Browsing by Author "Savitsky, Anton"
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- ItemElectron transfer pathways in a light, oxygen, voltage (LOV) protein devoid of the photoactive cysteine([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2017) Kopka, Benita; Magerl, Kathrin; Savitsky, Anton; Davari, Mehdi D.; Röllen, Katrin; Bocola, Marco; Dick, Bernhard; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Krauss, UlrichBlue-light absorption by the flavin chromophore in light, oxygen, voltage (LOV) photoreceptors triggers photochemical reactions that lead to the formation of a flavin-cysteine adduct. While it has long been assumed that adduct formation is essential for signaling, it was recently shown that LOV photoreceptor variants devoid of the photoactive cysteine can elicit a functional response and that flavin photoreduction to the neutral semiquinone radical is sufficient for signal transduction. Currently, the mechanistic basis of the underlying electron- (eT) and proton-transfer (pT) reactions is not well understood. We here reengineered pT into the naturally not photoreducible iLOV protein, a fluorescent reporter protein derived from the Arabidopsis thaliana phototropin-2 LOV2 domain. A single amino-acid substitution (Q489D) enabled efficient photoreduction, suggesting that an eT pathway is naturally present in the protein. By using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, steady-state UV/Vis, transient absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we investigate the underlying eT and pT reactions. Our study provides strong evidence that several Tyr and Trp residues, highly conserved in all LOV proteins, constitute the eT pathway for flavin photoreduction, suggesting that the propensity for photoreduction is evolutionary imprinted in all LOV domains, while efficient pT is needed to stabilize the neutral semiquinone radical.
- ItemMetallofullerene photoswitches driven by photoinduced fullerene-to-metal electron transfer(Cambridge : RSC, 2021) Zalibera, Michal; Ziegs, Frank; Schiemenz, Sandra; Dubrovin, Vasilii; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Savitsky, Anton; Deng, Shihu H.M.; Wang, Xue-Bin; Advoshenko, Stanislav M.; Popov, Alexey A.We report on the discovery and detailed exploration of the unconventional photo-switching mechanism in metallofullerenes, in which the energy of the photon absorbed by the carbon cage π-system is transformed to mechanical motion of the endohedral cluster accompanied by accumulation of spin density on the metal atoms. Comprehensive photophysical and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies augmented by theoretical modelling are performed to address the phenomenon of the light-induced photo-switching and triplet state spin dynamics in a series of YxSc3−xN@C80 (x = 0–3) nitride clusterfullerenes. Variable temperature and time-resolved photoluminescence studies revealed a strong dependence of their photophysical properties on the number of Sc atoms in the cluster. All molecules in the series exhibit temperature-dependent luminescence assigned to the near-infrared thermally-activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) and phosphorescence. The emission wavelengths and Stokes shift increase systematically with the number of Sc atoms in the endohedral cluster, whereas the triplet state lifetime and S1–T1 gap decrease in this row. For Sc3N@C80, we also applied photoelectron spectroscopy to obtain the triplet state energy as well as the electron affinity. Spin distribution and dynamics in the triplet states are then studied by light-induced pulsed EPR and ENDOR spectroscopies. The spin–lattice relaxation times and triplet state lifetimes are determined from the temporal evolution of the electron spin echo after the laser pulse. Well resolved ENDOR spectra of triplets with a rich structure caused by the hyperfine and quadrupolar interactions with 14N, 45Sc, and 89Y nuclear spins are obtained. The systematic increase of the metal contribution to the triplet spin density from Y3N to Sc3N found in the ENDOR study points to a substantial fullerene-to-metal charge transfer in the excited state. These experimental results are rationalized with the help of ground-state and time-dependent DFT calculations, which revealed a substantial variation of the endohedral cluster position in the photoexcited states driven by the predisposition of Sc atoms to maximize their spin population.
- ItemThermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence in a Y3N@C80 Endohedral Fullerene: Time-Resolved Luminescence and EPR Studies(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2017-12-8) Zalibera, Michal; Krylov, Denis S.; Karagiannis, Dimitrios; Will, Paul-Anton; Ziegs, Frank; Schiemenz, Sandra; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Reineke, Sebastian; Savitsky, Anton; Popov, Alexey A.The endohedral fullerene Y3N@C80 exhibits luminescence with reasonable quantum yield and extraordinary long lifetime. By variable-temperature steady-state and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that above 60 K the Y3N@C80 exhibits thermally activated delayed fluorescence with maximum emission at 120 K and a negligible prompt fluorescence. Below 60 K, a phosphorescence with a lifetime of 192±1 ms is observed. Spin distribution and dynamics in the triplet excited state is investigated with X- and W-band EPR and ENDOR spectroscopies and DFT computations. Finally, electroluminescence of the Y3N@C80/PFO film is demonstrated opening the possibility for red-emitting fullerene-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs).