Browsing by Author "Wiedensohler, Alfred"
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- ItemAerosol activation characteristics and prediction at the central European ACTRIS research station of Melpitz, Germany(Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2022) Wang, Yuan; Henning, Silvia; Poulain, Laurent; Lu, Chunsong; Stratmann, Frank; Wang, Yuying; Niu, Shengjie; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Herrmann, Hartmut; Wiedensohler, AlfredUnderstanding aerosol particle activation is essential for evaluating aerosol indirect effects (AIEs) on climate. Long-term measurements of aerosol particle activation help to understand the AIEs and narrow down the uncertainties of AIEs simulation. However, they are still scarce. In this study, more than 4 years of comprehensive aerosol measurements were utilized at the central European research station of Melpitz, Germany, to gain insight into the aerosol particle activation and provide recommendations on improving the prediction of number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN, NCCN). (1) The overall CCN activation characteristics at Melpitz are provided. As supersaturation (SS) increases from 0.1% to 0.7%, the median NCCN increases from 399 to 2144cm-3, which represents 10% to 48% of the total particle number concentration with a diameter range of 10-800nm, while the median hygroscopicity factor (κ) and critical diameter (Dc) decrease from 0.27 to 0.19 and from 176 to 54nm, respectively. (2) Aerosol particle activation is highly variable across seasons, especially at low-SS conditions. At SSCombining double low line0.1%, the median NCCN and activation ratio (AR) in winter are 1.6 and 2.3 times higher than the summer values, respectively. (3) Both κ and the mixing state are size-dependent. As the particle diameter (Dp) increases, κ increases at Dp of 1/440 to 100nm and almost stays constant at Dp of 100 to 200nm, whereas the degree of the external mixture keeps decreasing at Dp of 1/440 to 200nm. The relationships of κ vs. Dp and degree of mixing vs. Dp were both fitted well by a power-law function. (4) Size-resolved κ improves the NCCN prediction. We recommend applying the κ-Dp power-law fit for NCCN prediction at Melpitz, which performs better than using the constant κ of 0.3 and the κ derived from particle chemical compositions and much better than using the NCCN (AR) vs. SS relationships. The κ-Dp power-law fit measured at Melpitz could be applied to predict NCCN for other rural regions. For the purpose of improving the prediction of NCCN, long-term monodisperse CCN measurements are still needed to obtain the κ-Dp relationships for different regions and their seasonal variations.
- ItemAerosol dynamics and dispersion of radioactive particles(Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Schoenberg, Pontus von; Tunved, Peter; Grahn, Håkan; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Krejci, Radovan; Brännström, NiklasIn the event of a failure of a nuclear power plant with release of radioactive material into the atmosphere, dispersion modelling is used to understand how the released radioactivity is spread. For the dispersion of particles, Lagrangian particle dispersion models (LPDMs) are commonly used, in which model particles, representing the released material, are transported through the atmosphere. These model particles are usually inert and undergo only first-order processes such as dry deposition and simplified wet deposition along the path through the atmosphere. Aerosol dynamic processes including coagulation, condensational growth, chemical interactions, formation of new particles and interaction with new aerosol sources are usually neglected in such models. The objective of this study is to analyse the impact of these advanced aerosol dynamic processes if they were to be included in LPDM simulations for use in radioactive preparedness. In this investigation, a fictitious failure of a nuclear power plant is studied for three geographically and atmospherically different sites. The incident was simulated with a Lagrangian single-trajectory box model with a new simulation for each hour throughout a year to capture seasonal variability of meteorology and variation in the ambient aerosol. (a) We conclude that modelling of wet deposition by incorporating an advanced cloud parameterization is advisable, since it significantly influence simulated levels of airborne and deposited activity including radioactive hotspots, and (b) we show that inclusion of detailed ambient-aerosol dynamics can play a large role in the model result in simulations that adopt a more detailed representation of aerosol–cloud interactions. The results highlight a potential necessity for implementation of more detailed representation of general aerosol dynamic processes into LPDMs in order to cover the full range of possible environmental characteristics that can apply during a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere.
- ItemAerosol number to volume ratios in Southwest Portugal during ACE-2(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Dusek, Ulrike; Covert, David S.; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Neusúss, Christian; Weise, DianaPast studies have indicated that long-term averages of the aerosol number to volume ratios (defined as the number of particles larger than a certain diameter divided by the particle volume over some range less than 1 μm) show little variability over the Atlantic. This work presents number to volume ratios (R) measured during the ACE-2 experiment on the land-based Sagres field site located in Southwest Portugal. The values of R measured in Sagres compare reasonably well with previous measurements over the Atlantic. The main emphasis of this work is therefore to investigate more closely possible reasons for the observed stability of the number to volume ratio. Aerosol number size distributions measured in Sagres are parametrized by the sum of two log-normal distributions fitted to the accumulation and to the Aitken mode. The main factor that limits the variability of R is that the parameters of these log-normal distributions are not always independent but show some covariance. In polluted air mass types correlations between parameters of the Aitken and accumulation mode are mostly responsible for stabilizing R. In marine air mass types the variability of R is reduced by an inverse relationship between the accumulation-mode mean diameter and standard deviation, consistent with condensational processes and cloud processing working on the aerosol. However, despite this reduction, the variability of R in marine air mass types is still considerable and R is linearly dependent on the number concentration of particles larger than 90 nm. This partly due to a mil of Aitken-mode particles extending to sizes larger than 90 nm.
- ItemAerosol number-size distributions during clear and fog periods in the summer high Arctic: 1991, 1996 and 2001(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Heintzenberg, Jost; Leck, Caroline; Birmili, Wolfram; Wehner, Birgit; Tjernström, Michael; Wiedensohler, AlfredThe present study covers submicrometer aerosol size distribution data taken during three Arctic icebreaker expeditions in the summers of 1991, 1996 and 2001. The size distributions of all expeditions were compared in log-normally fitted form to the statistics of the marine number size distribution provided by Heintzenberg et al. (2004) yielding rather similar log-normal parameters of the modes. Statistics of the modal concentrations revealed strong concentration decreases of large accumulation mode particles with increasing length of time spent over the pack ice. The travel-time dependencies of both Aitken and ultrafine modes strongly indicate, as other studies did before, the occurrence of fine-particle sources in the inner Arctic. With two approaches evidence of fog-related aerosol source processeswas sought for in the data sets of 1996 and 2001 because they included fog drop size distributions. With increasing fog intensity modes in interstitial particle number concentrations appeared in particular in the size range around 80 nm that was nearly mode free in clear air. A second, dynamic approach revealed that Aitken mode concentrations increased strongly above their respective fog-period medians in both years before maximum drop numbers were reached in both years. We interpret the results of both approaches as strong indications of fog-related aerosol source processes as discussed in Leck and Bigg (1999) that need to be elucidated with further data from dedicated fog experiments in future Arctic expeditions in order to understand the life cycle of the aerosol over the high Arctic pack ice area.
- ItemAerosol Particle and Black Carbon Emission Factors of Vehicular Fleet in Manila, Philippines(Basel, Switzerland : MDPI AG, 2019) Madueño, Leizel; Kecorius, Simonas; Birmili, Wolfram; Müller, Thomas; Simpas, James; Vallar, Edgar; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Cayetano, Mylene; Wiedensohler, AlfredPoor air quality has been identified as one of the main risks to human health, especially in developing regions, where the information on physical chemical properties of air pollutants is lacking. To bridge this gap, we conducted an intensive measurement campaign in Manila, Philippines to determine the emission factors (EFs) of particle number (PN) and equivalent black carbon (BC). The focus was on public utility jeepneys (PUJ), equipped with old technology diesel engines, widely used for public transportation. The EFs were determined by aerosol physical measurements, fleet information, and modeled dilution using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM). The results show that average vehicle EFs of PN and BC in Manila is up to two orders of magnitude higher than European emission standards. Furthermore, a PUJ emits up to seven times more than a light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and contribute to more than 60% of BC emission in Manila. Unfortunately, traffic restrictions for heavy-duty vehicles do not apply to PUJs. The results presented in this work provide a framework to help support targeted traffic interventions to improve urban air quality not only in Manila, but also in other countries with a similar fleet composed of old-technology vehicles. © 2019 by the authors.
- ItemAerosol particle mixing state, refractory particle number size distributions and emission factors in a polluted urban environment: Case study of Metro Manila, Philippines(Oxford [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2017) Kecorius, Simonas; Madueño, Leizel; Vallar, Edgar; Alas, Honey; Betito, Grace; Birmili, Wolfram; Cambaliza, Maria Obiminda; Catipay, Grethyl; Gonzaga-Cayetano, Mylene; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Lorenzo, Genie; Müller, Thomas; Simpas, James B.; Tamayo, Everlyn Gayle; Wiedensohler, AlfredUltrafine soot particles (black carbon, BC) in urban environments are related to adverse respiratory and cardiovascular effects, increased cases of asthma and premature deaths. These problems are especially pronounced in developing megacities in South-East Asia, Latin America, and Africa, where unsustainable urbanization ant outdated environmental protection legislation resulted in severe degradation of urban air quality in terms of black carbon emission. Since ultrafine soot particles do often not lead to enhanced PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration, the risks related to ultrafine particle pollution may therefore be significantly underestimated compared to the contribution of secondary aerosol constituents. To increase the awareness of the potential toxicological relevant problems of ultrafine black carbon particles, we conducted a case study in Metro Manila, the capital of the Philippines. Here, we present a part of the results from a detailed field campaign, called Manila Aerosol Characterization Experiment (MACE, 2015). Measurements took place from May to June 2015 with the focus on the state of mixing of aerosol particles. The results were alarming, showing the abundance of externally mixed refractory particles (soot proxy) at street site with a maximum daily number concentration of approximately 15000 #/cm3. That is up to 10 times higher than in cities of Western countries. We also found that the soot particle mass contributed from 55 to 75% of total street site PM2.5. The retrieved refractory particle number size distribution appeared to be a superposition of 2 ultrafine modes at 20 and 80 nm with a corresponding contribution to the total refractory particle number of 45 and 55%, respectively. The particles in the 20 nm mode were most likely ash from metallic additives in lubricating oil, tiny carbonaceous particles and/or nucleated and oxidized organic polymers, while bigger ones (80 nm) were soot agglomerates. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no other studies reported such high number concentration of ultrafine refractory particles under ambient conditions. Inverse modeling of emission factors of refractory particle number size distributions revealed that diesel-fed public utility Jeepneys, commonly used for public transportation, are responsible for 94% of total roadside emitted refractory particle mass. The observed results showed that the majority of urban pollution in Metro Manila is dominated by carbonaceous aerosol. This suggests that PM10 or PM2.5 metrics do not fully describe possible health related effects in this kind of urban environments. Extremely high concentrations of ultrafine particles have been and will continue to induce adverse health related effects, because of their potential toxicity. We imply that in megacities, where the major fraction of particulates originates from the transport sector, PM10 or PM2.5 mass concentration should be complemented by legislative measurements of equivalent black carbon mass concentration.
- ItemAerosol physical properties and processes in the lower marine boundary layer: A comparison of shipboard sub-micron data from ACE-1 and ACE-2(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2016) Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Covert, David S.; Coffman, Derek J.; Johnson, James E.; Wiedensohler, AlfredThe goals of the IGAC Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) are to determine and understand the properties and controlling processes of the aerosol in a globally representative range of natural and anthropogenically perturbed environments. ACE-1 was conducted in the remote marine atmosphere south of Australia while ACE-2 was conducted in the anthropogenically modified atmosphere of the Eastern North Atlantic. In-situ shipboard measurements from the RV Discoverer(ACE-1) and the RV Professor Vodyanitskiy(ACE-2), combined with calculated back trajectories can be used to define the physical properties of the sub-micron aerosol in marine boundary layer (MBL) air masses from the remote Southern Ocean, Western Europe, the Iberian coast, the Mediterranean and the background Atlantic Ocean. The differences in these aerosol properties, combined with dimethylsulfide, sulfur dioxide and meteorological measurements provide a means to assess processes that affect the aerosol distribution. The background sub-micron aerosol measured over the Atlantic Ocean during ACE-2 was more abundant (number and volume) and appeared to be more aged than that measured over the Southern Ocean during ACE-1. Based on seawater DMS measurements and wind speed, the oceanic source of non-sea-salt sulfur and sea-salt to the background marine atmosphere during ACE-1 and ACE-2 was similar. However, the synoptic meteorological pattern was quite different during ACE-1 and ACE-2. The frequent frontal passages during ACE-1 resulted in the mixing of nucleation mode particles into the marine boundary layer from the free troposphere and relatively short aerosol residence times. In the more stable meteorological setting of ACE-2, a significant nucleation mode aerosol was observed in the MBL only for a half day period associated with a weak frontal system. As a result of the longer MBL aerosol residence times, the average background ACE-2 accumulation mode aerosol had a larger diameter and higher number concentration than during ACE-1. The sub-micron aerosol number size distributions in the air masses that passed over Western Europe, the Mediterranean, and coastal Portugal were distinctly different from each other and the background aerosol. The differences can be attributed to the age of the air mass and the degree of cloud processing.
- ItemAerosol pollution maps and trends over Germany with hourly data at four rural background stations from 2009 to 2018(Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Heintzenberg, Jost; Birmili, Wolfram; Hellack, Bryan; Spindler, Gerald; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, AlfredA total of 10 years of hourly aerosol and gas data at four rural German stations have been combined with hourly back trajectories to the stations and inventories of the European Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), yielding pollution maps over Germany of PM10, particle number concentrations, and equivalent black carbon (eBC). The maps reflect aerosol emissions modified with atmospheric processes during transport between sources and receptor sites. Compared to emission maps, strong western European emission centers do not dominate the downwind concentrations because their emissions are reduced by atmospheric processes on the way to the receptor area. PM10, eBC, and to some extent also particle number concentrations are rather controlled by emissions from southeastern Europe from which pollution transport often occurs under drier conditions. Newly formed particles are found in air masses from a broad sector reaching from southern Germany to western Europe, which we explain with gaseous particle precursors coming with little wet scavenging from this region. Annual emissions for 2009 of PM10, BC, SO2, and NOx were accumulated along each trajectory and compared with the corresponding measured time series. The agreement of each pair of time series was optimized by varying monthly factors and annual factors on the 2009 emissions. This approach yielded broader summer emission minima than published values that were partly displaced from the midsummer positions. The validity of connecting the ambient concentration and emission of particulate pollution was tested by calculating temporal changes in eBC for subsets of back trajectories passing over two separate prominent emission regions, region A to the northwest and B to the southeast of the measuring stations. Consistent with reported emission data the calculated emission decreases over region A are significantly stronger than over region B.
- ItemAir quality in the German–Czech border region: A focus on harmful fractions of PM and ultrafine particles(Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2015) Schladitz, Alexander; Leníček, Jan; Beneš, Ivan; Kováč, Martin; Skorkovský, Jiří; Soukup, Aleš; Jandlová, Jana; Poulain, Laurent; Plachá, Helena; Löschau, Gunter; Wiedensohler, AlfredA comprehensive air quality study has been carried out at two urban background sites in Annaberg-Buchholz (Germany) and Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic) in the German–Czech border region between January 2012 and June 2014. Special attention was paid to quantify harmful fractions of particulate matter (PM) and ultrafine particle number concentration (UFP) from solid fuel combustion and vehicular traffic. Source type contributions of UFP were quantified by using the daily concentration courses of UFP and nitrogen oxide. Two different source apportionment techniques were used to quantify relative and absolute mass contributions: positive matrix factorization for total PM2.5 and elemental carbon in PM2.5 and chemical mass balance for total PM1 and organic carbon in PM1. Contributions from solid fuel combustion strongly differed between the non-heating period (April–September) and the heating period (October–March). Major sources of solid fuel combustion in this study were wood and domestic coal combustion, while the proportion of industrial coal combustion was low (<3%). In Ústí nad Labem combustion of domestic brown coal was the most important source of organic carbon ranging from 34% to 43%. Wood combustion was an important source of organic carbon in Annaberg-Buchholz throughout the year. Heavy metals and less volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the accumulation mode were related to solid fuel combustion with enhanced concentrations during the heating period. In contrast, vehicular PAH emissions were allocated to the Aitken mode. Only in Ústí nad Labem a significant contribution of photochemical new particle formation (e.g. from sulfur dioxide) to UFP of almost 50% was observed during noontime. UFPs from traffic emissions (nucleation particles) and primary emitted soot particles dominated at both sites during the rest of the day. The methodology of a combined source apportionment of UFP and PM can be adapted to other regions of the world with similar problems of atmospheric pollution to calculate the relative risk in epidemiological health studies for different sub-fractions of PM and UFP. This will enhance the meaningfulness of published relative risks in health studies based on total PM and UFP number concentrations..
- ItemThe Arctic Cloud Puzzle: Using ACLOUD/PASCAL Multiplatform Observations to Unravel the Role of Clouds and Aerosol Particles in Arctic Amplification(Boston, Mass. : ASM, 2019) Wendisch, Manfred; Macke, Andreas; Ehrlich, André; Lüpkes, Christof; Mech, Mario; Chechin, Dmitry; Dethloff, Klaus; Velasco, Carola Barrientos; Bozem, Heiko; Brückner, Marlen; Clemen, Hans-Christian; Crewell, Susanne; Donth, Tobias; Dupuy, Regis; Ebell, Kerstin; Egerer, Ulrike; Engelmann, Ronny; Engler, Christa; Eppers, Oliver; Gehrmann, Martin; Gong, Xianda; Gottschalk, Matthias; Gourbeyre, Christophe; Griesche, Hannes; Hartmann, Jörg; Hartmann, Markus; Heinold, Bernd; Herber, Andreas; Herrmann, Hartmut; Heygster, Georg; Hoor, Peter; Jafariserajehlou, Soheila; Jäkel, Evelyn; Järvinen, Emma; Jourdan, Olivier; Kästner, Udo; Kecorius, Simonas; Knudsen, Erlend M.; Köllner, Franziska; Kretzschmar, Jan; Lelli, Luca; Leroy, Delphine; Maturilli, Marion; Mei, Linlu; Mertes, Stephan; Mioche, Guillaume; Neuber, Roland; Nicolaus, Marcel; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Notholt, Justus; Palm, Mathias; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Quaas, Johannes; Richter, Philipp; Ruiz-Donoso, Elena; Schäfer, Michael; Schmieder, Katja; Schnaiter, Martin; Schneider, Johannes; Schwarzenböck, Alfons; Seifert, Patric; Shupe, Matthew D.; Siebert, Holger; Spreen, Gunnar; Stapf, Johannes; Stratmann, Frank; Vogl, Teresa; Welti, André; Wex, Heike; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Zanatta, Marco; Zeppenfeld, SebastianClouds play an important role in Arctic amplification. This term represents the recently observed enhanced warming of the Arctic relative to the global increase of near-surface air temperature. However, there are still important knowledge gaps regarding the interplay between Arctic clouds and aerosol particles, and surface properties, as well as turbulent and radiative fluxes that inhibit accurate model simulations of clouds in the Arctic climate system. In an attempt to resolve this so-called Arctic cloud puzzle, two comprehensive and closely coordinated field studies were conducted: the Arctic Cloud Observations Using Airborne Measurements during Polar Day (ACLOUD) aircraft campaign and the Physical Feedbacks of Arctic Boundary Layer, Sea Ice, Cloud and Aerosol (PASCAL) ice breaker expedition. Both observational studies were performed in the framework of the German Arctic Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and Surface Processes, and Feedback Mechanisms (AC) project. They took place in the vicinity of Svalbard, Norway, in May and June 2017. ACLOUD and PASCAL explored four pieces of the Arctic cloud puzzle: cloud properties, aerosol impact on clouds, atmospheric radiation, and turbulent dynamical processes. The two instrumented Polar 5 and Polar 6 aircraft; the icebreaker Research Vessel (R/V) Polarstern; an ice floe camp including an instrumented tethered balloon; and the permanent ground-based measurement station at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, were employed to observe Arctic low- and mid-level mixed-phase clouds and to investigate related atmospheric and surface processes. The Polar 5 aircraft served as a remote sensing observatory examining the clouds from above by downward-looking sensors; the Polar 6 aircraft operated as a flying in situ measurement laboratory sampling inside and below the clouds. Most of the collocated Polar 5/6 flights were conducted either above the R/V Polarstern or over the Ny-Ålesund station, both of which monitored the clouds from below using similar but upward-looking remote sensing techniques as the Polar 5 aircraft. Several of the flights were carried out underneath collocated satellite tracks. The paper motivates the scientific objectives of the ACLOUD/PASCAL observations and describes the measured quantities, retrieved parameters, and the applied complementary instrumentation. Furthermore, it discusses selected measurement results and poses critical research questions to be answered in future papers analyzing the data from the two field campaigns.
- ItemArctic haze over Central Europe(Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Heintzenberg, Jost; Tuch, Thomas; Wehner, Birgit; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Wex, Heike; Ansmann, Albert; Mattis, Ina; Müller, Detlef; Wendisch, Manfred; Eckhardt, Sabine; Stohl, AndreasAn extraordinary aerosol situation over Leipzig, Germany in April 2002 was investigated with a comprehensive set of ground-based volumetric and columnar aerosol data, combined with aerosol profiles from lidar, meteorological data from radiosondes and air mass trajectory calculations. Air masses were identified to stem from the Arctic, partly influenced by the greater Moscow region. An evaluation of ground-based measurements of aerosol size distributions during these periods showed that the number concentrations below about 70 nm in diameter were below respective long-term average data, while number, surface and volume concentrations of the particles larger than about 70 nm in diameter were higher than the long-term averages. The lidar aerosol profiles showed that the imported aerosol particles were present up to about 3 km altitude. The particle optical depth was up to 0.45 at 550 nm wavelength. With a one-dimensional spectral radiative transfer model top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing of the aerosol layer was estimated for a period with detailed vertical information. Solar aerosol radiative forcing values between −23 and −38 W m−2 were calculated, which are comparable to values that have been reported in heavily polluted continental plumes outside the respective source regions. The present report adds weight to previous findings of aerosol import to Europe, pointing to the need for attributing the three-dimensional aerosol burden to natural and anthropogenic sources as well as to aerosol imports from adjacent or distant source regions. In the present case, the transport situation is further complicated by forward trajectories, indicating that some of the observed Arctic haze may have originated in Central Europe. This aerosolwas transported to the European Arctic before being re-imported in the modified and augmented form to its initial source region.
- ItemThe Association Between Particulate Air Pollution and Respiratory Mortality in Beijing Before, During, and After the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games(Lausanne : Frontiers Media, 2021) Breitner, Susanne; Su, Chang; Franck, Ulrich; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Cyrys, Josef; Pan, Xiaochuan; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Schneider, Alexandra; Peters, AnnetteTo improve ambient air quality during the 2008 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games, the Chinese Government and Beijing’s municipal government implemented comprehensive emission control policies in Beijing and its neighboring regions before and during this period. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between particulate air pollution and cause-specific respiratory mortality before, during and after the period of the Olympic Games. Further, we wanted to assess whether changes in pollutant concentrations were linked to changes in respiratory mortality. We obtained daily data on mortality due to respiratory diseases (coded as J00-J99 according to the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th revision [ICD10]) and pneumonia (ICD10: J12–18), meteorology, particulate matter less than 10 µm or 2.5 μm in diameter (PM10, PM2.5) and particle number size distribution from official monitoring networks and sites located on the Peking University campus between May 20 and December 1, 2008. We assessed the effects of particulate air pollution on daily respiratory mortality using confounder-adjusted Quasi-Poisson regression models. Furthermore, we estimated air pollution effects for three periods—before (May 20 to July 20, 2008), during (August 1 to September 20, 2008) and after (October 1 to December 1, 2008)—by including interaction terms in the models. We found associations between different particle metrics and respiratory and pneumonia mortality, with more pronounced effects in smaller particle size ranges. For example, an interquartile range increase of 7,958 particles/cm3 in ultrafine particles (particles <100 nm in diameter) led to a 16.3% (95% confidence interval 4.3%; 26.5%) increase in respiratory mortality with a delay of seven days. When investigating the sub-periods, results indicate that a reduction in air pollution during the Olympics resulted in reduced (cause-specific) respiratory mortality. This reduction was especially pronounced for pneumonia mortality. The findings suggest that even a short-term reduction in pollution concentrations may lead to health benefits and that smaller particles in the ultrafine size range may be particularly important for respiratory health.
- ItemAssociations between air temperature and cardio-respiratory mortality in the urban area of Beijing, China: a time-series analysis(London : BioMed Central, 2011) Liu, Liqun; Breitner, Susanne; Pan, Xiaochuan; Franck, Ulrich; Leitte, Arne Marian; Wiedensohler, Alfred; von Klot, Stephanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Peters, Annette; Schneider, AlexandraBackground: Associations between air temperature and mortality have been consistently observed in Europe and the United States; however, there is a lack of studies for Asian countries. Our study investigated the association between air temperature and cardio-respiratory mortality in the urban area of Beijing, China. Methods: Death counts for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases for adult residents (≥15 years), meteorological parameters and concentrations of particulate air pollution were obtained from January 2003 to August 2005. The effects of two-day and 15-day average temperatures were estimated by Poisson regression models, controlling for time trend, relative humidity and other confounders if necessary. Effects were explored for warm (April to September) and cold periods (October to March) separately. The lagged effects of daily temperature were investigated by polynomial distributed lag (PDL) models. Results: We observed a J-shaped exposure-response function only for 15-day average temperature and respiratory mortality in the warm period, with 21.3°C as the threshold temperature. All other exposure-response functions could be considered as linear. In the warm period, a 5°C increase of two-day average temperature was associated with a RR of 1.098 (95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.057-1.140) for cardiovascular and 1.134 (95%CI: 1.050-1.224) for respiratory mortality; a 5°C decrease of 15-day average temperature was associated with a RR of 1.040 (95%CI: 0.990-1.093) for cardiovascular mortality. In the cold period, a 5°C increase of two-day average temperature was associated with a RR of 1.149 (95%CI: 1.078-1.224) for respiratory mortality; a 5°C decrease of 15-day average temperature was associated with a RR of 1.057 (95%CI: 1.022-1.094) for cardiovascular mortality. The effects remained robust after considering particles as additional confounders. Conclusions: Both increases and decreases in air temperature are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. The effects of heat were immediate while the ones of cold became predominant with longer time lags. Increases in air temperature are also associated with an immediate increased risk of respiratory mortality.
- ItemAtmospheric new particle formation at the research station Melpitz, Germany: Connection with gaseous precursors and meteorological parameters(Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2018) Größ, Johannes; Hamed, Amar; Sonntag, André; Spindler, Gerald; Manninen, Hanna Elina; Nieminen, Tuomo; Kulmala, Markku; Hõrrak, Urmas; Plass-Dülmer, Christian; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Birmili, WolframThis paper revisits the atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) process in the polluted Central European troposphere, focusing on the connection with gas-phase precursors and meteorological parameters. Observations were made at the research station Melpitz (former East Germany) between 2008 and 2011 involving a neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer (NAIS). Particle formation events were classified by a new automated method based on the convolution integral of particle number concentration in the diameter interval 2-20 nm. To study the relevance of gaseous sulfuric acid as a precursor for nucleation, a proxy was derived on the basis of direct measurements during a 1-month campaign in May 2008. As a major result, the number concentration of freshly produced particles correlated significantly with the concentration of sulfur dioxide as the main precursor of sulfuric acid. The condensation sink, a factor potentially inhibiting NPF events, played a subordinate role only. The same held for experimentally determined ammonia concentrations. The analysis of meteorological parameters confirmed the absolute need for solar radiation to induce NPF events and demonstrated the presence of significant turbulence during those events. Due to its tight correlation with solar radiation, however, an independent effect of turbulence for NPF could not be established. Based on the diurnal evolution of aerosol, gas-phase, and meteorological parameters near the ground, we further conclude that the particle formation process is likely to start in elevated parts of the boundary layer rather than near ground level.
- ItemBiomass burning and urban emission impacts in the Andes Cordillera region based on in situ measurements from the Chacaltaya observatory, Bolivia (5240a.s.l.)(Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2019) Chauvigné, Aurélien; Aliaga, Diego; Sellegri, Karine; Montoux, Nadège; Krejci, Radovan; Močnik, Griša; Moreno, Isabel; Müller, Thomas; Pandolfi, Marco; Velarde, Fernando; Weinhold, Kay; Ginot, Patrick; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Andrade, Marcos; Laj, PaoloThis study documents and analyses a 4-year continuous record of aerosol optical properties measured at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station of Chacaltaya (CHC; 5240a.s.l.), in Bolivia. Records of particle light scattering and particle light absorption coefficients are used to investigate how the high Andean Cordillera is affected by both long-range transport and by the fast-growing agglomeration of La Paz-El Alto, located approximately 20km away and 1.5km below the sampling site. The extended multi-year record allows us to study the properties of aerosol particles for different air mass types, during wet and dry seasons, also covering periods when the site was affected by biomass burning in the Bolivian lowlands and the Amazon Basin. The absorption, scattering, and extinction coefficients (median annual values of 0.74, 12.14, and 12.96Mm-1 respectively) show a clear seasonal variation with low values during the wet season (0.57, 7.94, and 8.68Mm-1 respectively) and higher values during the dry season (0.80, 11.23, and 14.51Mm-1 respectively). The record is driven by variability at both seasonal and diurnal scales. At a diurnal scale, all records of intensive and extensive aerosol properties show a pronounced variation (daytime maximum, night-time minimum), as a result of the dynamic and convective effects. The particle light absorption, scattering, and extinction coefficients are on average 1.94, 1.49, and 1.55 times higher respectively in the turbulent thermally driven conditions than the more stable conditions, due to more efficient transport from the boundary layer. Retrieved intensive optical properties are significantly different from one season to the other, reflecting the changing aerosol emission sources of aerosol at a larger scale. Using the wavelength dependence of aerosol particle optical properties, we discriminated between contributions from natural (mainly mineral dust) and anthropogenic (mainly biomass burning and urban transport or industries) emissions according to seasons and local circulation. The main sources influencing measurements at CHC are from the urban area of La Paz-El Alto in the Altiplano and from regional biomass burning in the Amazon Basin. Results show a 28% to 80% increase in the extinction coefficients during the biomass burning season with respect to the dry season, which is observed in both tropospheric dynamic conditions. From this analysis, long-term observations at CHC provide the first direct evidence of the impact of biomass burning emissions of the Amazon Basin and urban emissions from the La Paz area on atmospheric optical properties at a remote site all the way to the free troposphere. © Author(s) 2019.
- ItemBlack carbon aerosol in Rome (Italy): Inference of a long-term (2001-2017) record and related trends from AERONET sun-photometry data(Basel, Switzerland : MDPI AG, 2018) Di Ianni, Antonio; Costabile, Francesca; Barnaba, Francesca; Di Liberto, Luca; Weinhold, Kay; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Struckmeier, Caroline; Drewnick, Frank; Gobbi, Gian PaoloSurface concentration of black carbon (BC) is a key factor for the understanding of the impact of anthropogenic pollutants on human health. The majority of Italian cities lack long-term measurements of BC concentrations since such a metric is not regulated by EU legislation. This work attempts a long-term (2001–2017) inference of equivalent black carbon (eBC) concentrations in the city of Rome (Italy) based on sun-photometry data. To this end, aerosol light absorption coefficients at the surface are inferred from the ”columnar” aerosol aerosol light absorption coefficient records from the Rome Tor Vergata AERONET sun-photometer. The main focus of this work is to rescale aerosol light absorption columnar data (AERONET) to ground-level BC data. This is done by using values of mixing layer height (MLH) derived from ceilometer measurements and then by converting the absorption into eBC mass concentration through a mass–to–absorption conversion factor, the Mass Absorption Efficiency (MAE). The final aim is to obtain relevant data representative of the BC aerosol at the surface (i.e., in-situ)–so within the MLH– and then to infer a long-term record of “surface” equivalent black carbon mass concentration in Rome. To evaluate the accuracy of this procedure, we compared the AERONET-based results to in-situ measurements of aerosol light absorption coefficients (αabs) collected during some intensive field campaigns performed in Rome between 2010 and 2017. This analysis shows that different measurement methods, local emissions, and atmospheric conditions (MLH, residual layers) are some of the most important factors influencing differences between inferred and measured αabs. As a general result, ”inferred” and ”measured” αabs resulted to reach quite a good correlation (up to r = 0.73) after a screening procedure that excludes one of the major cause of discrepancy between AERONET inferred and in-situ measured αabs: the presence of highly absorbing aerosol layers at high altitude (e.g., dust), which frequently affects the Mediterranean site of Rome. Long-term trends of “inferred” αabs, eBC, and of the major optical variables that control aerosol’s direct radiative forcing (extinction aerosol optical depth, AODEXT, absorption aerosol optical depth, AODABS, and single scattering albedo, SSA) have been estimated. The Mann-Kendall statistical test associated with Sen’s slope was used to test the data for long-term trends. These show a negative trend for both AODEXT (−0.047/decade) and AODABS (−0.007/decade). The latter converts into a negative trend for the αabs of −5.9 Mm−1/decade and for eBC mass concentration of −0.76 μg/m3/decade. A positive trend is found for SSA (+0.014/decade), indicating that contribution of absorption to extinction is decreasing faster than that of scattering. These long-term trends are consistent with those of other air pollutant concentrations (i.e., PM2.5 and CO) in the Rome area. Despite some limitations, findings of this study fill a current lack in BC observations and may bear useful implications with regard to the improvement of our understanding of the impact of BC on air quality and climate in this Mediterranean urban region.
- ItemBlack carbon and particulate matter mass concentrations in the Metropolitan District of Caracas, Venezuela: An assessment of temporal variation and contributing sources(Washington, DC : BioOne, 2022) Engelhardt, Vanessa; Pérez, Tibisay; Donoso, Loreto; Müller, Thomas; Wiedensohler, AlfredAtmospheric aerosols play an important role in atmospheric processes and human health. Characterizing atmospheric aerosols and identifying their sources in large cities is relevant to propose site-specific air pollution mitigation strategies. In this study, we measured the mass concentration of atmospheric aerosols with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 mm (PM2.5) in the city of Caracas (urban) and in a tropical montane cloud forest (suburban site, located in a mountainous area 11 km far from Caracas) between June 2018 and October 2019. We also measured equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentration in PM2.5 in Caracas during the same period. Our goal is to assess PM2.5 and eBC temporal variation and identify their major sources in the area. eBC showed a pronounced diurnal cycle in the urban site, mainly modulated by traffic circulation and the diurnal changes of the mixing layer height. In contrast, PM2.5 showed stable median values during the day with slight variations like that of eBC. In the forest site, PM2.5 values were higher in the afternoons due to the convective transport of aerosols from Caracas and other surrounding urban areas located in adjacent valleys. The annual median for eBC and PM2.5 was 1.6 and 9.2 mg m–3, respectively, in the urban site, while PM2.5 in the forest site was 6.6 mg m–3. To our knowledge, these are the first measurements of this type in the northernmost area of South America. eBC and PM2.5 sources identification during wet and dry seasons was obtained by percentiles of the conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF). CBPF showed seasonal variations of eBC and PM2.5 sources and that their contributions are higher during the dry season. Biomass burning events are a relevant contributing source of aerosols for both sites of measurements inferred by fire pixels from satellite data, the national fire department’s statistics data, and backward trajectories. Our results indicate that biomass burning might affect the atmosphere on a regional scale, contribute to regional warming, and have implications for local and regional air quality and, therefore, human health.
- ItemA broad supersaturation scanning (BS2) approach for rapid measurement of aerosol particle hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei activity(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Su, Hang; Cheng, Yafang; Ma, Nan; Wang, Zhibin; Wang, Xiaoxiang; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Nillius, Björn; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Pöschl, UlrichThe activation and hygroscopicity of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are key to the understanding of aerosol–cloud interactions and their impact on climate. They can be measured by scanning the particle size and supersaturation in CCN measurements. The scanning of supersaturation is often time-consuming and limits the temporal resolution and performance of CCN measurements. Here we present a new approach, termed the broad supersaturation scanning (BS2) method, in which a range of supersaturation is simultaneously scanned, reducing the time interval between different supersaturation scans. The practical applicability of the BS2 approach is demonstrated with nano-CCN measurements of laboratory-generated aerosol particles. Model simulations show that the BS2 approach may also be applicable for measuring CCN activation of ambient mixed particles. Due to its fast response and technical simplicity, the BS2 approach may be well suited for aircraft and long-term measurements. Since hygroscopicity is closely related to the fraction of organics/inorganics in aerosol particles, a BS2-CCN counter can also serve as a complementary sensor for fast detection/estimation of aerosol chemical compositions.
- ItemCCN production by new particle formation in the free troposphere(München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2017) Rose, Clémence; Sellegri, Karine; Moreno, Isabel; Velarde, Fernando; Ramonet, Michel; Weinhold, Kay; Krejc, Radovan; Andrade, Marcos; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Ginot, Patrick; Laj, PaoloGlobal models predict that new particle formation (NPF) is, in some environments, responsible for a substantial fraction of the total atmospheric particle number concentration and subsequently contributes significantly to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. NPF events were frequently observed at the highest atmospheric observatory in the world, on Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.), Bolivia. The present study focuses on the impact of NPF on CCN population. Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer and mobility particle size spectrometer measurements were simultaneously used to follow the growth of particles from cluster sizes down to ∼ 2 nm up to CCN threshold sizes set to 50, 80 and 100 nm. Using measurements performed between 1 January and 31 December 2012, we found that 61 % of the 94 analysed events showed a clear particle growth and significant enhancement of the CCN-relevant particle number concentration. We evaluated the contribution of NPF, relative to the transport and growth of pre-existing particles, to CCN size. The averaged production of 50 nm particles during those events was 5072, and 1481 cm−3 for 100 nm particles, with a larger contribution of NPF compared to transport, especially during the wet season. The data set was further segregated into boundary layer (BL) and free troposphere (FT) conditions at the site. The NPF frequency of occurrence was higher in the BL (48 %) compared to the FT (39 %). Particle condensational growth was more frequently observed for events initiated in the FT, but on average faster for those initiated in the BL, when the amount of condensable species was most probably larger. As a result, the potential to form new CCN was higher for events initiated in the BL (67 % against 53 % in the FT). In contrast, higher CCN number concentration increases were found when the NPF process initially occurred in the FT, under less polluted conditions. This work highlights the competition between particle growth and the removal of freshly nucleated particles by coagulation processes. The results support model predictions which suggest that NPF is an effective source of CCN in some environments, and thus may influence regional climate through cloud-related radiative processes.
- ItemChanges in black carbon emissions over Europe due to COVID-19 lockdowns(Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Platt, Stephen M.; Eckhardt, Sabine; Lund Myhre, Cathrine; Laj, Paolo; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Backman, John; Brem, Benjamin T.; Fiebig, Markus; Flentje, Harald; Marinoni, Angela; Pandolfi, Marco; Yus-Dìez, Jesus; Prats, Natalia; Putaud, Jean P.; Sellegri, Karine; Sorribas, Mar; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Vratolis, Stergios; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stohl, AndreasFollowing the emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) responsible for COVID-19 in December 2019 in Wuhan (China) and its spread to the rest of the world, the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic in March 2020. Without effective treatment in the initial pandemic phase, social distancing and mandatory quarantines were introduced as the only available preventative measure. In contrast to the detrimental societal impacts, air quality improved in all countries in which strict lockdowns were applied, due to lower pollutant emissions. Here we investigate the effects of the COVID-19 lockdowns in Europe on ambient black carbon (BC), which affects climate and damages health, using in situ observations from 17 European stations in a Bayesian inversion framework. BC emissions declined by 23 kt in Europe (20 % in Italy, 40 % in Germany, 34 % in Spain, 22 % in France) during lockdowns compared to the same period in the previous 5 years, which is partially attributed to COVID-19 measures. BC temporal variation in the countries enduring the most drastic restrictions showed the most distinct lockdown impacts. Increased particle light absorption in the beginning of the lockdown, confirmed by assimilated satellite and remote sensing data, suggests residential combustion was the dominant BC source. Accordingly, in central and Eastern Europe, which experienced lower than average temperatures, BC was elevated compared to the previous 5 years. Nevertheless, an average decrease of 11 % was seen for the whole of Europe compared to the start of the lockdown period, with the highest peaks in France (42 %), Germany (21 %), UK (13 %), Spain (11 %) and Italy (8 %). Such a decrease was not seen in the previous years, which also confirms the impact of COVID-19 on the European emissions of BC.