Browsing by Author "Stoll, Andreas"
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- ItemDesign, simulation and characterization of integrated photonic spectrographs for astronomy: generation-I AWG devices based on canonical layouts(Washington, DC : Soc., 2021) Stoll, Andreas; Madhav, Kalaga V.; Roth, Martin M.We present an experimental study on our first generation of custom-developed arrayed waveguide gratings (AWG) on a silica platform for spectroscopic applications in near-infrared astronomy. We provide a comprehensive description of the design, numerical simulation and characterization of several AWG devices aimed at spectral resolving powers of 15,000-60,000 in the astronomical H-band. We evaluate the spectral characteristics of the fabricated devices in terms of insertion loss and estimated spectral resolving power and compare the results with numerical simulations. We estimate resolving powers of up to 18,900 from the output channel 3-dB transmission bandwidth. Based on the first characterization results, we select two candidate AWGs for further processing by removal of the output waveguide array and polishing the output facet to optical quality with the goal of integration as the primary diffractive element in a cross-dispersed spectrograph. We further study the imaging properties of the processed AWGs with regards to spectral resolution in direct imaging mode, geometry-related defocus aberration, and polarization sensitivity of the spectral image. We identify phase error control, birefringence control, and aberration suppression as the three key areas of future research and development in the field of high-resolution AWG-based spectroscopy in astronomy.
- ItemHigh-Resolution Arrayed-Waveguide-Gratings in Astronomy: Design and Fabrication Challenges(Basel : MDPI, 2017) Stoll, Andreas; Zhang, Ziyang; Haynes, Roger; Roth, MartinA comprehensive design of a folded-architecture arrayed-waveguide-grating (AWG)-device, targeted at applications as integrated photonic spectrographs (IPS) in near-infrared astronomy, is presented. The AWG structure is designed for the astronomical H-band (1500 nm-1800 nm) with a theoretical maximum resolving power R = 60,000 at 1630 nm. The geometry of the device is optimized for a compact structure with a footprint of 5.5 cm × 3.93 cm on SiO2 platform. To evaluate the fabrication challenges of such high-resolution AWGs, effects of random perturbations of the effective refractive index (RI) distribution in the free propagation region (FPR), as well as small variations of the array waveguide optical lengths are numerically investigated. The results of the investigation show a dramatic degradation of the point spread function (PSF) for a random effective RI distribution with variance values above ~10-4 for both the FPR and the waveguide array. Based on the results, requirements on the fabrication technology for high-resolution AWG-based spectrographs are given in the end.
- ItemPerformance limits of astronomical arrayed waveguide gratings on a silica platform(Washington, DC : Soc., 2020) Stoll, Andreas; Madhav, Kalaga; Roth, MartinWe present a numerical and experimental study of the impact of phase errors on the performance of large, high-resolution arrayed waveguide gratings (AWG) for applications in astronomy. We use a scalar diffraction model to study the transmission spectrum of an AWG under random variations of the optical waveguide lengths. We simulate phase error correction by numerically trimming the lengths of the optical waveguides to the nearest integer multiple of the central wavelength. The optical length error distribution of a custom-fabricated silica AWG is measured using frequency-domain interferometry and Monte-Carlo fitting of interferogram intensities. In the end, we give an estimate for the phase-error limited size of a waveguide array manufactured using state-of-the-art technology. We show that post-processing eliminates phase errors as a performance limiting factor for astronomical spectroscopy in the H-band.