Browsing by Author "Stiel, H."
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- ItemA compact laboratory transmission X-ray microscope for the water window(Bristol : Institute of Physics Publishing, 2013) Legall, H.; Stiel, H.; Blobel, G.; Seim, C.; Baumann, J.; Yulin, S.; Esser, D.; Hoefer, M.; Wiesemann, U.; Wirtz, M.; Schneider, G.; Rehbein, S.; Hertz, H.M.In the water window (2.2-4.4 nm) the attenuation of radiation in water is significantly smaller than in organic material. Therefore, intact biological specimen (e.g. cells) can be investigated in their natural environment. In order to make this technique accessible to users in a laboratory environment a Full-Field Laboratory Transmission X-ray Microscope (L-TXM) has been developed. The L-TXM is operated with a nitrogen laser plasma source employing an InnoSlab high power laser system for plasma generation. For microscopy the Ly α emission of highly ionized nitrogen at 2.48 nm is used. A laser plasma brightness of 5 × 1011 photons/(s × sr × μm2 in line at 2.48 nm) at a laser power of 70 W is demonstrated. In combination with a state-of-the-art Cr/V multilayer condenser mirror the sample is illuminated with 106 photons/(μm2 × s). Using objective zone plates 35-40 nm lines can be resolved with exposure times < 60 s. The exposure time can be further reduced to 20 s by the use of new multilayer condenser optics and operating the laser at its full power of 130 W. These exposure times enable cryo tomography in a laboratory environment.
- ItemPreparation of clay mineral samples for high resolution x-ray imaging(Bristol : Institute of Physics Publishing, 2013) Abbati, G.; Seim, C.; Legall, H.; Stiel, H.; Thomas, N.; Wilhein, T.In the development of optimum ceramic materials for plastic forming, it is of fundamental importance to gain insight into the compositions of the clay minerals. Whereas spectroscopic methods are adequate for determining the elemental composition of a given sample, a knowledge of the spatial composition, together with the shape and size of the particles leads to further, valuable insight. This requires an imaging technique such as high resolution X-ray microscopy. In addition, fluorescence spectroscopy provides a viable element mapping technique. Since the fine particle fraction of the materials has a major effect on physical properties like plasticity, the analysis is focused mainly on the smallest particles. To separate these from the bigger agglomerates, the raw material has to pass through several procedures like centrifugation and filtering. After that, one has to deposit a layer of appropriate thickness on to a suitable substrate. These preparative techniques are described here, starting from the clay mineral raw materials and proceeding through to samples that are ready to analyze. First results using high resolution x-ray imaging are shown.
- ItemSetup of an 8 keV laboratory transmission x-ray microscope(Bristol : Institute of Physics Publishing, 2014) Baumbach, S.; Kanngießer, B.; Malzer, W.; Stiel, H.; Bjeoumikhova, S.; Wilhein, T.This article presents a concept and the first results for the setup of an 8keV laboratory transmission x-ray microscope with a polycapillary optic as condenser at the BliX in Berlin. The incentive of building such a microscope is that the penetration depth for hard x-rays is much higher than in the soft x-ray range, e.g. The water window. Therefore, it is possible to investigate even dense materials such as metal compounds, bones or geological samples. The future aim is to achieve a spatial resolution better than 200 nm.
- ItemTransverse Coherence Limited Coherent Diffraction Imaging using a Molybdenum Soft X-ray Laser Pumped at Moderate Pump Energies(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2017) Zürch, M.; Jung, R.; Späth, C.; Tümmler, J.; Guggenmos, A.; Attwood, D.; Kleineberg, U.; Stiel, H.; Spielmann, C.Coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) in the extreme ultraviolet has become an important tool for nanoscale investigations. Laser-driven high harmonic generation (HHG) sources allow for lab scale applications such as cancer cell classification and phase-resolved surface studies. HHG sources exhibit excellent coherence but limited photon flux due poor conversion efficiency. In contrast, table-top soft X-ray lasers (SXRL) feature excellent temporal coherence and extraordinary high flux at limited transverse coherence. Here, the performance of a SXRL pumped at moderate pump energies is evaluated for CDI and compared to a HHG source. For CDI, a lower bound for the required mutual coherence factor of |μ 12| ≥ 0.75 is found by comparing a reconstruction with fixed support to a conventional characterization using double slits. A comparison of the captured diffraction signals suggests that SXRLs have the potential for imaging micron scale objects with sub-20 nm resolution in orders of magnitude shorter integration time compared to a conventional HHG source. Here, the low transverse coherence diameter limits the resolution to approximately 180 nm. The extraordinary high photon flux per laser shot, scalability towards higher repetition rate and capability of seeding with a high harmonic source opens a route for higher performance nanoscale imaging systems based on SXRLs.
- ItemVerbundvorhaben: Forscherverbund: Vordringliche Massnahme zu Laser- und Entladungsbasierten EUV-Strahlquellen, Teilvorhaben Konversionsuntersuchungen für laserbasierte Quellen im EUV-Bereich in Abhängigkeit von relevanten Laserparametern : Abschlussbericht(Berlin : Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie, 2001) Nickles, P.V.; Stiel, H.; Vogt, U.; Will, I.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Schnürer, M.; Sandner, W.[no abstract available]