Browsing by Author "Rettenwander, Daniel"
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- ItemThe Electronic Conductivity of Single Crystalline Ga-Stabilized Cubic Li7La3Zr2O12: A Technologically Relevant Parameter for All-Solid-State Batteries(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Philipp, Martin; Gadermaier, Bernhard; Posch, Patrick; Hanzu, Ilie; Ganschow, Steffen; Meven, Martin; Rettenwander, Daniel; Redhammer, Günther J.; Wilkening, H. Martin R.The next-generation of all-solid-state lithium batteries need ceramic electrolytes with very high ionic conductivities. At the same time a negligible electronic conductivity σeon is required to eliminate self-discharge in such systems. A non-negligible electronic conductivity may also promote the unintentional formation of Li dendrites, being currently one of the key issues hindering the development of long-lasting all-solid-state batteries. This interplay is suggested recently for garnet-type Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO). It is, however, well known that the overall macroscopic electronic conductivity may be governed by a range of extrinsic factors such as impurities, chemical inhomogeneities, grain boundaries, morphology, and size effects. Here, advantage of Czochralski-grown single crystals, which offer the unique opportunity to evaluate intrinsic properties of a chemically homogeneous matrix, is taken to measure the electronic conductivity σeon. Via long-time, high-precision potentiostatic polarization experiments an upper limit of σeon in the order of 5 × 10−10 S cm−1 (293 K) is estimated. This value is by six orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding total conductivity σtotal = 10−3 S cm−1 of Ga-LLZO. Thus, it is concluded that the high values of σeon recently reported for similar systems do not necessarily mirror intragrain bulk properties of chemically homogenous systems but may originate from chemically inhomogeneous interfacial areas. © 2020 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
- ItemInvestigating the electrochemical stability of Li7La3Zr2O12 solid electrolytes using field stress experiments(London [u.a.] : RSC, 2021) Smetaczek, Stefan; Pycha, Eva; Ring, Joseph; Siebenhofer, Matthäus; Ganschow, Steffen; Berendts, Stefan; Nenning, Andreas; Kubicek, Markus; Rettenwander, Daniel; Limbeck, Andreas; Fleig, JürgenCubic Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) garnets are among the most promising solid electrolytes for solid-state batteries with the potential to exceed conventional battery concepts in terms of energy density and safety. The electrochemical stability of LLZO is crucial for its application, however, controversial reports in the literature show that it is still an unsettled matter. Here, we investigate the electrochemical stability of LLZO single crystals by applying electric field stress via macro- and microscopic ionically blocking Au electrodes in ambient air. Induced material changes are subsequently probed using various locally resolved analysis techniques, including microelectrode electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and microfocus X-ray diffraction (XRD). Our experiments indicate that LLZO decomposes at 4.1–4.3 V vs. Li+/Li, leading to the formation of Li-poor phases like La2Zr2O7 beneath the positively polarized electrode. The reaction is still on-going even after several days of polarization, indicating that no blocking interfacial layer is formed. The decomposition can be observed at elevated as well as room temperature and suggests that LLZO is truly not compatible with high voltage cathode materials.
- ItemIon dynamics in Al-Stabilized Li7La3Zr2O12 single crystals – Macroscopic transport and the elementary steps of ion hopping(Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2020) Posch, Patrick; Lunghammer, Sarah; Berendts, Stefan; Ganschow, Steffen; Redhammer, Günther J.; Wilkening, Alexandra; Lerch, Martin; Gadermaier, Bernhard; Rettenwander, Daniel; Wilkening, H. Martin R.Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) garnet-type ceramics are considered as very promising candidates for solid electrolytes and have been extensively studied in the past few years. Several studies report on an increase in ionic conductivity by doping with ions, such as Al3+ and Ga3+, to stabilize the cubic modification of LLZO. Unfortunately, so far ion dynamics have mainly been studied using powdered samples. Such studies may suffer from chemical heterogeneities concerning Al distribution. Here, we took advantage of Al-stabilized LLZO single crystals to throw light on the elementary steps of ion hopping. We used 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-lattice relaxation measurements and conductivity spectroscopy to probe dynamic parameters from both a microscopic and macroscopic point of view. At 293 K the total conductivity turned out to be 0.082 mS cm−1, which is remarkably good for LLZO exhibiting an Al-content of only 0.37 wt%. Most importantly, 7Li NMR spin-lock transients revealed two overlapping diffusion-induced processes. Overall, activation energies from spin-lock NMR excellently agree with that from conductivity measurements; both techniques yield values around 0.36 eV. The corresponding diffusion coefficients deduced from NMR and conductivity measurements almost coincide. The magnetic spin fluctuations sensed by NMR provide an in-depth look at the elementary jump processes, which can barely be revealed by macroscopic impedance spectroscopy providing average values. In particular, we were able to precisely measure the local hopping barrier (0.20 eV) characterizing forward-backward jumps between the sites 24d and 96h. © 2019 The Author(s)
- ItemLi+/H+ exchange of Li7La3Zr2O12 single and polycrystals investigated by quantitative LIBS depth profiling(Cambridge : Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022) Smetaczek, Stefan; Limbeck, Andreas; Zeller, Veronika; Ring, Joseph; Ganschow, Steffen; Rettenwander, Daniel; Fleig, JürgenLi7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) garnets are highly attractive to be used as solid electrolyte in solid-state Li batteries. However, LLZO suffers from chemical interaction with air and humidity, causing Li+/H+ exchange with detrimental implication on its performance, processing and scalability. To better understand the kinetics of the detrimental Li+/H+ exchange and its dependence on microstructural features, accelerated Li+/H+ exchange experiments were performed on single crystalline and polycrystalline LLZO, exposed for 80 minutes to 80 °C hot water. The resulting chemical changes were quantified by analytical methods, i.e. inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). From the time dependence of the Li+ enrichment in the water, measured by ICP-OES, a bulk interdiffusion coefficient of Li+/H+ could be determined (7 × 10−17 m2 s−1 at 80 °C). Depth dependent concentrations were obtained from the LIBS data for both ions after establishing a calibration method enabling not only Li+ but also H+ quantification in the solid electrolyte. Short interdiffusion lengths in the 1 μm range are found for the single crystalline Ga:LLZO, in accordance with the measured bulk diffusion coefficient. In polycrystalline Ta:LLZO, however, very long diffusion tails in the 20 μm range and ion exchange fractions up to about 70% are observed. Those are attributed to fast ion interdiffusion along grain boundaries. The severe compositional changes also strongly affect the electrical properties measured by impedance spectroscopy. This study highlights that microstructural effects may be decisive for the Li+/H+ ion exchange kinetics of LLZO.
- ItemLithium metal penetration induced by electrodeposition through solid electrolytes: Example in single-crystal Li6La3ZrTaO12 garnet(Pennington, NJ : Electrochemical Society, 2018) Swamy, Tushar; Park, Richard; Sheldon, Brian W.; Rettenwander, Daniel; Porz, Lukas; Berendts, Stefan; Uecker, Reinhard; Carter, W. Craig; Chiang, Yet-MingSolid electrolytes potentially enable rechargeable batteries with lithium metal anodes possessing higher energy densities than today’s lithium ion batteries. To do so the solid electrolyte must suppress instabilities that lead to poor coulombic efficiency and short circuits. In this work, lithium electrodeposition was performed on single-crystal Li6La3ZrTaO12 garnets to investigate factors governing lithium penetration through brittle electrolytes. In single crystals, grain boundaries are excluded as paths for lithium metal propagation. Vickers microindentation was used to introduce surface flaws of known size. However, operando optical microscopy revealed that lithium metal penetration propagates preferentially from a different, second class of flaws. At the perimeter of surface current collectors smaller in size than the lithium source electrode, an enhanced electrodeposition current density causes lithium filled cracks to initiate and grow to penetration, even when large Vickers defects are in proximity. Modeling the electric field distribution in the experimental cell revealed that a 5-fold enhancement in field occurs within 10 micrometers of the electrode edge and generates high local electrochemomechanical stress. This may determine the initiation sites for lithium propagation, overriding the presence of larger defects elsewhere.
- ItemThe natural critical current density limit for Li7La3Zr2O12 garnets(London [u.a.] : RSC, 2020) Flatscher, Florian; Philipp, Martin; Ganschow, Steffen; Wilkening, H. Martin R.; Rettenwander, DanielCeramic batteries equipped with Li-metal anodes are expected to double the energy density of conventional Li-ion batteries. Besides high energy densities, also high power is needed when batteries have to be developed for electric vehicles. Practically speaking, so-called critical current densities (CCD) higher than 3 mA cm-2 are needed to realize such systems. As yet, this value has, however, not been achieved for garnet-type Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) being one of the most promising ceramic electrolytes. Most likely, CCD values are influenced by the area specific resistance (ASR) governing ionic transport across the Li|electrolyte interface. Here, single crystals of LLZO with adjusted ASR are used to quantify this relationship in a systematic manner. It turned out that CCD values exponentially decrease with increasing ASR. The highest obtained CCD value was as high as 280 µA cm-2. This value should be regarded as the room-temperature limit for LLZO when no external pressure is applied. Concluding, for polycrystalline samples either stack pressure or a significant increase of the interfacial area is needed to reach current densities equal or higher than the above-mentioned target value. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.
- ItemSingle-crystal neutron and X-ray diffraction study of garnet-type solid-state electrolyte Li6La3ZrTaO12: An in situ temperature-dependence investigation (2.5 ≤ T ≤ 873 K)(Oxford [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell, 2021) Redhammer, Günther J.; Meven, Martin; Ganschow, Steffen; Tippelt, Gerold; Rettenwander, DanielLarge single crystals of garnet-type Li6La3ZrTaO12 (LLZTO) were grown by the Czochralski method and analysed using neutron diffraction between 2.5 and 873 K in order to fully characterize the Li atom distribution, and possible Li ion mobility in this class of potential candidates for solid-state electrolyte battery material. LLZTO retains its cubic symmetry (space group Ia 3 d) over the complete temperature range. When compared to other sites, the octahedral sites behave as the most rigid unit and show the smallest increase in atomic displacement parameters and bond length. The La and Li sites show similar thermal expansion in their bond lengths with temperature, and the anisotropic and equivalent atomic displacement parameters exhibit a distinctly larger increase at temperatures above 400 K. Detailed inspection of nuclear densities at the Li1 site reveal a small but significant displacement from the 24d position to the typical 96h position, which cannot, however, be resolved from the single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The site occupation of LiI ions on Li1 and Li2 sites remains constant, so there is no change in site occupation with temperature. © 2021 International Union of Crystallography. All rights reserved.