Browsing by Author "Schäfer, Rudolf"
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- ItemAnalyzer-free, intensity-based, wide-field magneto-optical microscopy(Melville, NY : American Inst. of Physics, 2021) Schäfer, Rudolf; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Ognev, Alexey; Samardak, Alexander; Soldatov, Ivan V.In conventional Kerr and Faraday microscopy, the sample is illuminated with plane-polarized light, and a magnetic domain contrast is generated by an analyzer making use of the Kerr or Faraday rotation. Here, we demonstrate possibilities of analyzer-free magneto-optical microscopy based on magnetization-dependent intensity modulations of the light. (i) The transverse Kerr effect can be applied for in-plane magnetized material, as demonstrated for an FeSi sheet. (ii) Illuminating that sample with circularly polarized light leads to a domain contrast with a different symmetry from the conventional Kerr contrast. (iii) Circular polarization can also be used for perpendicularly magnetized material, as demonstrated for garnet and ultrathin CoFeB films. (iv) Plane-polarized light at a specific angle can be employed for both in-plane and perpendicular media. (v) Perpendicular light incidence leads to a domain contrast on in-plane materials that is quadratic in the magnetization and to a domain boundary contrast. (vi) Domain contrast can even be obtained without a polarizer. In cases (ii) and (iii), the contrast is generated by magnetic circular dichroism (i.e., differential absorption of left- and right-circularly polarized light induced by magnetization components along the direction of light propagation), while magnetic linear dichroism (differential absorption of linearly polarized light induced by magnetization components transverse to propagation) is responsible for the contrast in case (v). The domain-boundary contrast is due to the magneto-optical gradient effect. A domain-boundary contrast can also arise by interference of phase-shifted magneto-optical amplitudes. An explanation of these contrast phenomena is provided in terms of Maxwell-Fresnel theory. © 2021 Author(s).
- ItemAntiskyrmions and their electrical footprint in crystalline mesoscale structures of Mn1.4PtSn(London : Springer Nature, 2022) Winter, Moritz; Goncalves, Francisco J. T.; Soldatov, Ivan; He, Yangkun; Zúñiga Céspedes, Belén E.; Milde, Peter; Lenz, Kilian; Hamann, Sandra; Uhlarz, Marc; Vir, Praveen; König, Markus; Moll, Philip J. W.; Schlitz, Richard; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Eng, Lukas M.; Schäfer, Rudolf; Wosnitza, Joachim; Felser, Claudia; Gayles, Jacob; Helm, ToniSkyrmionic materials hold the potential for future information technologies, such as racetrack memories. Key to that advancement are systems that exhibit high tunability and scalability, with stored information being easy to read and write by means of all-electrical techniques. Topological magnetic excitations such as skyrmions and antiskyrmions, give rise to a characteristic topological Hall effect. However, the electrical detection of antiskyrmions, in both thin films and bulk samples has been challenging to date. Here, we apply magneto-optical microscopy combined with electrical transport to explore the antiskyrmion phase as it emerges in crystalline mesoscale structures of the Heusler magnet Mn1.4PtSn. We reveal the Hall signature of antiskyrmions in line with our theoretical model, comprising anomalous and topological components. We examine its dependence on the vertical device thickness, field orientation, and temperature. Our atomistic simulations and experimental anisotropy studies demonstrate the link between antiskyrmions and a complex magnetism that consists of competing ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and chiral exchange interactions, not captured by micromagnetic simulations.
- ItemDetermination of Bulk Magnetic Volume Properties by Neutron Dark-Field Imaging(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2015) Grünzweig, Christian; Siebert, René; Betz, Benedikt; Rauscher, Peter; Schäfer, Rudolf; Lehmann, EberhardFor the production of high-class electrical steel grades a deeper understanding of the magnetic domain interaction with induced mechanical stresses is strongly required. This holds for non-oriented (NO) as well as grain-oriented (GO) steels. In the case of non-oriented steels the magnetic property degeneration after punching or laser cutting is essential for selecting correct obstructing material grades and designing efficient electrical machines. Until now these effects stay undiscovered due to the lack of adequate investigation methods that reveal local bulk information on processed laminations. Here we show how the use of a non-destructive testing method based on a neutron grating interferometry providing the dark-field image contrast delivers spatially-resolved transmission information about the local bulk domain arrangement and domain wall density. With the help of this technique it is possible to visualize magnetization processes within the NO laminations. Different representative manufacturing techniques are compared in terms of magnetic flux density deterioration such as punching, mechanically cutting by guillotine as well as laser fusion cutting using industrial high power laser beam sources. For GO steel laminations the method is applicable on the one hand to visualize the internal domain structure without being hindered by the coating layer. On the other hand, we can show the influence of the coating layer onto the underlying domain structure.
- ItemDirect imaging of nanoscale field-driven domain wall oscillations in Landau structures(Cambridge : RSC Publ., 2022) Singh, Balram; Ravishankar, Rachappa; Otálora, Jorge A.; Soldatov, Ivan; Schäfer, Rudolf; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Neu, Volker; Schmidt, Oliver G.Linear oscillatory motion of domain walls (DWs) in the kHz and MHz regime is crucial when realizing precise magnetic field sensors such as giant magnetoimpedance devices. Numerous magnetically active defects lead to pinning of the DWs during their motion, affecting the overall behavior. Thus, the direct monitoring of the domain wall's oscillatory behavior is an important step to comprehend the underlying micromagnetic processes and to improve the magnetoresistive performance of these devices. Here, we report an imaging approach to investigate such DW dynamics with nanoscale spatial resolution employing conventional table-top microscopy techniques. Time-averaged magnetic force microscopy and Kerr imaging methods are applied to quantify the DW oscillations in Ni81Fe19 rectangular structures with Landau domain configuration and are complemented by numeric micromagnetic simulations. We study the oscillation amplitude as a function of external magnetic field strength, frequency, magnetic structure size, thickness and anisotropy and understand the excited DW behavior as a forced damped harmonic oscillator with restoring force being influenced by the geometry, thickness, and anisotropy of the Ni81Fe19 structure. This approach offers new possibilities for the analysis of DW motion at elevated frequencies and at a spatial resolution of well below 100 nm in various branches of nanomagnetism.
- ItemDomain wall asymmetries in Ni81Fe19/NiO: Proof of variable anisotropics in exchange bias systems(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2009) McCord, Jeffrey; Schäfer, RudolfMultiple changes in the internal structure of magnetic domain walls due to alterations of the interfacial coupling across the ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic interface are reported for Ni81Fe19/NiO exchange coupled films. Depending on the antiferromagnetically induced anisotropy, three different types of domain walls are observed. Cross-tie domain wall structures of decreased vortex to anti-vortex spacing develop with the addition of a thin antiferromagnetic layer. For exchange biased samples strong asymmetries in domain wall structure occur for the ascending and descending branch of the magnetization loop. For the descending branch a symmetric 180° Néel wall develops, whereas a folded cross-tie domain wall structure forms during magnetization reversal along the ascending loop branch. The novel type of 'zig-zagged' cross-tie wall is characterized by cross-ties reaching differently into the surrounding domain areas. The wall alterations indicate the existence of bi-modal coupling strengths in exchange coupled systems, which is in accordance with models of exchange bias that assume pinned and unpinned spins at the ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic interface.
- ItemElectronically integrated microcatheters based on self-assembling polymer films(Washington : American Association for the Advancement of Science (A A A S), 2021) Rivkin, Boris; Becker, Christian; Singh, Balram; Aziz, Azaam; Akbar, Farzin; Egunov, Aleksandr; Karnaushenko, Dmitriy D; Naumann, Ronald; Schäfer, Rudolf; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Schmidt, Oliver GExisting electronically integrated catheters rely on the manual assembly of separate components to integrate sensing and actuation capabilities. This strongly impedes their miniaturization and further integration. Here, we report an electronically integrated self-assembled microcatheter. Electronic components for sensing and actuation are embedded into the catheter wall through the self-assembly of photolithographically processed polymer thin films. With a diameter of only about 0.1 mm, the catheter integrates actuated digits for manipulation and a magnetic sensor for navigation and is capable of targeted delivery of liquids. Fundamental functionalities are demonstrated and evaluated with artificial model environments and ex vivo tissue. Using the integrated magnetic sensor, we develop a strategy for the magnetic tracking of medical tools that facilitates basic navigation with a high resolution below 0.1 mm. These highly flexible and microsized integrated catheters might expand the boundary of minimally invasive surgery and lead to new biomedical applications. Copyright © 2021 The Authors, some rights reserved.
- ItemMagnetic patterning of Co/Ni layered systems by plasma oxidation([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2022) Anastaziak, Błażej; Andrzejewska, Weronika; Schmidt, Marek; Matczak, Michał; Soldatov, Ivan; Schäfer, Rudolf; Lewandowski, Mikołaj; Stobiecki, Feliks; Janzen, Christian; Ehresmann, Arno; Kuświk, PiotrWe studied the structural, chemical, and magnetic properties of Ti/Au/Co/Ni layered systems subjected to plasma oxidation. The process results in the formation of NiO at the expense of metallic Ni, as clearly evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while not affecting the surface roughness and grain size of the Co/Ni bilayers. Since the decrease of the thickness of the Ni layer and the formation of NiO increase the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, oxidation may be locally applied for magnetic patterning. Using this approach, we created 2D heterostructures characterized by different combinations of magnetic properties in areas modified by plasma oxidation and in the regions protected from oxidation. As plasma oxidation is an easy to use, low cost, and commonly utilized technique in industrial applications, it may constitute an improvement over other magnetic patterning methods.
- ItemMagnetooptical response of permalloy multilayer structures on different substrate in the IR-VIS-UV spectral range(Bristol : IOP Publ., 2019) Patra, Rajkumar; Mattheis, Roland; Stöcker, Hartmut; Monecke, Manuel; Salvan, Georgeta; Schäfer, Rudolf; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Schmidt, HeidemarieThe magnetooptical (MO) response of Ru/Py/Ta thin film stacks with 4, 8, and 17 nm thick Ni81Fe19 permalloy (Py) films on a SiO2/Si and a ZnO substrate was measured by vector magnetooptical generalized ellipsometry. The MO response from VMOGE was modelled using a 4 × 4 Mueller matrix algorithm. The wavelength-dependent, substrate-independent and thickness-independent complex MO coupling constant (Q) of Py in the Ru/Py/Ta thin film stacks was extracted by fitting Mueller matrix difference spectra in the spectral range from 300 nm to 1000 nm. Although the composition-dependent saturation magnetization of NixFe1−x alloys (x = 0.0...1.0), e.g. of Ni81Fe19, is predictable from the two saturation magnetization end points, the MO coupling constant of NixFe1−x is not predictable from the two Q end points. However, in a small alloy range (0.0 < x < 0.2 and 0.8 < x < 1.0) the composition-dependent Q of NixFe1−x can be interpolated from a sufficiently high number of analyzed NixFe1−x alloys. The available complex MO coupling constants of six different NixFe1−x (x = 1.0 to 0.0) alloys were used to interpolate MO response of binary NixFe1−x alloys in the range from x = 0.0 to x = 1.0.
- ItemMicromagnetic investigation of domain and domain wall evolution through the spin-reorientation transition of an epitaxial NdCo5 film([London] : IOP, 2017-3-1) Seifert, Marietta; Schultz, Ludwig; Schäfer, Rudolf; Hankemeier, Sebastian; Frömter, Robert; Oepen, Hans Peter; Neu, VolkerThe domain pattern and the domain wall microstructure throughout the spin-reorientation transition of an epitaxial NdCo5 thin film are investigated by micromagnetic simulations. The temperature-dependent anisotropy constants K1 and K2, which define the anisotropy energy term in the model, are chosen to reflect the easy axis—easy cone—easy plane spin-reorientation transition observed in epitaxial NdCo5 thin films. Starting at the high-temperature easy c-axis regime, the anisotropy constants are changed systematically corresponding to a lowering of the temperature of the system. The character of the domain walls and their profiles are analysed. The calculated domain configurations are compared to the experimentally observed temperature-dependent domain structure of an in-plane textured NdCo5 thin film.
- ItemSelf-assembly as a tool to study microscale curvature and strain-dependent magnetic properties(London : Springer Nature, 2022) Singh, Balram; Otálora, Jorge. A.; Kang, Tong H.; Soldatov, Ivan; Karnaushenko, Dmitriy D.; Becker, Christian; Schäfer, Rudolf; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Neu, Volker; Schmidt, Oliver G.The extension of 2D ferromagnetic structures into 3D curved geometry enables to tune its magnetic properties such as uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. Tuning the anisotropy with strain and curvature has become a promising ingredient in modern electronics, such as flexible and stretchable magnetoelectronic devices, impedance-based field sensors, and strain gauges, however, has been limited to extended thin films and to only moderate bending. By applying a self-assembly rolling technique using a polymeric platform, we provide a template that allows homogeneous and controlled bending of a functional layer adhered to it, irrespective of its shape and size. This is an intriguing possibility to tailor the sign and magnitude of the surface strain of integrated, micron-sized devices. In this article, the impact of strain and curvature on the magnetic ground state and anisotropy is quantified for thin-film Permalloy micro-scale structures, fabricated on the surface of the tubular architectures, using solely electrical measurements.
- ItemSelf‐assembled on‐chip‐integrated giant magneto‐impedance sensorics(Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2015) Karnaushenko, Daniil; Karnaushenko, Dmitriy D.; Makarov, Denys; Baunack, Stefan; Schäfer, Rudolf; Schmidt, Oliver G.A novel method relying on strain engineering to realize arrays of on‐chip‐integrated giant magneto‐impedance (GMI) sensors equipped with pick‐up coils is put forth. The geometrical transformation of an initially planar layout into a tubular 3D architecture stabilizes favorable azimuthal magnetic domain patterns. This work creates a solid foundation for further development of CMOS compatible GMI sensorics for magnetoencephalography.
- ItemVoltage‐Controlled Deblocking of Magnetization Reversal in Thin Films by Tunable Domain Wall Interactions and Pinning Sites(Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2020) Zehner, Jonas; Soldatov, Ivan; Schneider, Sebastian; Heller, René; Khojasteh, Nasrin B.; Schiemenez, Sandra; Fähler, Sebastian; Nielsch, Kornelius; Schäfer, Rudolf; Leistner, KarinHigh energy efficiency of magnetic devices is crucial for applications such as data storage, computation, and actuation. Redox‐based (magneto‐ionic) voltage control of magnetism is a promising room‐temperature pathway to improve energy efficiency. However, for ferromagnetic metals, the magneto‐ionic effects studied so far require ultrathin films with tunable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy or nanoporous structures for appreciable effects. This paper reports a fully reversible, low voltage‐induced collapse of coercivity and remanence by redox reactions in iron oxide/iron films with uniaxial in‐plane anisotropy. In the initial iron oxide/iron films, Néel wall interactions stabilize a blocked state with high coercivity. During the voltage‐triggered reduction of the iron oxide layer, in situ Kerr microscopy reveals inverse changes of coercivity and anisotropy, and a coarsening of the magnetic microstructure. These results confirm a magneto‐ionic deblocking mechanism, which relies on changes of the Néel wall interactions, and of the microstructural domain‐wall‐pinning sites. With this approach, voltage‐controlled 180° magnetization switching with high energy‐efficiency is achieved. It opens up possibilities for developing magnetic devices programmable by ultralow power and for the reversible tuning of defect‐controlled materials in general.