Browsing by Author "Schultz, L."
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- ItemThe Bain library: A Cu-Au buffer template for a continuous variation of lattice parameters in epitaxial films(New York : American Institute of Physics, 2014) Kauffmann-Weiss, S.; Hamann, S.; Reichel, L.; Siegel, A.; Alexandrakis, V.; Heller, R.; Schultz, L.; Ludwig, A.; Fähler, S.Smallest variations of the lattice parameter result in significant changes in material properties. Whereas in bulk, lattice parameters can only be changed by composition or temperature, coherent epitaxial growth of thin films on single crystals allows adjusting the lattice parameters independently. Up to now only discrete values were accessible by using different buffer or substrate materials. We realize a lateral variation of in-plane lattice parameters using combinatorial film deposition of epitaxial Cu-Au on a 4-in. Si wafer. This template gives the possibility to adjust the in-plane lattice parameter over a wide range from 0.365 nm up to 0.382 nm.
- ItemCombinatorial synthesis of (YxGd1-x)Ba2Cu3Ox superconducting thin films(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2012) Kirchner, A.; Erbe, M.; Freudenberg, T.; Hühne, R.; Feys, J.; Van Driessche, I.; Schultz, L.; Holzapfel, B.Environmentally friendly water-based YBa2Cu3Ox (YBCO) and GdBa2Cu3Ox (GdBCO) precursor solutions were synthesized to realize thin films by chemical solution deposition. Pure YBCO and GdBCO precursor solutions were used for ink plotting on SrTiO3 substrates and subsequent thermal treatment at the corresponding crystallization temperature. Phase formation of Gd123 requires a higher crystallization temperature of 840 °C compared to the Y123 phase. The critical temperature of YBCO films is about 92 K with a sharp transition into the superconducting state. Micro liter sized ink volumes of YBCO and GdBCO were successfully mixed for two-dimensional ink plotting of a (YxGd1-x)Ba2Cu3Ox film library. A homogeneous surface and no indication of a-axis growth were found in all mixed films.
- ItemDomain evolution during the spin-reorientation transition in epitaxial NdCo5 thin films(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2013) Seifert, M.; Schultz, L.; Schäfer, R.; Neu, V.; Hankemeier, S.; Rössler, S.; Frömter, R.; Oepen, H.P.The domain structure and its changes with temperature were investigated for an epitaxial NdCo5 thin film with in-plane texture in which a spin-reorientation transition takes place from the easy c-axis via the easy cone to the easy plane. Scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis reveals a transition from a two-domain state at temperatures above 318 K via a four-domain state back to a 90°-rotated two-domain state at temperatures below 252 K. The transition temperatures correspond well to those determined by global magnetization measurements. The magnetization configuration at the three different regimes of magnetic anisotropy and its transition with temperature were analysed in detail. From the local measurements, the spin-reorientation angle and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constants of first and second order were derived.
- ItemElectrodeposition of Fe70Pd30 nanowires from a complexed ammonium-sulfosalicylic electrolyte with high stability(Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2010) Haehnel, V.; Fähler, S.; Schultz, L.; Schlörb, H.A highly stable plating bath for the electrodeposition of Fe-Pd nanowires into nanoporous alumina templates has been developed. Complexing of both metal ions and exchanging Fe2+ by Fe3+ avoid chemical reduction of Pd ions and, therefore, undesirable deposition. By using a pulse potential mode and appropriate adjustment of deposition potentials homogeneously filled templates without surface deposits and nanowires close to the desired composition of Fe70Pd30 have been achieved. These alloy nanowires represent a key step towards nanoactuators based on magnetic shape memory alloys. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- ItemGrain refinement and deformation mechanisms in room temperature severe plastic deformed Mg-AZ31(Basel : MDPI AG, 2013) Knauer, E.; Freudenberger, J.; Marr, T.; Kauffmann, A.; Schultz, L.A Ti-AZ31 composite was severely plastically deformed by rotary swaging at room temperature up to a logarithmic deformation strain of 2.98. A value far beyond the forming limit of pure AZ31 when being equivalently deformed. It is observed, that the microstructure evolution in Mg-AZ31 is strongly influenced by twinning. At low strains the [formula presented] twin systems lead to fragmentation of the initial grains. Inside the primary twins, grain refinement takes place by dynamic recrystallization, dynamic recovery and twinning. These mechanisms lead to a final grain size of ≈ 1 μm, while a strong centered ring fibre texture is evolved.
- ItemInvestigation of the strain-sensitive superconducting transition of BaFe1.8Co0.2As2 thin films utilizing piezoelectric substrates(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2014) Trommler, S.; Hänisch, J.; Iida, K.; Kurth, F.; Schultz, L.; Holzapfel, B.; Hühne, R.The preparation of biaxially textured BaFe1.8Co0.2As2 thin films has been optimized on MgO single crystals and transfered to piezoelectric (001) Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.72Ti0.28O3 substrates. By utilizing the inverse piezoelectric effect the lattice parameter of these substrates can be controlled applying an electric field, leading to a induction of biaxial strain into the superconducting layer. High electric fields were used to achieve a total strain of up to 0.05% at low temperatures. A sharpening of the resistive transition and a shift of about 0.6 K to higher temperatures was found at a compressive strain of 0.035%.
- ItemLarge superplastic strain in non-modulated epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga films(Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2010) Yeduru, S.R.; Backen, A.; Fahler, S.; Schultz, L.; Kohl, M.The phase transformation and superplastic characteristics of free-standing epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga stripes are reported. The stripes are prepared by micromachining a 1 μm thick Ni-Mn-Ga film sputter-deposited on a single crystalline MgO (100) substrate using optical lithography and a Chromium-based sacrificial layer technology. The stripes are oriented at angles of 0 and 45 degrees with respect to the Ni-Mn-Ga unit cell. Electrical resistance versus temperature characteristics reveal a reversible thermally induced phase transformation between 169°C and 191°C. Stress-strain measurements are performed with the stress applied along the Ni-Mn-Ga as well as Ni-Mn-Ga direction. Depending on the orientation, the twinning stress ranges between 25 and 30 MPa, respectively. For the  Ni-Mn-Ga and Ni-Mn-Ga directions, superplastic behaviour with a strain plateau of 12 % and 4% are observed, respectively, indicating stress-induced reorientation of non-modulated martensite variants.
- ItemMagnetic field-induced twin boundary motion in polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga fibres(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2008) Scheerbaum, N.; Heczko, O.; Liu, J.; Hinz, D.; Schultz, L.; Gutfleisch, O.Magnetic field-induced twin boundary motion leading to large magnetic field-induced strain of ~1.0% was established in polycrystalline Ni50.9Mn27.1Ga22.0 (at.%) fibres at room temperature (~60–100 μm in diameter and ~3 mm in length). The fibres' grains are as large as the fibre diameter and of random orientation. At room temperature, a ferromagnetic 5M martensite is found. Magnetic field-induced twin boundary motion was indicated by magnetic measurements and validated by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The application of a magnetic field shifts the equilibrium temperature of martensite and austenite by ~0.4 K T−1, which agrees with calculations using the Clapeyron–Clausius approach.
- ItemMagnetically induced reorientation of martensite variants in constrained epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga films grown on MgO(001)(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2008) Thomas, M.; Heczko, O.; Buschbeck, J.; Rößler, U.K.; McCord, J.; Scheerbaum, N.; Schultz, L.; Fähler, S.Magnetically induced reorientation (MIR) is observed in epitaxial orthorhombic Ni-Mn-Ga films. Ni-Mn-Ga films have been grown epitaxially on heated MgO(001) substrates in the cubic austenite state. The unit cell is rotated by 45° relative to the MgO cell. The growth, structure texture and anisotropic magnetic properties of these films are described. The crystallographic analysis of the martensitic transition reveals variant selection dominated by the substrate constraint. The austenite state has low magnetocrystalline anisotropy. In the martensitic state, the magnetization curves reveal an orthorhombic symmetry having three magnetically non-equivalent axes. The existence of MIR is deduced from the typical hysteresis within the first quadrant in magnetization curves and independently by texture measurement without and in the presence of a magnetic field probing micro structural changes. An analytical model is presented, which describes MIR in films with constrained overall extension by the additional degree of freedom of an orthorhombic structure compared to the tetragonal structure used in the standard model.
- ItemMagnetization dynamics of magnetic domain wall imprinted magnetic films(Bristol : IOP, 2014) Hamann, C.; Mattheis, R.; Mönch, I.; Fassbender, J.; Schultz, L.; McCord, J.The influence of micromagnetic objects on the dynamic magnetic excitation in magnetic thin films is studied by imprinting periodic domain wall patterns through selective ion irradiation in exchange biased Ni81Fe 19/IrMn structures. For high domain wall densities an increased precessional frequency is achieved. The zero field resonance of the domain wall state hereby depends directly on the stripe period, showing a pronounced increase with decrease of domain wall spacing. With the abrupt annihilation of magnetic domain walls with an applied bias field a jump-like decrease in precessional frequency takes place. The experimental data and micromagnetic simulations prove that the characteristic collective dynamic mode for the domain wall configurations is attributed to strongly coupled tilted magnetization structure. This is evidenced by an overlapping Néel wall structure for the narrowly spaced imprinted antiparallel unidirectional anisotropy state. The controlled introduction of high density frozen-in micromagnetic objects is a novel way to control the dynamic magnetic properties of continuous magnetic thin films.
- ItemThe magneto-optical gradient effect in an exchange-biased thin film: Experimental evidence for classical diffraction theory(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2010) Schäfer, R.; Hamann, C.; McCord, J.; Schultz, L.; Kamberský, V.The magneto-optical gradient effect decorates the boundaries of in-plane domains even at perpendicular incidence of light in an optical polarization microscope. For its explanation, the classical magneto-optical diffraction theory was previously used to derive the effect from the same gyrotropic interaction as the Kerr effect. In order to explain the symmetry of the experimentally observed contrast on bulk ferromagnetic crystals, planar as well as perpendicular subsurface gradients in the magnetization had to be assumed. This was particularly needed when the surface magnetizations in neighboring domains pointed head-on and a gradient contrast appeared also in conditions of vanishing gyrotropic interaction at the surface. The gradient contrast in such conditions should not appear in very thin films where perpendicular magnetization gradients are not enforced by reduction of magnetostatic energy. Here we present the first experimental confirmation of this expectation, thus closing an experimental gap in verifying the predictions of the diffraction theory.
- ItemModulated martensite: Why it forms and why it deforms easily(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2011) Kaufmann, S.; Niemann, R.; Thersleff, T.; Rößler, U.K.; Heczko, O.; Buschbeck, J.; Holzapfel, B.; Schultz, L.; Fähler, S.Diffusionless phase transitions are at the core of the multifunctionality of (magnetic) shape memory alloys, ferroelectrics and multiferroics. Giant strain effects under external fields are obtained in low symmetric modulated martensitic phases. We outline the origin of modulated phases, their connection with tetragonal martensite and consequences owing to their functional properties by analysing the martensitic microstructure of epitaxial Ni–Mn–Ga films from the atomic to the macroscale. Geometrical constraints at an austenite–martensite phase boundary act down to the atomic scale. Hence, a martensitic microstructure of nanotwinned tetragonal martensite can form. Coarsening of twin variants can reduce twin boundary energy, a process we could observe from the atomic to the millimetre scale. Coarsening is a fractal process, proceeding in discrete steps by doubling twin periodicity. The collective defect energy results in a substantial hysteresis, which allows the retention of modulated martensite as a metastable phase at room temperature. In this metastable state, elastic energy is released by the formation of a 'twins within twins' microstructure that can be observed from the nanometre to the millimetre scale. This hierarchical twinning results in mesoscopic twin boundaries. Our analysis indicates that mesoscopic boundaries are broad and diffuse, in contrast to the common atomically sharp twin boundaries of tetragonal martensite. We suggest that the observed extraordinarily high mobility of such mesoscopic twin boundaries originates from their diffuse nature that renders pinning by atomistic point defects ineffective.
- ItemOrbital and spin effects for the upper critical field in As-deficient disordered Fe pnictide superconductors(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2009) Fuchs, G.; Drechsler, S.-L.; Kozlova, N.; Bartkowiak, M.; Hamann-Borrero, J.E.; Behr, G.; Nenkov, K.; Klauss, H.-H.; Maeter, H.; Amato, A.; Luetkens, H.; Kwadrin, A.; Khasanov, R.; Freudenberger, J.; Köhler, A.; Knupfer, M.; Arushanov, E.; Rosner, H.; Büchner, B.; Schultz, L.We report upper critical field Bc2(T) data for LaO0.9F0.1FeAs1- δ in a wide temperature and field range up to 60 T. The large slope of Bc2≈- 5.4 to -6.6 T K-1 near an improved Tc≈28.5 K of the in-plane Bc2(T) contrasts with a flattening starting near 23 K above 30 T we regard as the onset of Pauli-limited behaviour (PLB) with Bc2(0)≈63–68 T. We interpret a similar hitherto unexplained flattening of the Bc2(T) curves reported for at least three other disordered closely related systems, Co-doped BaFe2As2, (Ba,K) Fe2As2 and NdO0.7F0.3FeAs (all single crystals), for applied fields H∥(a,b), also as a manifestation of PLB. Their Maki parameters have been estimated by analysing their Bc2(T) data within the Werthamer–Helfand–Hohenberg approach. The pronounced PLB of (Ba, K)Fe2As2 single crystals obtained from an Sn flux is attributed also to a significant As deficiency detected by wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy as reported by Ni et al (2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 014507). Consequences of our results are discussed in terms of disorder effects within conventional superconductivity (CSC) and unconventional superconductivity (USC). USC scenarios with nodes on individual Fermi surface sheets (FSS), e.g. p- and d-wave SC, can be discarded for our samples. The increase of dBc2/dT|Tc by sizeable disorder provides evidence for an important intraband (intra-FSS) contribution to the orbital upper critical field. We suggest that it can be ascribed either to an impurity-driven transition from s± USC to CSC of an extended s++-wave state or to a stabilized s±-state provided As-vacancies cause predominantly strong intraband scattering in the unitary limit. We compare our results with Bc2 data from the literature, which often show no PLB for fields below 60–70 T probed so far. A novel disorder-related scenario of a complex interplay of SC with two different competing magnetic instabilities is suggested.
- ItemProcessing of intermetallic titanium aluminide wires(Basel : MDPI AG, 2013) Marr, T.; Freudenberger, J.; Kauffmann, A.; Romberg, J.; Okulov, I.; Petters, R.; Scharnweber, J.; Eschke, A.; Oertel, C.-G.; Kühn, U.; Eckert, J.; Skrotzki, W.; Schultz, L.This study shows the possibility of processing titanium aluminide wires by cold deformation and annealing. An accumulative swaging and bundling technique is used to co-deform Ti and Al. Subsequently, a two step heat treatment is applied to form the desired intermetallics, which strongly depends on the ratio of Ti and Al in the final composite and therefore on the geometry of the starting composite. In a first step, the whole amount of Al is transformed to TiAl3 by Al diffusion into Ti. This involves the formation of 12% porosity. In a second step, the complete microstructure is transformed into the equilibrium state of γ-TiAl and TiAl3. Using this approach, it is possible to obtain various kinds of gradient materials, since there is an intrinsic concentration gradient installed due to the swaging and bundling technique, but the processing of pure γ-TiAl wires is possible as well.
- ItemPulsed laser deposition of thick BaHfO3-doped YBa 2Cu307-δ films on highly alloyed textured Ni-W tapes(Bristol : Institute of Physics Publishing, 2014) Sieger, M.; Hänisch, J.; Iida, K.; Gaitzsch, U.; Rodig, C.; Schultz, L.; Holzapfel, B.; Hühne, R.YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films with a thickness of up to 3 μm containing nano-sized BaHfO3 (BHO) have been grown on Y2O3/Y-stabilized ZrO2/CeO 2 buffered Ni-9at% W tapes by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Structural characterization by means of X-ray diffraction confirmed that the YBCO layer grew epitaxial. A superconducting transition temperature T c of about 89 K with a transition width of 1 K was determined, decreasing with increasing BHO content. Critical current density in self-field and at 0.3 T increased with increasing dopant level.
- ItemReducing the nucleation barrier in magnetocaloric Heusler alloys by nanoindentation(New York : American Institute of Physics, 2016) Niemann, R.; Hahn, S.; Diestel, A.; Backen, A.; Schultz, L.; Nielsch, K.; Wagner, M.F.-X.; Fähler, S.Magnetocaloric materials are promising as solid state refrigerants for more efficient and environmentally friendly cooling devices. The highest effects have been observed in materials that exhibit a first-order phase transition. These transformations proceed by nucleation and growth which lead to a hysteresis. Such irreversible processes are undesired since they heat up the material and reduce the efficiency of any cooling application. In this article, we demonstrate an approach to decrease the hysteresis by locally changing the nucleation barrier. We created artificial nucleation sites and analyzed the nucleation and growth processes in their proximity. We use Ni-Mn-Ga, a shape memory alloy that exhibits a martensitic transformation. Epitaxial films serve as a model system, but their high surface-to-volume ratio also allows for a fast heat transfer which is beneficial for a magnetocaloric regenerator geometry. Nanoindentation is used to create a well-defined defect. We quantify the austenite phase fraction in its proximity as a function of temperature which allows us to determine the influence of the defect on the transformation.
- ItemReversible shift in the superconducting transition for La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 and BaFe1.8Co0.2As2 using piezoelectric substrates(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2010) Trommler, S.; Hühne, R.; Iida, K.; Pahlke, P.; Haindl, S.; Schultz, L.; Holzapfel, B.The use of piezoelectric substrates enables dynamic observation of the strain-dependent properties of functional materials. Based on studies with La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 (LSCO), we extended this approach to the iron arsenic superconductors represented by BaFe2− xCoxAs2 to investigate strain-driven changes in detail. We demonstrate that epitaxial thin films can be prepared on (001) Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.72Ti0.28O3 substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The structural and electric properties of grown films were characterized in detail. A reversible shift of the superconducting transition of 0.4 K for LSCO and 0.2 K for BaFe1.8Co0.2As2 was observed on applying biaxial strains of 0.022 and 0.017%, respectively.
- ItemStrain-controlled switching kinetics of epitaxial PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 films(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2013) Herklotz, A.; Guo, E.-J.; Biegalski, M.D.; Christen, H.-M.; Schultz, L.; Dörr, K.We investigate the effect of biaxial strain on the switching of ferroelectric thin films. The strain state of epitaxial PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 films is controlled directly and reversibly by the use of piezoelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.72Ti0.28O3 (001) substrates. At small external electric fields, the films show switching characteristics consistent with a creep-like domain wall motion. In this regime, we find a huge decrease of the switching time under compressive strain. For larger external electric fields, the domain wall motion is in a depinning regime. The effect of compressive strain is more moderate in this region and shows a reduction in the switching kinetics.
- ItemA superconducting levitation transport model system for dynamical and didactical studies(Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2012) Rosenzweig, St.; Reich, E.; Neu, V.; Berger, D.; Peukert, K.; Holzapfel, B.; Schultz, L.; Pospiech, G.Superconducting levitation transport systems might become very attractive in the near future due to various reasons. The realisation of contactless systems allows e.g. extended maintenance-free operation with high efficiency since such a system only needs energy for cooling and propulsion. We established a small superconducting levitation transport model system called "SupraTrans Mini" consisting of permanent magnetic rails and a levitated vehicle including four YBCO-bulk samples in a cryostat. The rail system consists of an oval shaped loop (2.90 m x 1.44 m), which was build up from individual linear and curved track modules. Inside the vehicle position variations of the superconductors are possible. By means of velocity, acceleration and temperature measurements different dynamical aspects of our complex levitation system can be investigated. We also show the broad applicability of the experimental setup for didactical studies in physics.
- ItemTi-Al composite wires with high specific strength(Basel : MDPI AG, 2011) Marr, T.; Freudenberger, J.; Seifert, D.; Klauß, H.; Romberg, J.; Okulov, I.; Scharnweber, J.; Eschke, A.; Oertel, C.-G.; Skrotzki, W.; Kühn, U.; Eckert, J.; Schultz, L.An alternative deformation technique was applied to a composite made of titanium and an aluminium alloy in order to achieve severe plastic deformation. This involves accumulative swaging and bundling. Furthermore, it allows uniform deformation of a composite material while producing a wire which can be further used easily. Detailed analysis concerning the control of the deformation process, mesostructural and microstructural features and tensile testing was carried out on the as produced wires. A strong grain refinement to a grain size of 250–500 nm accompanied by a decrease in h111i fibre texture component and a change from low angle to high angle grain boundary characteristics is observed in the Al alloy. A strong increase in the mechanical properties in terms of ultimate tensile strength ranging from 600 to 930 MPa being equivalent to a specific strength of up to 223 MPa/g/cm3 was achieved.