Browsing by Author "Wang, Xue-Bin"
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- ItemA faux hawk fullerene with PCBM-like properties(Cambridge : Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014) San, Long K.; Bukovsky, Eric V.; Larson, Bryon W.; Whitaker, James B.; Deng, S.H.M.; Kopidakis, Nikos; Rumbles, Garry; Popov, Alexey A.; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Xue-Bin; Boltalina, Olga V.; Strauss, Steven H.Reaction of C60, C6F5CF2I, and SnH(n-Bu)3 produced, among other unidentified fullerene derivatives, the two new compounds 1,9-C60(CF2C6F5)H (1) and 1,9-C60(cyclo-CF2(2-C6F4)) (2). The highest isolated yield of 1 was 35% based on C60. Depending on the reaction conditions, the relative amounts of 1 and 2 generated in situ were as high as 85% and 71%, respectively, based on HPLC peak integration and summing over all fullerene species present other than unreacted C60. Compound 1 is thermally stable in 1,2-dichlorobenzene (oDCB) at 160 °C but was rapidly converted to 2 upon addition of Sn2(n-Bu)6 at this temperature. In contrast, complete conversion of 1 to 2 occurred within minutes, or hours, at 25 °C in 90/10 (v/v) PhCN/C6D6 by addition of stoichiometric, or sub-stoichiometric, amounts of proton sponge (PS) or cobaltocene (CoCp2). DFT calculations indicate that when 1 is deprotonated, the anion C60(CF2C6F5)− can undergo facile intramolecular SNAr annulation to form 2 with concomitant loss of F−. To our knowledge this is the first observation of a fullerene-cage carbanion acting as an SNAr nucleophile towards an aromatic C–F bond. The gas-phase electron affinity (EA) of 2 was determined to be 2.805(10) eV by low-temperature PES, higher by 0.12(1) eV than the EA of C60 and higher by 0.18(1) eV than the EA of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). In contrast, the relative E1/2(0/−) values of 2 and C60, −0.01(1) and 0.00(1) V, respectively, are virtually the same (on this scale, and under the same conditions, the E1/2(0/−) of PCBM is −0.09 V). Time-resolved microwave conductivity charge-carrier yield × mobility values for organic photovoltaic active-layer-type blends of 2 and poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) were comparable to those for equimolar blends of PCBM and P3HT. The structure of solvent-free crystals of 2 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The number of nearest-neighbor fullerene–fullerene interactions with centroid⋯centroid (⊙⋯⊙) distances of ≤10.34 Å is significantly greater, and the average ⊙⋯⊙ distance is shorter, for 2 (10 nearest neighbors; ave. ⊙⋯⊙ distance = 10.09 Å) than for solvent-free crystals of PCBM (7 nearest neighbors; ave. ⊙⋯⊙ distance = 10.17 Å). Finally, the thermal stability of 2 was found to be far greater than that of PCBM.
- ItemMetallofullerene photoswitches driven by photoinduced fullerene-to-metal electron transfer(Cambridge : RSC, 2021) Zalibera, Michal; Ziegs, Frank; Schiemenz, Sandra; Dubrovin, Vasilii; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Savitsky, Anton; Deng, Shihu H.M.; Wang, Xue-Bin; Advoshenko, Stanislav M.; Popov, Alexey A.We report on the discovery and detailed exploration of the unconventional photo-switching mechanism in metallofullerenes, in which the energy of the photon absorbed by the carbon cage π-system is transformed to mechanical motion of the endohedral cluster accompanied by accumulation of spin density on the metal atoms. Comprehensive photophysical and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies augmented by theoretical modelling are performed to address the phenomenon of the light-induced photo-switching and triplet state spin dynamics in a series of YxSc3−xN@C80 (x = 0–3) nitride clusterfullerenes. Variable temperature and time-resolved photoluminescence studies revealed a strong dependence of their photophysical properties on the number of Sc atoms in the cluster. All molecules in the series exhibit temperature-dependent luminescence assigned to the near-infrared thermally-activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) and phosphorescence. The emission wavelengths and Stokes shift increase systematically with the number of Sc atoms in the endohedral cluster, whereas the triplet state lifetime and S1–T1 gap decrease in this row. For Sc3N@C80, we also applied photoelectron spectroscopy to obtain the triplet state energy as well as the electron affinity. Spin distribution and dynamics in the triplet states are then studied by light-induced pulsed EPR and ENDOR spectroscopies. The spin–lattice relaxation times and triplet state lifetimes are determined from the temporal evolution of the electron spin echo after the laser pulse. Well resolved ENDOR spectra of triplets with a rich structure caused by the hyperfine and quadrupolar interactions with 14N, 45Sc, and 89Y nuclear spins are obtained. The systematic increase of the metal contribution to the triplet spin density from Y3N to Sc3N found in the ENDOR study points to a substantial fullerene-to-metal charge transfer in the excited state. These experimental results are rationalized with the help of ground-state and time-dependent DFT calculations, which revealed a substantial variation of the endohedral cluster position in the photoexcited states driven by the predisposition of Sc atoms to maximize their spin population.
- ItemPAH/PAH(CF3)n Donor/Acceptor Charge-Transfer Complexes in Solution and in Solid-State Co-Crystals(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2019) Castro, Karlee P.; Bukovsky, Eric V.; Kuvychko, Igor V.; DeWeerd, Nicholas J.; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Deng, Shihu H.M.; Wang, Xue-Bin; Popov, Alexey A.; Strauss, Steven H.; Boltalina, Olga V.A solution, solid-state, and computational study is reported of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon PAH/PAH(CF3)n donor/acceptor (D/A) charge-transfer complexes that involve six PAH(CF3)n acceptors with known gas-phase electron affinities that range from 2.11(2) to 2.805(15) eV and four PAH donors, including seven CT co-crystal X-ray structures that exhibit hexagonal arrays of mixed π-stacks with 1/1, 1/2, or 2/1 D/A stoichiometries (PAH=anthracene, azulene, coronene, perylene, pyrene, triphenylene; n=5, 6). These are the first D/A CT complexes with PAH(CF3)n acceptors to be studied in detail. The nine D/A combinations were chosen to allow several structural and electronic comparisons to be made, providing new insights about controlling D/A interactions and the structures of CT co-crystals. The comparisons include, among others, CT complexes of the same PAH(CF3)n acceptor with four PAH donors and CT complexes of the same donor with four PAH(CF3)n acceptors. All nine CT complexes exhibit charge-transfer bands in solution with λmax between 467 and 600 nm. A plot of E(λmax) versus [IE(donor)−EA(acceptor)] for the nine CT complexes studied is linear with a slope of 0.72±0.03 eV eV−1. This plot is the first of its kind for CT complexes with structurally related donors and acceptors for which precise experimental gas-phase IEs and EAs are known. It demonstrates that conclusions based on the common assumption that the slope of a CT E(λmax) versus [IE−EA] plot is unity may be incorrect in at least some cases and should be reconsidered. © 2019 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
- ItemProperties of gaseous closo-[B6X6]2− dianions (X = Cl, Br, I)(Cambridge : RSC Publ., 2020) Rohdenburg, Markus; Yang, Zheng; Su, Pei; Bernhardt, Eduard; Yuan, Qinqin; Apra, Edoardo; Grabowsky, Simon; Laskin, Julia; Jenne, Carsten; Wang, Xue-Bin; Warneke, JonasElectronic structure, collision-induced dissociation (CID) and bond properties of closo-[B6X6]2− (X = Cl–I) are investigated in direct comparison with their closo-[B12X12]2− analogues. Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and theoretical investigations reveal that [B6X6]2− dianions are electronically significantly less stable than the corresponding [B12X12]2− species. Although [B6Cl6]2− is slightly electronically unstable, [B6Br6]2− and [B6I6]2− are intrinsically stable dianions. Consistent with the trend in the electron detachment energy, loss of an electron (e− loss) is observed in CID of [B6X6]2− (X = Cl, Br) but not for [B6I6]2−. Halogenide loss (X− loss) is common for [B6X6]2− (X = Br, I) and [B12X12]2− (X = Cl, Br, I). Meanwhile, X˙ loss is only observed for [B12X12]2− (X = Br, I) species. The calculated reaction enthalpies of the three competing dissociation pathways (e−, X− and X˙ loss) indicated a strong influence of kinetic factors on the observed fragmentation patterns. The repulsive Coulomb barrier (RCB) determines the transition state for the e− and X− losses. A significantly lower RCB for X− loss than for e− loss was found in both experimental and theoretical investigations and can be rationalized by the recently introduced concept of electrophilic anions. The positive reaction enthalpies for X− losses are significantly lower for [B6X6]2− than for [B12X12]2−, while enthalpies for X˙ losses are higher. These observations are consistent with a difference in bond character of the B–X bonds in [B6X6]2− and [B12X12]2−. A complementary bonding analysis using QTAIM, NPA and ELI-D based methods suggests that B–X bonds in [B12X12]2− have a stronger covalent character than in [B6X6]2−, in which X has a stronger halide character.
- ItemSynthesis, Electronic Properties and Reactivity of [B12X11(NO2)]2− (X=F–I) Dianions(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2020) Asmis, Knut R.; Beele, Björn B.; Jenne, Carsten; Kawa, Sebastian; Knorke, Harald; Nierstenhöfer, Marc C.; Wang, Xue-Bin; Warneke, Jonas; Warneke, Ziyan; Yuan, QinqinNitro-functionalized undecahalogenated closo-dodecaborates [B12X11(NO2)]2− were synthesized in high purities and characterized by NMR, IR, and Raman spectroscopy, single crystal X-diffraction, mass spectrometry, and gas-phase ion vibrational spectroscopy. The NO2 substituent leads to an enhanced electronic and electrochemical stability compared to the parent perhalogenated [B12X12]2− (X=F–I) dianions evidenced by photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and quantum-chemical calculations. The stabilizing effect decreases from X=F to X=I. Thermogravimetric measurements of the salts indicate the loss of the nitric oxide radical (NO.). The homolytic NO. elimination from the dianion under very soft collisional excitation in gas-phase ion experiments results in the formation of the radical [B12X11O]2−.. Theoretical investigations suggest that the loss of NO. proceeds via the rearrangement product [B12X11(ONO)]2−. The O-bonded nitrosooxy structure is thermodynamically more stable than the N-bonded nitro structure and its formation by radical recombination of [B12X11O]2−. and NO. is demonstrated. © 2020 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH GmbH