Browsing by Author "Reineke, Sebastian"
Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
Results Per Page
- Item3D electrothermal simulations of organic LEDs showing negative differential resistance(Berlin : Weierstraß-Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik, 2017) Liero, Matthias; Fuhrmann, Jürgen; Glitzky, Annegret; Koprucki, Thomas; Fischer, Axel; Reineke, SebastianOrganic semiconductor devices show a pronounced interplay between temperature-activated conductivity and self-heating which in particular causes inhomogeneities in the brightness of large-area OLEDs at high power. We consider a 3D thermistor model based on partial differential equations for the electrothermal behavior of organic devices and introduce an extension to multiple layers with nonlinear conductivity laws, which also take the diode-like behavior in recombination zones into account. We present a numerical simulation study for a red OLED using a finite-volume approximation of this model. The appearance of S-shaped current-voltage characteristics with regions of negative differential resistance in a measured device can be quantitatively reproduced. Furthermore, this simulation study reveals a propagation of spatial zones of negative differential resistance in the electron and hole transport layers toward the contact.
- ItemElectrothermal Tristability Causes Sudden Burn-In Phenomena in Organic LEDs(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Kirch, Anton; Fischer, Axel; Liero, Matthias; Fuhrmann, Jürgen; Glitzky, Annegret; Reineke, SebastianOrganic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been established as a mature display pixel technology. While introducing the same technology in a large-area form factor to general lighting and signage applications, some key questions remain unanswered. Under high-brightness conditions, OLED panels were reported to exhibit nonlinear electrothermal behavior causing lateral brightness inhomogeneities and even regions of switched-back luminance. Also, the physical understanding of sudden device failure and burn-ins is still rudimentary. A safe and stable operation of lighting tiles, therefore, requires an in-depth understanding of these physical phenomena. Here, it is shown that the electrothermal treatment of thin-film devices allows grasping the underlying physics. Configurations of OLEDs with different lateral dimensions are studied as a role model and it is reported that devices exceeding a certain panel size develop three stable, self heating-induced operating branches. Switching between them causes the sudden formation of dark spots in devices without any preexisting inhomogeneities. A current-stabilized operation mode is commonly used in the lighting industry, as it ensures degradation-induced voltage adjustments. Here, it is demonstrated that a tristable operation always leads to destructive switching, independent of applying constant currents or voltages. With this new understanding of the effects at high operation brightness, it will be possible to adjust driving schemes accordingly, design more resilient system integrations, and develop additional failure mitigation strategies. © 2021 The Authors. Advanced Functional Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemExperimental proof of Joule heating-induced switched-back regions in OLEDs(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2020) Kirch, Anton; Fische, Axel; Liero, Matthias; Fuhrmann, Jürgen; Glitzky, Annegret; Reineke, SebastianOrganic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have become a major pixel technology in the display sector, with products spanning the entire range of current panel sizes. The ability to freely scale the active area to large and random surfaces paired with flexible substrates provides additional application scenarios for OLEDs in the general lighting, automotive, and signage sectors. These applications require higher brightness and, thus, current density operation compared to the specifications needed for general displays. As extended transparent electrodes pose a significant ohmic resistance, OLEDs suffering from Joule self-heating exhibit spatial inhomogeneities in electrical potential, current density, and hence luminance. In this article, we provide experimental proof of the theoretical prediction that OLEDs will display regions of decreasing luminance with increasing driving current. With a two-dimensional OLED model, we can conclude that these regions are switched back locally in voltage as well as current due to insufficient lateral thermal coupling. Experimentally, we demonstrate this effect in lab-scale devices and derive that it becomes more severe with increasing pixel size, which implies its significance for large-area, high-brightness use cases of OLEDs. Equally, these non-linear switching effects cannot be ignored with respect to the long-term operation and stability of OLEDs; in particular, they might be important for the understanding of sudden-death scenarios. © 2020, The Author(s).
- ItemIntroducing pinMOS Memory: A Novel, Nonvolatile Organic Memory Device(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Zheng, Yichu; Fischer, Axel; Sawatzki, Michael; Doan, Duy Hai; Liero, Matthias; Glitzky, Annegret; Reineke, Sebastian; Mannsfeld, Stefan C.B.In recent decades, organic memory devices have been researched intensely and they can, among other application scenarios, play an important role in the vision of an internet of things. Most studies concentrate on storing charges in electronic traps or nanoparticles while memory types where the information is stored in the local charge up of an integrated capacitance and presented by capacitance received far less attention. Here, a new type of programmable organic capacitive memory called p-i-n-metal-oxide-semiconductor (pinMOS) memory is demonstrated with the possibility to store multiple states. Another attractive property is that this simple, diode-based pinMOS memory can be written as well as read electrically and optically. The pinMOS memory device shows excellent repeatability, an endurance of more than 104 write-read-erase-read cycles, and currently already over 24 h retention time. The working mechanism of the pinMOS memory under dynamic and steady-state operations is investigated to identify further optimization steps. The results reveal that the pinMOS memory principle is promising as a reliable capacitive memory device for future applications in electronic and photonic circuits like in neuromorphic computing or visual memory systems. © 2019 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
- ItemOrganic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Conjugation-Induced Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Polymers: Interplay Between Intra- and Intermolecular Charge Transfer States(Lausanne : Frontiers Media, 2019) Li, Yungui; Wei, Qiang; Cao, Liang; Fries, Felix; Cucchi, Matteo; Wu, Zhongbin; Scholz, Reinhard; Lenk, Simone; Voit, Brigitte; Ge, Ziyi; Reineke, SebastianIn this work, interactions between different host materials and a blue TADF polymer named P1 are systematically investigated. In photoluminescence, the host can have substantial impact on the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and the intensity of delayed fluorescence (ΦDF), where more than three orders of magnitude difference of ΦDF in various hosts is observed, resulting from a polarity effect of the host material and energy transfer. Additionally, an intermolecular charge-transfer (CT) emission with pronounced TADF characteristics is observed between P1 and 2,4,6-tris[3-(diphenylphosphinyl)phenyl]-1,3,5-triazine (PO-T2T), with a singlet-triplet splitting of 7 meV. It is noted that the contribution of harvested triplets in monochrome organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) correlates with ΦDF. For devices based on intermolecular CT-emission, the harvested triplets contribute ~90% to the internal quantum efficiency. The results demonstrate the vital importance of host materials on improving the PLQY and sensitizing ΦDF of TADF polymers for efficient devices. Solution-processed polychrome OLEDs with a color close to a white emission are presented, with the emission of intramolecular (P1) and intermolecular TADF (PO-T2T:P1). © Copyright © 2019 Li, Wei, Cao, Fries, Cucchi, Wu, Scholz, Lenk, Voit, Ge and Reineke.
- ItemPolymer Featuring Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence as Emitter in Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells(Washington, DC : ACS, 2020) Lundberg, Lundberg; Wei, Qiang; Ge, Ziyi; Voit, Brigitte; Reineke, Sebastian; Edman, LudvigSemiconducting polymers that feature thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) can deliver a much desired combination of high-efficiency and metal-free electroluminescence and cost-efficient solution-based fabrication. A TADF polymer is thus a very good fit for the emitting compound in light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) because the commonly employed air-stabile and few-layer LEC architecture is well suited for such solution-based fabrication. Herein we report on the first LEC device based on a TADF polymer as the emitting species, which delivers a luminance of 96 cd m-2 at 4 V and a current efficacy of 1.4 cd A-1 and >600 cd m-2 at 6 V, which is competitive with the performance of multilayer organic light-emitting diodes based on the same TADF polymer. We further utilize the established sensitivity of the emission of the TADF polymer to its environment to draw conclusions on the exciton populations in host-guest and host-free TADF LEC devices. Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society.
- ItemReduced Intrinsic Non-Radiative Losses Allow Room-Temperature Triplet Emission from Purely Organic Emitters(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Li, Yungui; Jiang, Lihui; Liu, Wenlan; Xu, Shunqi; Li, Tian-Yi; Fries, Felix; Zeika, Olaf; Zou, Yingping; Ramanan, Charusheela; Lenk, Simone; Scholz, Reinhard; Andrienko, Denis; Feng, Xinliang; Leo, Karl; Reineke, SebastianPersistent luminescence from triplet excitons in organic molecules is rare, as fast non-radiative deactivation typically dominates over radiative transitions. This work demonstrates that the substitution of a hydrogen atom in a derivative of phenanthroimidazole with an N-phenyl ring can substantially stabilize the excited state. This stabilization converts an organic material without phosphorescence emission into a molecular system exhibiting efficient and ultralong afterglow phosphorescence at room temperature. Results from systematic photophysical investigations, kinetic modeling, excited-state dynamic modeling, and single-crystal structure analysis identify that the long-lived triplets originate from a reduction of intrinsic non-radiative molecular relaxations. Further modification of the N-phenyl ring with halogen atoms affects the afterglow lifetime and quantum yield. As a proof-of-concept, an anticounterfeiting device is demonstrated with a time-dependent Morse code feature for data encryption based on these emitters. A fundamental design principle is outlined to achieve long-lived and emissive triplet states by suppressing intrinsic non-radiative relaxations in the form of molecular vibrations or rotations.
- ItemThermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence in a Y3N@C80 Endohedral Fullerene: Time-Resolved Luminescence and EPR Studies(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2017-12-8) Zalibera, Michal; Krylov, Denis S.; Karagiannis, Dimitrios; Will, Paul-Anton; Ziegs, Frank; Schiemenz, Sandra; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Reineke, Sebastian; Savitsky, Anton; Popov, Alexey A.The endohedral fullerene Y3N@C80 exhibits luminescence with reasonable quantum yield and extraordinary long lifetime. By variable-temperature steady-state and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that above 60 K the Y3N@C80 exhibits thermally activated delayed fluorescence with maximum emission at 120 K and a negligible prompt fluorescence. Below 60 K, a phosphorescence with a lifetime of 192±1 ms is observed. Spin distribution and dynamics in the triplet excited state is investigated with X- and W-band EPR and ENDOR spectroscopies and DFT computations. Finally, electroluminescence of the Y3N@C80/PFO film is demonstrated opening the possibility for red-emitting fullerene-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs).