Browsing by Author "Roth, Martin"
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- ItemHigh-Resolution Arrayed-Waveguide-Gratings in Astronomy: Design and Fabrication Challenges(Basel : MDPI, 2017) Stoll, Andreas; Zhang, Ziyang; Haynes, Roger; Roth, MartinA comprehensive design of a folded-architecture arrayed-waveguide-grating (AWG)-device, targeted at applications as integrated photonic spectrographs (IPS) in near-infrared astronomy, is presented. The AWG structure is designed for the astronomical H-band (1500 nm-1800 nm) with a theoretical maximum resolving power R = 60,000 at 1630 nm. The geometry of the device is optimized for a compact structure with a footprint of 5.5 cm × 3.93 cm on SiO2 platform. To evaluate the fabrication challenges of such high-resolution AWGs, effects of random perturbations of the effective refractive index (RI) distribution in the free propagation region (FPR), as well as small variations of the array waveguide optical lengths are numerically investigated. The results of the investigation show a dramatic degradation of the point spread function (PSF) for a random effective RI distribution with variance values above ~10-4 for both the FPR and the waveguide array. Based on the results, requirements on the fabrication technology for high-resolution AWG-based spectrographs are given in the end.
- ItemThe MUSE Extremely Deep Field: The cosmic web in emission at high redshift(Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2021) Bacon, Roland; Mary, David; Garel, Thibault; Blaizot, Jeremy; Maseda, Michael; Schaye, Joop; Wisotzki, Lutz; Conseil, Simon; Brinchmann, Jarle; Leclercq, Floriane; Abril-Melgarejo, Valentina; Boogaard, Leindert; Bouché, Nicolas; Contini, Thierry; Feltre, Anna; Guiderdoni, Bruno; Herenz, Christian; Kollatschny, Wolfram; Kusakabe, Haruka; Matthee, Jorryt; Michel-Dansac, Léo; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Richard, Johan; Roth, Martin; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Steinmetz, Matthias; Tresse, Laurence; Urrutia, Tanya; Verhamme, Anne; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Zabl, Johannes; Zoutendijk, Sebastiaan L.We report the discovery of diffuse extended Lyα emission from redshift 3.1 to 4.5, tracing cosmic web filaments on scales of 2.5-4 cMpc. These structures have been observed in overdensities of Lyα emitters in the MUSE Extremely Deep Field, a 140 h deep MUSE observation located in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Among the 22 overdense regions identified, five are likely to harbor very extended Lyα emission at high significance with an average surface brightness of 5 × 10-20 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2. Remarkably, 70% of the total Lyα luminosity from these filaments comes from beyond the circumgalactic medium of any identified Lyα emitter. Fluorescent Lyα emission powered by the cosmic UV background can only account for less than 34% of this emission at z ≈ 3 and for not more than 10% at higher redshift. We find that the bulk of this diffuse emission can be reproduced by the unresolved Lyα emission of a large population of ultra low-luminosity Lyα emitters (< 1040 erg s-1), provided that the faint end of the Lyα luminosity function is steep (α ⪅ -1.8), it extends down to luminosities lower than 1038 - 1037 erg s-1, and the clustering of these Lyα emitters is significant (filling factor < 1/6). If these Lyα emitters are powered by star formation, then this implies their luminosity function needs to extend down to star formation rates < 10-4M yr-1. These observations provide the first detection of the cosmic web in Lyα emission in typical filamentary environments and the first observational clue indicating the existence of a large population of ultra low-luminosity Lyα emitters at high redshift. © R. Bacon et al. 2021.
- ItemThe MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field surveys: Data release II(Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2023) Bacon, Roland; Brinchmann, Jarle; Conseil, Simon; Maseda, Michael; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Wendt, Martin; Bacher, Raphael; Mary, David; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Krajnović, Davor; Boogaard, Leindert; Bouché, Nicolas; Contini, Thierry; Epinat, Benoît; Feltre, Anna; Guo, Yucheng; Herenz, Christian; Kollatschny, Wolfram; Kusakabe, Haruka; Leclercq, Floriane; Michel-Dansac, Léo; Pello, Roser; Richard, Johan; Roth, Martin; Salvignol, Gregory; Schaye, Joop; Steinmetz, Matthias; Tresse, Laurence; Urrutia, Tanya; Verhamme, Anne; Vitte, Eloise; Wisotzki, Lutz; Zoutendijk, Sebastiaan L.We present the second data release of the MUSE Hubble Ultra-Deep Field surveys, which includes the deepest spectroscopic survey ever performed. The MUSE data, with their 3D content, amazing depth, wide spectral range, and excellent spatial and medium spectral resolution, are rich in information. Their location in the Hubble ultra-deep field area, which benefits from an exquisite collection of ancillary panchromatic information, is a major asset. This update of the first release incorporates a new 141-h adaptive-optics-assisted MUSE eXtremely Deep Field (MXDF; 1 arcmin diameter field of view) in addition to the reprocessed 10-h mosaic (3 × 3 arcmin2) and the single 31-h deep field (1 × 1 arcmin2). All three data sets were processed and analyzed homogeneously using advanced data reduction and analysis methods. The 3σ point-source flux limit of an unresolved emission line reaches 3.1 × 10-19 and 6.3 × 10-20 erg s-1 cm-2 at 10-and 141-h depths, respectively. We have securely identified and measured the redshift of 2221 sources, an increase of 41% compared to the first release. With the exception of eight stars, the collected sample consists of 25 nearby galaxies (z < 0.25), 677 [O II] emitters (z = 0.25-1.5), 201 galaxies in the MUSE redshift desert range (z = 1.5-2.8), and 1308 Lyα emitters (z = 2.8-6.7). This represents an order of magnitude more redshifts than the collection of all spectroscopic redshifts obtained before MUSE in the Hubble ultra-deep field area (i.e., 2221 versus 292). At high redshift (z > 3), the difference is even more striking, with a factor of 65 increase (1308 versus 20). We compared the measured redshifts against three published photometric redshift catalogs and find the photo-z accuracy to be lower than the constraints provided by photo-z fitting codes. Eighty percent of the galaxies in our final catalog have an HST counterpart. These galaxies are on average faint, with a median AB F775W magnitude of 25.7 and 28.7 for the [O II] and Lyα emitters, respectively. Fits of their spectral energy distribution show that these galaxies tend to be low-mass star-forming galaxies, with a median stellar mass of 6.2 × 108 M· and a median star-formation rate of 0.4 M· yr-1. We measured the completeness of our catalog with respect to HST and found that, in the deepest 141-h area, 50% completeness is achieved for an AB magnitude of 27.6 and 28.7 (F775W) at z = 0.8-1.6 and z = 3.2-4.5, respectively. Twenty percent of our catalog, or 424 galaxies, have no HST counterpart. The vast majority of these new sources are high equivalent-width z > 2.8 Lyα emitters that are detected by MUSE thanks to their bright and asymmetric broad Lyα line. We release advanced data products, specific software, and a web interface to select and download data sets.
- ItemPerformance limits of astronomical arrayed waveguide gratings on a silica platform(Washington, DC : Soc., 2020) Stoll, Andreas; Madhav, Kalaga; Roth, MartinWe present a numerical and experimental study of the impact of phase errors on the performance of large, high-resolution arrayed waveguide gratings (AWG) for applications in astronomy. We use a scalar diffraction model to study the transmission spectrum of an AWG under random variations of the optical waveguide lengths. We simulate phase error correction by numerically trimming the lengths of the optical waveguides to the nearest integer multiple of the central wavelength. The optical length error distribution of a custom-fabricated silica AWG is measured using frequency-domain interferometry and Monte-Carlo fitting of interferogram intensities. In the end, we give an estimate for the phase-error limited size of a waveguide array manufactured using state-of-the-art technology. We show that post-processing eliminates phase errors as a performance limiting factor for astronomical spectroscopy in the H-band.
- ItemReflectivity of Venus’s Dayside Disk During the 2020 Observation Campaign: Outcomes and Future Perspectives([Bristol] : IOP Publishing, 2022) Lee, Yeon Joo; García Muñoz, Antonio; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Quémerais, Eric; Mottola, Stefano; Hellmich, Stephan; Granzer, Thomas; Bergond, Gilles; Roth, Martin; Gallego-Cano, Eulalia; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Robidel, Rozenn; Murakami, Go; Masunaga, Kei; Kaplan, Murat; Erece, Orhan; Hueso, Ricardo; Kabáth, Petr; Špoková, Magdaléna; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín; Kim, Myung-Jin; Mangano, Valeria; Jessup, Kandis-Lea; Widemann, Thomas; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro; Watanabe, Shigeto; Yamada, Manabu; Satoh, Takehiko; Nakamura, Masato; Imai, Masataka; Cabrera, JuanWe performed a unique Venus observation campaign to measure the disk brightness of Venus over a broad range of wavelengths in 2020 August and September. The primary goal of the campaign was to investigate the absorption properties of the unknown absorber in the clouds. The secondary goal was to extract a disk mean SO2 gas abundance, whose absorption spectral feature is entangled with that of the unknown absorber at ultraviolet wavelengths. A total of three spacecraft and six ground-based telescopes participated in this campaign, covering the 52–1700 nm wavelength range. After careful evaluation of the observational data, we focused on the data sets acquired by four facilities. We accomplished our primary goal by analyzing the reflectivity spectrum of the Venus disk over the 283–800 nm wavelengths. Considerable absorption is present in the 350–450 nm range, for which we retrieved the corresponding optical depth of the unknown absorber. The result shows the consistent wavelength dependence of the relative optical depth with that at low latitudes, during the Venus flyby by MESSENGER in 2007, which was expected because the overall disk reflectivity is dominated by low latitudes. Last, we summarize the experience that we obtained during this first campaign, which should enable us to accomplish our second goal in future campaigns.
- ItemSeeking celestial positronium with an OH-suppressed diffraction-limited spectrograph(Washington, DC : The Optical Society, 2021) Robertson, Gordon; Ellis, Simon; Yu, Qingshan; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Betters, Christopher; Roth, Martin; Leon-Saval, SergioCelestially, positronium (Ps) has been observed only through gamma-ray emission produced by its annihilation. However, in its triplet state, a Ps atom has a mean lifetime long enough for electronic transitions to occur between quantum states. This produces a recombination spectrum observable in principle at near IR wavelengths, where angular resolution greatly exceeding that of the gamma-ray observations is possible. However, the background in the near IR is dominated by extremely bright atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) emission lines. In this paper, we present the design of a diffraction-limited spectroscopic system using novel photonic components—a photonic lantern, OH fiber Bragg grating filters, and a photonic TIGER 2D pseudo-slit—to observe the Ps Balmer alpha line at 1.3122 µm for the first time, to our knowledge.
- ItemVLT: Verbund D3Dnet - das deutsche Kompetenznetzwerk für optische 3D Spektroskopie, Teilprojekt : BMBF-Förderschwerpunkt Astrophysik, Großgeräte der physikalischen Grundlagenforschung ; Schlussbericht(Hannover : Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB), 2009) Roth, Martin[no abstract available]