Browsing by Author "Schwaneberg, Ulrich"
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- Item2-Methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) boosts as detergent-substitute the performance of ß-barrel hybrid catalyst for phenylacetylene polymerization(Frankfurt, M. : Beilstein-Institut zur Förderung der Chemischen Wissenschaften, 2017) Kinzel, Julia; Sauer, Daniel F.; Bocola, Marco; Arlt, Marcus; Mirzaei Garakani, Tayebeh; Thiel, Andreas; Beckerle, Klaus; Polen, Tino; Okuda, Jun; Schwaneberg, UlrichCovering hydrophobic regions with stabilization agents to solubilize purified transmembrane proteins is crucial for their application in aqueous media. The small molecule 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) was used to stabilize the transmembrane protein Ferric hydroxamate uptake protein component A (FhuA) utilized as host for the construction of a rhodium-based biohybrid catalyst. Unlike commonly used detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate or polyethylene polyethyleneglycol, MPD does not form micelles in solution. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed the effect and position of stabilizing MPD molecules. The advantage of the amphiphilic MPD over micelle-forming detergents is demonstrated in the polymerization of phenylacetylene, showing a ten-fold increase in yield and increased molecular weights.
- ItemA 96-multiplex capillary electrophoresis screening platform for product based evolution of P450 BM3([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2019) Gärtner, Anna; Ruff, Anna Joëlle; Schwaneberg, UlrichThe main challenge that prevents a broader application of directed enzyme evolution is the lack of high-throughput screening systems with universal product analytics. Most directed evolution campaigns employ screening systems based on colorimetric or fluorogenic surrogate substrates or universal quantification methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy or mass spectrometry, which have not been advanced to achieve a high-throughput. Capillary electrophoresis with a universal UV-based product detection is a promising analytical tool to quantify product formation. Usage of a multiplex system allows the simultaneous measurement with 96 capillaries. A 96-multiplexed capillary electrophoresis (MP-CE) enables a throughput that is comparable to traditional direct evolution campaigns employing 96-well microtiter plates. Here, we report for the first time the usage of a MP-CE system for directed P450 BM3 evolution towards increased product formation (oxidation of alpha-isophorone to 4-hydroxy-isophorone; highest reached total turnover number after evolution campaign: 7120 mol4-OH molP450−1). The MP-CE platform was 3.5-fold more efficient in identification of beneficial variants than the standard cofactor (NADPH) screening system.
- ItemAqueous ionic liquids redistribute local enzyme stability via long-range perturbation pathways(Gotenburg : Research Network of Computational and Structural Biotechnology (RNCSB), 2021) El Harrar, Till; Frieg, Benedikt; Davari, Mehdi D.; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Gohlke, HolgerIonic liquids (IL) and aqueous ionic liquids (aIL) are attractive (co-)solvents for biocatalysis due to their unique properties. On the other hand, the incubation of enzymes in IL or aIL often reduces enzyme activity. Recent studies proposed various aIL-induced effects to explain the reduction, classified as direct effects, e.g., local dehydration or competitive inhibition, and indirect effects, e.g., structural perturbations or disturbed catalytic site integrity. However, the molecular origin of indirect effects has largely remained elusive. Here we show by multi-μs long molecular dynamics simulations, free energy computations, and rigidity analyses that aIL favorably interact with specific residues of Bacillus subtilis Lipase A (BsLipA) and modify the local structural stability of this model enzyme by inducing long-range perturbations of noncovalent interactions. The perturbations percolate over neighboring residues and eventually affect the catalytic site and the buried protein core. Validation against a complete experimental site saturation mutagenesis library of BsLipA (3620 variants) reveals that the residues of the perturbation pathways are distinguished sequence positions where substitutions highly likely yield significantly improved residual activity. Our results demonstrate that identifying these perturbation pathways and specific IL ion-residue interactions there effectively predicts focused variant libraries with improved aIL tolerance.
- ItemAre Directed Evolution Approaches Efficient in Exploring Nature’s Potential to Stabilize a Lipase in Organic Cosolvents?(Basel : MDPI, 2017) Markel, Ulrich; Zhu, Leilei; Frauenkron-Machedjou, Victorine; Zhao, Jing; Bocola, Marco; Davari, Mehdi; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Schwaneberg, UlrichDespite the significant advances in the field of protein engineering, general design principles to improve organic cosolvent resistance of enzymes still remain undiscovered. Previous studies drew conclusions to engineer enzymes for their use in water-miscible organic solvents based on few amino acid substitutions. In this study, we conduct a comparison of a Bacillus subtilis lipase A (BSLA) library—covering the full natural diversity of single amino acid substitutions at all 181 positions of BSLA—with three state of the art random mutagenesis methods: error-prone PCR (epPCR) with low and high mutagenesis frequency (epPCR-low and high) as well as a transversion-enriched Sequence Saturation Mutagenesis (SeSaM-Tv P/P) method. Libraries were searched for amino acid substitutions that increase the enzyme’s resistance to the water-miscible organic cosolvents 1,4-dioxane (DOX), 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Our analysis revealed that 5%–11% of all possible single substitutions (BSLA site-saturation mutagenesis (SSM) library) contribute to improved cosolvent resistance. However, only a fraction of these substitutions (7%–12%) could be detected in the three random mutagenesis libraries. To our knowledge, this is the first study that quantifies the capability of these diversity generation methods generally employed in directed evolution campaigns and compares them to the entire natural diversity with a single substitution. Additionally, the investigation of the BSLA SSM library revealed only few common beneficial substitutions for all three cosolvents as well as the importance of introducing surface charges for organic cosolvent resistance—most likely due to a stronger attraction of water molecules. © 2017 by the authors.
- ItemBiadhesive Peptides for Assembling Stainless Steel and Compound Loaded Micro-Containers(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2019) Apitius, Lina; Buschmann, Sven; Bergs, Christian; Schönauer, David; Jakob, Felix; Pich, Andrij; Schwaneberg, UlrichBiadhesive peptides (peptesives) are an attractive tool for assembling two chemically different materials—for example, stainless steel and polycaprolactone (PCL). Stainless steel is used in medical stents and PCL is used as a biodegradable polymer for fabrication of tissue growth scaffolds and drug delivering micro-containers. Biadhesive peptides are composed of two domains (e.g., dermaseptin S1 and LCI) with different material-binding properties that are separated through a stiff peptide-spacer. The peptesive dermaseptin S1-domain Z-LCI immobilizes antibiotic-loaded PCL micro-containers on stainless steel surfaces. Immobilization is visualized by microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis and released antibiotic from the micro-containers is confirmed through growth inhibition of Escherichia coli cells.
- ItemA bifunctional dermaseptin–thanatin dipeptide functionalizes the crop surface for sustainable pest management(Cambridge : RSC, 2019) Schwinges, Patrick; Pariyar, Shyam; Jakob, Felix; Rahimi, Mehran; Apitius, Lina; Hunsche, Mauricio; Schmitt, Lutz; Noga, Georg; Langenbach, Caspar; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Conrath, UweTo reduce pesticide use while preserving crop productivity, alternative pest and disease control measures are needed. We thought of an alternative way of functionalizing leaves of soybean to fight its most severe disease, Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi). To do so, we produced bifunctional peptides that adhere to the soybean leaf surface and prevent the germination of P. pachyrhizi spores. In detail, amphiphilic peptides liquid chromatography peak I (LCI), thanatin (THA), tachystatin A2 (TA2), and lactoferricin B (LFB) were all fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). Of these fusion peptides, eGFP–LCI and eGFP–THA bound strongly and in a rainfast manner to the surface of soybean, barley, and corn leaves. eGFP–THA binding to soybean also withstood high temperature, sunlight and biotic degradation for at least 17 days. The dipeptides seem to bind mainly to the surface wax layer of leaves because eGFP–THA and eGFP–LCI did not stick to the wax-depleted cer-j59 mutant of barley or to corn leaves with their surface wax removed. A fusion of the antimicrobial peptide dermaseptin 01 and THA (DS01–THA) inhibits the germination of P. pachyrhizi spores in vitro and reduces Asian soybean rust disease in a rainfast manner. Therefore, this study reveals that bifunctional peptides can be used to functionalize the crop surface for sustainable disease management.
- ItemCaLB Catalyzed Conversion of ε-Caprolactone in Aqueous Medium. Part 1: Immobilization of CaLB to Microgels(Basel : MDPI, 2016) Engel, Stefan; Höck, Heidi; Bocola, Marco; Keul, Helmut; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Möller, MartinThe enzymatic ring-opening polymerization of lactones is a method of increasing interest for the synthesis of biodegradable and biocompatible polymers. In the past it was shown that immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase B (CaLB) and the reaction medium play an important role in the polymerization ability especially of medium ring size lactones like ε-caprolactone (ε-CL). We investigated a route for the preparation of compartmentalized microgels based on poly(glycidol) in which CaLB was immobilized to increase its esterification ability. To find the ideal environment for CaLB, we investigated the acceptable water concentration and the accessibility for the monomer in model polymerizations in toluene and analyzed the obtained oligomers/polymers by NMR and SEC. We observed a sufficient accessibility for ε-CL to a toluene like hydrophobic phase imitating a hydrophobic microgel. Comparing free CaLB and Novozym® 435 we found that not the monomer concentration but rather the solubility of the enzyme, as well as the water concentration, strongly influences the equilibrium of esterification and hydrolysis. On the basis of these investigations, microgels of different polarity were prepared and successfully loaded with CaLB by physical entrapment. By comparison of immobilized and free CaLB, we demonstrated an effect of the hydrophobicity of the microenvironment of CaLB on its enzymatic activity.
- ItemCan constraint network analysis guide the identification phase of KnowVolution? A case study on improved thermostability of an endo-β-glucanase(Gotenburg : Research Network of Computational and Structural Biotechnology (RNCSB), 2021) Contreras, Francisca; Nutschel, Christina; Beust, Laura; Davari, Mehdi D.; Gohlke, Holger; Schwaneberg, UlrichCellulases are industrially important enzymes, e.g., in the production of bioethanol, in pulp and paper industry, feedstock, and textile. Thermostability is often a prerequisite for high process stability and improving thermostability without affecting specific activities at lower temperatures is challenging and often time-consuming. Protein engineering strategies that combine experimental and computational are emerging in order to reduce experimental screening efforts and speed up enzyme engineering campaigns. Constraint Network Analysis (CNA) is a promising computational method that identifies beneficial positions in enzymes to improve thermostability. In this study, we compare CNA and directed evolution in the identification of beneficial positions in order to evaluate the potential of CNA in protein engineering campaigns (e.g., in the identification phase of KnowVolution). We engineered the industrially relevant endoglucanase EGLII from Penicillium verruculosum towards increased thermostability. From the CNA approach, six variants were obtained with an up to 2-fold improvement in thermostability. The overall experimental burden was reduced to 40% utilizing the CNA method in comparison to directed evolution. On a variant level, the success rate was similar for both strategies, with 0.27% and 0.18% improved variants in the epPCR and CNA-guided library, respectively. In essence, CNA is an effective method for identification of positions that improve thermostability.
- ItemComparison of Candida antarctica Lipase B Variants for Conversion of ε-Caprolactone in Aqueous Medium-Part 2(Basel : MDPI, 2018) Höck, Heidi; Engel, Stefan; Weingarten, Simone; Keul, Helmut; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Möller, Martin; Bocola, MarcoEnzyme-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of lactones is a method of increasing interest for the synthesis of polyesters. In the present work, we investigated which changes in the structure of Candida antarctica lipase B (CaLB) shift the catalytic equilibrium between esterification and hydrolysis towards polymerization. Therefore, we present two concepts: (i) removing the glycosylation of CaLB to increase the surface hydrophobicity; and (ii) introducing a hydrophobic lid adapted from Pseudomonas cepacia lipase (PsCL) to enhance the interaction of a growing polymer chain to the elongated lid helix. The deglycosylated CaLB (CaLB-degl) was successfully generated by site-saturation mutagenesis of asparagine 74. Furthermore, computational modeling showed that the introduction of a lid helix at position Ala148 was structurally feasible and the geometry of the active site remained intact. Via overlap extension PCR the lid was successfully inserted, and the variant was produced in large scale in Pichia pastoris with glycosylation (CaLB-lid) and without (CaLB-degl-lid). While the lid variants show a minor positive effect on the polymerization activity, CaLB-degl showed a clearly reduced hydrolytic and enhanced polymerization activity. Immobilization in a hydrophobic polyglycidol-based microgel intensified this effect such that a higher polymerization activity was achieved, compared to the “gold standard” Novozym® 435.
- ItemComputer-Assisted Recombination (CompassR) Teaches us How to Recombine Beneficial Substitutions from Directed Evolution Campaigns(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Cui, Haiyang; Cao, Hao; Cai, Haiying; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Davari, Mehdi D.; Schwaneberg, UlrichA main remaining challenge in protein engineering is how to recombine beneficial substitutions. Systematic recombination studies show that poorly performing variants are usually obtained after recombination of 3 to 4 beneficial substitutions. This limits researchers in exploiting nature's potential in generating better enzymes. The Computer-assisted Recombination (CompassR) strategy provides a selection guide for beneficial substitutions that can be recombined to gradually improve enzyme performance by analysis of the relative free energy of folding (ΔΔGfold). The performance of CompassR was evaluated by analysis of 84 recombinants located on 13 positions of Bacillus subtilis lipase A. The finally obtained variant F17S/V54K/D64N/D91E had a 2.7-fold improved specific activity in 18.3 % (v/v) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]). In essence, the deducted CompassR rule allows recombination of beneficial substitutions in an iterative manner and empowers researchers to generate better enzymes in a time-efficient manner. © 2020 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
- ItemConsensus model of a cyanobacterial light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase in its pigment-free apo-form and photoactive ternary complex(London : Springer Nature, 2019) Schneidewind, Judith; Krause, Frank; Bocola, Marco; Stadler, Andreas Maximilian; Davari, Mehdi D.; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Krauss, UlrichPhotosynthetic organisms employ two different enzymes for the reduction of the C17 = C18 double bond of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), yielding the chlorophyll precursor chlorophyllide. First, a nitrogenase-like, light-independent (dark-operative) Pchlide oxidoreductase and secondly, a light-dependent Pchlide oxidoreductase (LPOR). For the latter enzyme, despite decades of research, no structural information is available. Here, we use protein structure modelling, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with multi-wavelength analytical ultracentrifugation (MWA-AUC) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments to derive a consensus model of the LPOR apoprotein and the substrate/cofactor/LPOR ternary complex. MWA-AUC and SAXS experiments independently demonstrate that the apoprotein is monomeric, while ternary complex formation induces dimerization. SAXS-guided modelling studies provide a full-length model of the apoprotein and suggest a tentative mode of dimerization for the LPOR ternary complex, supported by published cross-link constraints. Our study provides a first impression of the LPOR structural organization.
- ItemCorrection: A flow cytometer-based whole cell screening toolbox for directed hydrolase evolution through fluorescent hydrogels(Cambridge : Soc., 2015) Lülsdorf, Nina; Pitzler, Christian; Biggel, Michael; Martinez, Ronny; Vojcic, Ljubica; Schwaneberg, UlrichCorrection for ‘A flow cytometer-based whole cell screening toolbox for directed hydrolase evolution through fluorescent hydrogels’ by Nina Lülsdorf et al., Chem. Commun., 2015, 51, 8679–8682.
- ItemDirected Evolution of P450 BM3 towards Functionalization of Aromatic O-Heterocycles(Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2019) Santos, Gustavo de Almeida; Dhoke, Gaurao V.; Davari, Mehdi D.; Ruff, Anna Joëlle; Schwaneberg, UlrichThe O-heterocycles, benzo-1,4-dioxane, phthalan, isochroman, 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, benzofuran, and dibenzofuran are important building blocks with considerable medical application for the production of pharmaceuticals. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) Bacillus megaterium 3 (BM3) wild type (WT) from Bacillus megaterium has low to no conversion of the six O-heterocycles. Screening of in-house libraries for active variants yielded P450 BM3 CM1 (R255P/P329H), which was subjected to directed evolution and site saturation mutagenesis of four positions. The latter led to the identification of position R255, which when introduced in the P450 BM3 WT, outperformed all other variants. The initial oxidation rate of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) consumption increased ≈140-fold (WT: 8.3 ± 1.3 min−1; R255L: 1168 ± 163 min−1), total turnover number (TTN) increased ≈21-fold (WT: 40 ± 3; R255L: 860 ± 15), and coupling efficiency, ≈2.9-fold (WT: 8.8 ± 0.1%; R255L: 25.7 ± 1.0%). Computational analysis showed that substitution R255L (distant from the heme-cofactor) does not have the salt bridge formed with D217 in WT, which introduces flexibility into the I-helix and leads to a heme rearrangement allowing for efficient hydroxylation.
- ItemDisplay of functional nucleic acid polymerase on Escherichia coli surface and its application in directed polymerase evolution(New York, NY : Wiley, 2020) Chung, Mu-En; Goroncy, Kati; Kolesnikova, Alisa; Schönauer, David; Schwaneberg, UlrichWe report a first of its kind functional cell surface display of nucleic acid polymerase and its directed evolution to efficiently incorporate 2′-O-methyl nucleotide triphosphates (2′-OMe-NTPs). In the development of polymerase cell surface display, two autotransporter proteins (Escherichia coli adhesin involved in diffuse adherence and Pseudomonas aeruginosa esterase A [EstA]) were employed to transport and anchor the 68-kDa Klenow fragment (KF) of E. coli DNA polymerase I on the surface of E. coli. The localization and function of the displayed KF were verified by analysis of cell outer membrane fractions, immunostaining, and fluorometric detection of synthesized DNA products. The EstA cell surface display system was applied to evolve KF for the incorporation of 2′-OMe-NTPs and a KF variant with a 50.7-fold increased ability to successively incorporate 2′-OMe-NTPs was discovered. Expanding the scope of cell-surface displayable proteins to the realm of polymerases provides a novel screening tool for tailoring polymerases to diverse application demands in a polymerase chain reaction and sequencing-based biotechnological and medical applications. Especially, cell surface display enables novel polymerase screening strategies in which the heat-lysis step is bypassed and thus allows the screening of mesophilic polymerases with broad application potentials ranging from diagnostics and DNA sequencing to replication of synthetic genetic polymers. © 2020 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering published by Wiley Periodicals LLC
- ItemDisulfide Bond Engineering of an Endoglucanase from Penicillium verruculosum to Improve Its Thermostability(Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2019) Bashirova, Anna; Pramanik, Subrata; Volkov, Pavel; Rozhkova, Aleksandra; Nemashkalov, Vitaly; Zorov, Ivan; Gusakov, Alexander; Sinitsyn, Arkady; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Davari, Mehdi D.Endoglucanases (EGLs) are important components of multienzyme cocktails used in the production of a wide variety of fine and bulk chemicals from lignocellulosic feedstocks. However, a low thermostability and the loss of catalytic performance of EGLs at industrially required temperatures limit their commercial applications. A structure-based disulfide bond (DSB) engineering was carried out in order to improve the thermostability of EGLII from Penicillium verruculosum. Based on in silico prediction, two improved enzyme variants, S127C-A165C (DSB2) and Y171C-L201C (DSB3), were obtained. Both engineered enzymes displayed a 15–21% increase in specific activity against carboxymethylcellulose and β-glucan compared to the wild-type EGLII (EGLII-wt). After incubation at 70 °C for 2 h, they retained 52–58% of their activity, while EGLII-wt retained only 38% of its activity. At 80 °C, the enzyme-engineered forms retained 15–22% of their activity after 2 h, whereas EGLII-wt was completely inactivated after the same incubation time. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the introduced DSB rigidified a global structure of DSB2 and DSB3 variants, thus enhancing their thermostability. In conclusion, this work provides an insight into DSB protein engineering as a potential rational design strategy that might be applicable for improving the stability of other enzymes for industrial applications.
- ItemEffects of proline substitutions on the thermostable LOV domain from Chloroflexus aggregans(Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Remeeva, Alina; Nazarenko, Vera V.; Goncharov, Ivan M.; Yudenko, Anna; Smolentseva, Anastasia; Semenov, Oleg; Kovalev, Kirill; Gülbahar, Cansu; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Davari, Mehdi D.; Gordeliy, Valentin; Gushchin, IvanLight-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domains are ubiquitous photosensory modules found in proteins from bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. Engineered versions of LOV domains have found widespread use in fluorescence microscopy and optogenetics, with improved versions being continuously developed. Many of the engineering efforts focused on the thermal stabilization of LOV domains. Recently, we described a naturally thermostable LOV domain from Chloroflexus aggregans. Here we show that the discovered protein can be further stabilized using proline substitution. We tested the effects of three mutations, and found that the melting temperature of the A95P mutant is raised by approximately 2◦ C, whereas mutations A56P and A58P are neutral. To further evaluate the effects of mutations, we crystallized the variants A56P and A95P, while the variant A58P did not crystallize. The obtained crystal structures do not reveal any alterations in the proteins other than the introduced mutations. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that mutation A58P alters the structure of the respective loop (Aβ-Bβ), but does not change the general structure of the protein. We conclude that proline substitution is a viable strategy for the stabilization of the Chloroflexus aggregans LOV domain. Since the sequences and structures of the LOV domains are overall well-conserved, the effects of the reported mutations may be transferable to other proteins belonging to this family. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- ItemElectron transfer pathways in a light, oxygen, voltage (LOV) protein devoid of the photoactive cysteine([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2017) Kopka, Benita; Magerl, Kathrin; Savitsky, Anton; Davari, Mehdi D.; Röllen, Katrin; Bocola, Marco; Dick, Bernhard; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Krauss, UlrichBlue-light absorption by the flavin chromophore in light, oxygen, voltage (LOV) photoreceptors triggers photochemical reactions that lead to the formation of a flavin-cysteine adduct. While it has long been assumed that adduct formation is essential for signaling, it was recently shown that LOV photoreceptor variants devoid of the photoactive cysteine can elicit a functional response and that flavin photoreduction to the neutral semiquinone radical is sufficient for signal transduction. Currently, the mechanistic basis of the underlying electron- (eT) and proton-transfer (pT) reactions is not well understood. We here reengineered pT into the naturally not photoreducible iLOV protein, a fluorescent reporter protein derived from the Arabidopsis thaliana phototropin-2 LOV2 domain. A single amino-acid substitution (Q489D) enabled efficient photoreduction, suggesting that an eT pathway is naturally present in the protein. By using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, steady-state UV/Vis, transient absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we investigate the underlying eT and pT reactions. Our study provides strong evidence that several Tyr and Trp residues, highly conserved in all LOV proteins, constitute the eT pathway for flavin photoreduction, suggesting that the propensity for photoreduction is evolutionary imprinted in all LOV domains, while efficient pT is needed to stabilize the neutral semiquinone radical.
- ItemEngineering of Laccase CueO for Improved Electron Transfer in Bioelectrocatalysis by Semi-Rational Design(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Zhang, Lingling; Cui, Haiyang; Dhoke, Gaurao V.; Zou, Zhi; Sauer, Daniel F.; Davari, Mehdi D.; Schwaneberg, UlrichCopper efflux oxidase (CueO) from Escherichia coli is a special bacterial laccase due to its fifth copper binding site. Herein, it is discovered that the fifth Cu occupancy plays a crucial and favorable role of electron relay in bioelectrocatalytic oxygen reduction. By substituting the residues at the four coordinated positions of the fifth Cu, 11 beneficial variants are identified with ≥2.5-fold increased currents at −250 mV (up to 6.13 mA cm−2). Detailed electrocatalytic characterization suggests the microenvironment of the fifth Cu binding site governs the electrocatalytic current of CueO. Additionally, further electron transfer analysis assisted by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation demonstrates that an increase in localized structural stability and a decrease of distance between the fifth Cu and the T1 Cu are two main factors contributing to the improved kinetics of CueO variants. It may guide a novel way to tailor laccases and perhaps other oxidoreductases for bioelectrocatalytic applications. © 2020 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
- ItemEngineering robust cellulases for tailored lignocellulosic degradation cocktails(Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Contreras, Francisca; Pramanik, Subrata; Rozhkova, Aleksandra M.; Zorov, Ivan N.; Korotkova, Olga; Sinitsyn, Arkady P.; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Davari, Mehdi D.Lignocellulosic biomass is a most promising feedstock in the production of second-generation biofuels. Efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass requires a synergistic action of several cellulases and hemicellulases. Cellulases depolymerize cellulose, the main polymer of the lignocellulosic biomass, to its building blocks. The production of cellulase cocktails has been widely explored, however, there are still some main challenges that enzymes need to overcome in order to develop a sustainable production of bioethanol. The main challenges include low activity, product inhibition, and the need to perform fine-tuning of a cellulase cocktail for each type of biomass. Protein engineering and directed evolution are powerful technologies to improve enzyme properties such as increased activity, decreased product inhibition, increased thermal stability, improved performance in non-conventional media, and pH stability, which will lead to a production of more efficient cocktails. In this review, we focus on recent advances in cellulase cocktail production, its current challenges, protein engineering as an efficient strategy to engineer cellulases, and our view on future prospects in the generation of tailored cellulases for biofuel production. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- ItemEnhancing Robustness of Sortase A by Loop Engineering and Backbone Cyclization(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Zou, Zhi; Mate, Diana M.; Nöth, Maximilian; Jakob, Felix; Schwaneberg, UlrichStaphylococcus aureus sortase A (SaSrtA) is widely used for site-specific protein modifications, but it lacks the robustness for performing bioconjugation reactions at elevated temperatures or in presence of denaturing agents. Loop engineering and subsequent head-to-tail backbone cyclization of SaSrtA yielded the cyclized variant CyM6 that has a 7.5 °C increased melting temperature and up to 4.6-fold increased resistance towards denaturants when compared to the parent rM4. CyM6 gained up to 2.6-fold (vs. parent rM4) yield of conjugate in ligation of peptide and primary amine under denaturing conditions. © 2020 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH GmbH