Browsing by Author "Wächtler, Maria"
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- Item1,7,9,10-Tetrasubstituted PMIs Accessible through Decarboxylative Bromination: Synthesis, Characterization, Photophysical Studies, and Hydrogen Evolution Catalysis(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Costabel, Daniel; Skabeev, Artem; Nabiyan, Afshin; Luo, Yusen; Max, Johannes B.; Rajagopal, Ashwene; Kowalczyk, Daniel; Dietzek, Benjamin; Wächtler, Maria; Görls, Helmar; Ziegenbalg, Dirk; Zagranyarski, Yulian; Streb, Carsten; Schacher, Felix H.; Peneva, KalinaIn this work, we present a new synthetic strategy for fourfold-substituted perylene monoimides via tetrabrominated perylene monoanhydrides. X-ray diffraction analysis unveiled the intramolecular stacking orientation between the substituents and semicircular packing behavior. We observed the remarkable influence of the substituent on the longevity and nature of the excited state upon visible light excitation. In the presence of poly(dehydroalanine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) graft copolymers as solubilizing template, the chromophores are capable of sensitizing [Mo3S13]2− clusters in aqueous solution for stable visible light driven hydrogen evolution over three days. © 2020 The Authors. Chemistry - A European Journal published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemCharacterizing photocatalysts for water splitting: from atoms to bulk and from slow to ultrafast processes(London : Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2021) Kranz, Christine; Wächtler, MariaResearch on light-driven catalysis has gained tremendous importance due to the ever-increasing power consumption and the threatening situation of global warming related to burning fossil fuels. Significant efforts have been dedicated to artificial photosynthesis mimicking nature to split H2O into H2 and O2 by solar energy. Novel semiconductor und molecular photocatalysts focusing on one-step excitation processes via single component photocatalysts or via two-step excitation processes mimicking the Z-scheme of natural photosynthesis are currently developed. Analytical and physicochemical methods, which provide information at different time and length scales, are used to gain fundamental understanding of all processes leading to catalytic activity, i.e., light absorption, charge separation, transfer of charges to the reaction centres and catalytic turnover, but also understanding degradation processes of the photocatalytic active material. Especially, molecular photocatalysts still suffer from limited long-Term stability due to the formation of reactive intermediates, which may lead to degradation. Although there is an overwhelming number of research articles and reviews focussing on various materials for photocatalytic water splitting, to date only few reviews have been published providing a comprehensive overview on methods for characterizing such materials. This review will highlight spectroscopic, spectroelectrochemical, and electrochemical approaches in respect to their potential in studying processes in semiconductor and (supra)molecular photocatalysts. Special emphasis will be on spectroscopic methods to investigate light-induced processes in intermediates of sequential electron transfer chains. Further, microscopic characterization methods, which are predominantly used for semiconducting and hybrid photocatalytic materials will be reviewed as surface area, structure, facets, defects, and bulk properties such as crystallinity and crystal size are key parameters for charge separation, transfer processes and suppression of charge recombination. Recent developments in scanning probe microscopy will also be highlighted as such techniques are highly suited for studying photocatalytic active material. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.
- ItemDetermination of side products in the photocatalytic generation of hydrogen with copper photosensitizers by resonance Raman spectroelectrochemistry(London : RSC Publishing, 2016) Zhang, Ying; Heberle, Martin; Wächtler, Maria; Karnahl, Michael; Dietzek, BenjaminA combination of UV-Vis and resonance Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with electrochemistry is employed to reveal the nature of a side product formed when using heteroleptic Cu(I)-photosensitizers [(P^P)Cu(N^N)]+ for photocatalytic hydrogen generation. It is shown that homoleptic [Cu(N^N)2]+ complexes are formed under oxidative conditions confirming a proposed deactivation pathway.
- ItemEnergy transfer and formation of long-lived 3MLCT states in multimetallic complexes with extended highly conjugated bis-terpyridyl ligands(Cambridge : RSC Publ., 2015) Wächtler, Maria; Kübel, Joachim; Barthelmes, Kevin; Winter, Andreas; Schmiedel, Alexander; Pascher, Torbjörn; Lambert, Christoph; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Dietzek, BenjaminMultimetallic complexes with extended and highly conjugated bis-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridyl bridging ligands, which present building blocks for coordination polymers, are investigated with respect to their ability to act as light-harvesting antennae. The investigated species combine Ru(II)- with Os(II)- and Fe(II)-terpyridyl chromophores, the latter acting as energy sinks. Due to the extended conjugated system the ligands are able to prolong the lifetime of the 3MLCT states compared to unsubstituted terpyridyl species by delocalization and energetic stabilization of the 3MLCT states. This concept is applied for the first time to Fe(II) terpyridyl species and results in an exceptionally long lifetime of 23 ps for the Fe(II) 3MLCT state. While partial energy (>80%) transfer is observed between the Ru(II) and Fe(II) centers with a time-constant of 15 ps, excitation energy is transferred completely from the Ru(II) to the Os(II) center within the first 200 fs after excitation.
- ItemInfluence of Surface Ligands on Charge-Carrier Trapping and Relaxation in Water-Soluble CdSe@CdS Nanorods(Basel : MDPI, 2020) Micheel, Mathias; Liu, Bei; Wächtler, MariaIn this study, the impact of the type of ligand at the surface of colloidal CdSe@CdS dotin-rod nanostructures on the basic exciton relaxation and charge localization processes is closely examined. These systems have been introduced into the field of artificial photosynthesis as potent photosensitizers in assemblies for light driven hydrogen generation. Following photoinduced exciton generation, electrons can be transferred to catalytic reaction centers while holes localize into the CdSe seed, which can prevent charge recombination and lead to the formation of longlived charge separation in assemblies containing catalytic reaction centers. These processes are in competition with trapping processes of charges at surface defect sites. The density and type of surface defects strongly depend on the type of ligand used. Here we report on a systematic steadystate and time-resolved spectroscopic investigation of the impact of the type of anchoring group (phosphine oxide, thiols, dithiols, amines) and the bulkiness of the ligand (alkyl chains vs. poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)) to unravel trapping pathways and localization efficiencies. We show that the introduction of the widely used thiol ligands leads to an increase of hole traps at the surface compared to trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) capped rods, which prevent hole localization in the CdSe core. On the other hand, steric restrictions, e.g., in dithiolates or with bulky side chains (PEG), decrease the surface coverage, and increase the density of electron trap states, impacting the recombination dynamics at the ns timescale. The amines in poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) on the other hand can saturate and remove surface traps to a wide extent. Implications for catalysis are discussed. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- ItemThe Other Dimension—Tuning Hole Extraction via Nanorod Width(Basel : MDPI, 2022) Rosner, Tal; Pavlopoulos, Nicholas G.; Shoyhet, Hagit; Micheel, Mathias; Wächtler, Maria; Adir, Noam; Amirav, LilacSolar-to-hydrogen generation is a promising approach to generate clean and renewable fuel. Nanohybrid structures such as CdSe@CdS-Pt nanorods were found favorable for this task (attaining 100% photon-to-hydrogen production efficiency); yet the rods cannot support overall water splitting. The key limitation seems to be the rate of hole extraction from the semiconductor, jeopardizing both activity and stability. It is suggested that hole extraction might be improved via tuning the rod’s dimensions, specifically the width of the CdS shell around the CdSe seed in which the holes reside. In this contribution, we successfully attain atomic-scale control over the width of CdSe@CdS nanorods, which enables us to verify this hypothesis and explore the intricate influence of shell diameter over hole quenching and photocatalytic activity towards H2 production. A non-monotonic effect of the rod’s diameter is revealed, and the underlying mechanism for this observation is discussed, alongside implications towards the future design of nanoscale photocatalysts.
- ItemPhotophysics of BODIPY dyes as readily designable photosensitisers in light-driven proton reduction(Basel : MDPI, 2017) Dura, Laura; Wächtler, Maria; Kupfer, Stephan; Kübel, Joachim; Ahrens, Johannes; Höfler, Sebastian; Bröring, Martin; Dietzek, Benjamin; Beweries, TorstenA series of boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes was tested as photosensitisers for light-driven hydrogen evolution in combination with the complex [Pd(PPh3)Cl2]2 as a source for catalytically-active Pd nanoparticles and triethylamine as a sacrificial electron donor. In line with earlier reports, halogenated dyes showed significantly higher hydrogen production activity. All BODIPYs were fully characterised using stationary absorption and emission spectroscopy. Time-resolved spectroscopic investigations on meso-mesityl substituted compounds revealed that reduction of the photo-excited BODIPY by the sacrificial agent occurs from an excited singlet state, while, in halogenated species, long-lived triplet states are present, determining electron transfer processes from the sacrificial agent. Quantum chemical calculations performed at the time-dependent density functional level of theory indicate that the differences in the photocatalytic performance of the present series of dyes can be correlated to the varying efficiency of intersystem crossing in non-halogenated and halogenated species and not to alterations in the energy levels introduced upon substitution.
- ItemUnraveling the Light-Activated Reaction Mechanism in a Catalytically Competent Key Intermediate of a Multifunctional Molecular Catalyst for Artificial Photosynthesis(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2019) Zedler, Linda; Mengele, Alexander Klaus; Ziems, Karl Michael; Zhang, Ying; Wächtler, Maria; Gr-fe, Stefanie; Pascher, Torbjörn; Rau, Sven; Kupfer, Stephan; Dietzek, BenjaminUnderstanding photodriven multielectron reaction pathways requires the identification and spectroscopic characterization of intermediates and their excited-state dynamics, which is very challenging due to their short lifetimes. To the best of our knowledge, this manuscript reports for the first time on in situ spectroelectrochemistry as an alternative approach to study the excited-state properties of reactive intermediates of photocatalytic cycles. UV/Vis, resonance-Raman, and transient-absorption spectroscopy have been employed to characterize the catalytically competent intermediate [(tbbpy)2RuII(tpphz)RhICp*] of [(tbbpy)2Ru(tpphz)Rh(Cp*)Cl]Cl(PF6)2 (Ru(tpphz)RhCp*), a photocatalyst for the hydrogenation of nicotinamide (NAD-analogue) and proton reduction, generated by electrochemical and chemical reduction. Electronic transitions shifting electron density from the activated catalytic center to the bridging tpphz ligand significantly reduce the catalytic activity upon visible-light irradiation. © 2019 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
- ItemYield—not only Lifetime—of the Photoinduced Charge-Separated State in Iridium Complex–Polyoxometalate Dyads Impact Their Hydrogen Evolution Reactivity(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Luo, Yusen; Maloul, Salam; Schönweiz, Stefanie; Wächtler, Maria; Streb, Carsten; Dietzek, BenjaminCovalently linked photosensitizer–polyoxometalate (PS-POM) dyads are promising molecular systems for light-induced energy conversion processes, such as “solar” hydrogen generation. To date, very little is known of their fundamental photophysical properties which affect the catalytic reactivity and stability of the systems. PS-POM dyads often feature short-lived photoinduced charge-separated states, and the lifetimes of these states are considered crucial for the function of PS-POM dyads in molecular photocatalysis. Hence, strategies have been developed to extend the lifetimes of the photoinduced charge-separated states, either by tuning the PS photophysics or by tuning the POM redox properties. Recently, some of us reported PS-POM dyads based on cyclometalated IrIII complexes covalently linked to Anderson-type polyoxometalate. Distinct hydrogen evolution reactivity (HER) of the dyads was observed, which was tuned by varying the central metal ion M of the POMM (M=Mn3+, Co3+, Fe3+). In this manuscript, the photoinduced electron-transfer processes in the three Ir-POMM dyads are investigated to rationalize the underlying reasons for the differences in HER activity observed. We report that upon excitation of the IrIII complex, ultrafast (sub-ps) charge separation occurs, leading to different amounts of the charge-separated states (Ir.+-POMM.−) generated in the different dyads. However, in all dyads studied, the resulting Ir.+-POMM.− species are short-lived (sub-ns) when compared to reference electron acceptors (e.g. porphyrins or fullerenes) reported in the literature. The reductive quenching of Ir.+-POMM.− by a sacrificial donor, triethyl amine (1 m), to generate the intermediate Ir-POMM.− is estimated to be very efficient (70–80 %) for all dyads studied. Based on this analyses, we conclude that the yield instead of the lifetime of the Ir.+-POMM.− charge-separated state determines the catalytic capacity of the dyads investigated. This new feature in the PS-POM photophysics could lead to new design criteria for the development of novel PS-POM dyads. © 2020 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.