Ullah, S.; Liu, L.; Trzebicka, B.; Bachmatiuk, A.; Sun, J.; Fu, L.; Liu, Z.; Rümmeli, M.H.Since the isolation of graphene and numerous demonstrations of its unique properties, the expectations for this material to be implemented in many future commercial applications have been enormous. However, to date, challenges still remain. One of the key challenges is the fabrication of graphene in a manner that satisfies processing requirements. While transfer of graphene can be used, this tends to damage or contaminate it, which degrades its performance. Hence, there is an important drive to grow graphene directly over a number of technologically important materials, viz., different substrate materials, so as to avoid the need for transfer. One of the more successful approaches to synthesis graphene is chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which is well established. Historically, transition metal substrates are used due to their catalytic properties. However, in recent years this has developed to include many nonmetal substrate systems. Moreover, both solid and molten substrate forms have also been demonstrated. In addition, the current trend to progress flexible devices has spurred interest in graphene growth directly over flexible materials surfaces. All these aspects are presented in this review which presents the developments in available substrates for graphene fabrication by CVD, with a focus primarily on large area graphene.