Browsing by Author "Schacher, Felix H."
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- Item1,7,9,10-Tetrasubstituted PMIs Accessible through Decarboxylative Bromination: Synthesis, Characterization, Photophysical Studies, and Hydrogen Evolution Catalysis(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Costabel, Daniel; Skabeev, Artem; Nabiyan, Afshin; Luo, Yusen; Max, Johannes B.; Rajagopal, Ashwene; Kowalczyk, Daniel; Dietzek, Benjamin; Wächtler, Maria; Görls, Helmar; Ziegenbalg, Dirk; Zagranyarski, Yulian; Streb, Carsten; Schacher, Felix H.; Peneva, KalinaIn this work, we present a new synthetic strategy for fourfold-substituted perylene monoimides via tetrabrominated perylene monoanhydrides. X-ray diffraction analysis unveiled the intramolecular stacking orientation between the substituents and semicircular packing behavior. We observed the remarkable influence of the substituent on the longevity and nature of the excited state upon visible light excitation. In the presence of poly(dehydroalanine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) graft copolymers as solubilizing template, the chromophores are capable of sensitizing [Mo3S13]2− clusters in aqueous solution for stable visible light driven hydrogen evolution over three days. © 2020 The Authors. Chemistry - A European Journal published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemBlock Copolymers Featuring Highly Photostable Photoacids Based on Vinylnaphthol: Synthesis and Self-Assembly(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Wendler, Felix; Tom, Jessica C.; Sittig, Maria; Biehl, Philip; Dietzek, Benjamin; Schacher, Felix H.The synthesis of a photoresponsive amphiphilic diblock quarterpolymer containing 5-vinyl-1-naphthol (VN) as a photostable photoacidic comonomer is presented. The preparation is realized via a sequential reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization starting from a nona(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (MEO9MA/“O”) hydrophilic block, which is then used as a macro-RAFT agent in the terpolymerization of styrene (S), 2-vinylpyridine (2VP), and TBS-protected VN (tVN). The terpolymerization proceeds in a controlled fashion and two diblock quarterpolymers, P(Om)-b-P(Sx-co-2VPy-co-VNz), with varying functional comonomer compositions are prepared. These diblock quarterpolymers form spherical core-corona micelles in aqueous media according to dynamic light scattering (DLS) and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). Upon irradiation, the photoacids within the micellar core experience a drastic increase in acidity causing a proton transfer from the photoacid to neighboring 2VP units. As a result, the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance of the entire assembly is shifted, and the encapsulated cargo is released. © 2020 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
- ItemControlling Growth of Poly (Triethylene Glycol Acrylate-Co-Spiropyran Acrylate) Copolymer Liquid Films on a Hydrophilic Surface by Light and Temperature(Basel : MDPI, 2021) Ben-Miled, Aziz; Nabiyan, Afshin; Wondraczek, Katrin; Schacher, Felix H.; Wondraczek, LotharA quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) was employed for in situ investigations of the effect of temperature and light on the conformational changes of a poly (triethylene glycol acrylate-co-spiropyran acrylate) (P (TEGA-co-SPA)) copolymer containing 12–14% of spiropyran at the silica–water interface. By monitoring shifts in resonance frequency and in acoustic dissipation as a function of temperature and illumination conditions, we investigated the evolution of viscoelastic properties of the P (TEGA-co-SPA)-rich wetting layer growing on the sensor, from which we deduced the characteristic coil-to-globule transition temperature, corresponding to the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the PTEGA part. We show that the coil-to-globule transition of the adsorbed copolymer being exposed to visible or UV light shifts to lower LCST as compared to the bulk solution: the transition temperature determined acoustically on the surface is 4 to 8 K lower than the cloud point temperature reported by UV/VIS spectroscopy in aqueous solution. We attribute our findings to non-equilibrium effects caused by confinement of the copolymer chains on the surface. Thermal stimuli and light can be used to manipulate the film formation process and the film’s conformational state, which affects its subsequent response behavior.
- ItemMultimodal Characterization of Resin Embedded and Sliced Polymer Nanoparticles by Means of Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and Force-Distance Curve Based Atomic Force Microscopy(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Höppener, Christiane; Schacher, Felix H.; Deckert, VolkerUnderstanding the property-function relation of nanoparticles in various application fields involves determining their physicochemical properties, which is still a remaining challenge to date. While a multitude of different characterization tools can be applied, these methods by themselves can only provide an incomplete picture. Therefore, novel analytical techniques are required, which can address both chemical functionality and provide structural information at the same time with high spatial resolution. This is possible by using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS), but due to its limited depth information, TERS is usually restricted to investigations of the nanoparticle surface. Here, TERS experiments are established on polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) after resin embedding and microtome slicing. With that, unique access to their internal morphological features is gained, and thus, enables differentiation between information obtained for core- and shell-regions. Complementary information is obtained by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and from force-distance curve based atomic force microscopy (FD-AFM). This multimodal approach achieves a high degree of discrimination between the resin and the polymers used for nanoparticle formulation. The high potential of TERS combined with advanced AFM spectroscopy tools to probe the mechanical properties is applied for quality control of the resin embedding procedure.
- ItemPolymeric Photoacids Based on Naphthols—Design Criteria, Photostability, and Light-Mediated Release(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2019) Wendler, Felix; Sittig, Maria; Tom, Jessica C.; Dietzek, Benjamin; Schacher, Felix H.The implementation of photoswitches within polymers offers an exciting toolbox in the design of light-responsive materials as irradiation can be controlled both spatially and temporally. Herein, we introduce a range of water-soluble copolymers featuring naphthol-based chromophores as photoacids in the side chain. With that, the resulting materials experience a drastic increase in acidity upon stimulation with UV light and we systematically studied how structure and distance of the photoacid from the copolymer backbone determines polymerizability, photo-response, and photostability. Briefly, we used RAFT (reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer) polymerization to prepare copolymers consisting of nona(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (MEO9MA) as water-soluble comonomer in combination with six different 1-naphthol-based (“N”) monomers. Thereby, we distinguish between methacrylates (NMA, NOeMA), methacrylamides (NMAm, NOeMAm), vinyl naphthol (VN), and post-polymerization modification based on [(1-hydroxynaphthalen-2-amido)ethyl]amine (NOeMAm, NAmeMAm). These P(MEO9MAx-co-“N”y) copolymers typically feature a 4:1 MEO9MA to “N” ratio and molar masses in the range of 10 kg mol−1. After synthesis and characterization by using NMR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC), we investigated how potential photo-cleavage or photo-degradation during irradiation depends on the type and distance of the linker to the copolymeric backbone and whether reversible excited state proton transfer (ESPT) occurs under these conditions. In our opinion, such materials will be strong assets as light-mediated proton sources in nanostructured environments, for example, for the site-specific creation of proton gradients. We therefore exemplarily incorporated NMA into an amphiphilic block copolymer and could demonstrate the light-mediated release of Nile red from micelles formed in water as selective solvent. © 2019 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
- ItemQuinoline Photobasicity: Investigation within Water-Soluble Light-Responsive Copolymers(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Sittig, Maria; Tom, Jessica C.; Elter, Johanna K.; Schacher, Felix H.; Dietzek, BenjaminQuinoline photobases exhibit a distinctly higher pKa in their electronically excited state than in the ground state, thereby enabling light-controlled proton transfer reactions, for example, in molecular catalysis. The absorption of UV light translates to a pKa jump of approximately 10 units, as established for small-molecule photobases. This contribution presents the first synthesis of quinoline-based polymeric photobases prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The integration of quinolines as photobase chromophores within copolymers offers new possibilities for light-triggered proton transfer in nanostructured materials, that is, in nanoparticles, at surfaces, membranes and interfaces. To exploit the light-triggered reactivity of photobases within such materials, we first investigated how the ground- and excited-state properties of the quinoline unit changes upon polymer integration. To address this matter, we combined absorption and emission spectroscopy with time-resolved transient-absorption studies to reveal photoinduced proton-transfer dynamics in various solvents. The results yield important insights into the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of these polymeric quinoline photobases. © 2020 The Authors. Chemistry - A European Journal published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemSPION@polydehydroalanine hybrid particles(London : RSC Publishing, 2015) von der Lühe, Moritz; Günther, Ulrike; Weidner, Andreas; Gräfe, Christine; Clement, Joachim H.; Dutz, Silvio; Schacher, Felix H.It is generally accepted that a protein corona is rapidly formed upon exposure of nanoparticles to biological fluids and that both the amount and the composition of adsorbed proteins affect the dispersion properties of the resulting particles. Hereby, the net charge and overall charge density of the pristine nanoparticles are supposed to play a crucial role. In an attempt to control both charge and charge distribution, we report on the coating of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with different polyelectrolytes. Starting from orthogonally protected polydehydroalanine, the material can be easily transformed into a polyanion (poly(tert-butoxycarbonyl acrylic acid), PtBAA), polycation (poly(aminomethylacrylate), PAMA), or even a polyzwitterion (polydehydroalanine, PDha). While coating of SPIONs with PtBAA and PDha was shown to be successful, approaches using PAMA have failed so far. The dispersion properties of the resulting hybrid particles have been investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta-potential, and TEM measurements – the amount of adsorbed polymer was quantified using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).
- ItemTuning the corona-core ratio of polyplex micelles for selective oligonucleotide delivery to hepatocytes or hepatic immune cells(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2023) Foo, WanLing; Cseresnyés, Zoltán; Rössel, Carsten; Teng, Yingfeng; Ramoji, Anuradha; Chi, Mingzhe; Hauswald, Walter; Huschke, Sophie; Hoeppener, Stephanie; Popp, Jürgen; Schacher, Felix H.; Sierka, Marek; Figge, Marc Thilo; Press, Adrian T.; Bauer, MichaelTargeted delivery of oligonucleotides or small molecular drugs to hepatocytes, the liver's parenchymal cells, is challenging without targeting moiety due to the highly efficient mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) of the liver. The MPS comprises Kupffer cells and specialized sinusoidal endothelial cells, efficiently clearing nanocarriers regardless of their size and surface properties. Physiologically, this non-parenchymal shield protects hepatocytes; however, these local barriers must be overcome for drug delivery. Nanocarrier structural properties strongly influence tissue penetration, in vivo pharmacokinetics, and biodistribution profile. Here we demonstrate the in vivo biodistribution of polyplex micelles formed by polyion complexation of short interfering (si)RNA with modified poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(allyl glycidyl ether) (PEG-b-PAGE) diblock copolymer that carries amino moieties in the side chain. The ratio between PEG corona and siRNA complexed PAGE core of polyplex micelles was chemically varied by altering the degree of polymerization of PAGE. Applying Raman-spectroscopy and dynamic in silico modeling on the polyplex micelles, we determined the corona-core ratio (CCR) and visualized the possible micellar structure with varying CCR. The results for this model system reveal that polyplex micelles with higher CCR, i.e., better PEG coverage, exclusively accumulate and thus allow passive cell-type-specific targeting towards hepatocytes, overcoming the macrophage-rich reticuloendothelial barrier of the liver.