Browsing by Author "Winkler, Andreas"
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- ItemAuthor Correction: Surface acoustic wave nebulization improves compound selectivity of low-temperature plasma ionization for mass spectrometry(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2021) Kiontke, Andreas; Roudini, Mehrzad; Billig, Susan; Fakhfouri, Armaghan; Winkler, Andreas; Birkemeyer, ClaudiaCorrection to: Scientific Reports https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82423-w, published online 03 February 2021
- ItemBlood platelet enrichment in mass-producible surface acoustic wave (SAW) driven microfluidic chips(Cambridge : RSC, 2019) Richard, Cynthia; Fakhfouri, Armaghan; Colditz, Melanie; Striggow, Friedrich; Kronstein-Wiedemann, Romy; Tonn, Torsten; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Gemming, Thomas; Winkler, AndreasThe ability to separate specific biological components from cell suspensions is indispensable for liquid biopsies, and for personalized diagnostics and therapy. This paper describes an advanced surface acoustic wave (SAW) based device designed for the enrichment of platelets (PLTs) from a dispersion of PLTs and red blood cells (RBCs) at whole blood concentrations, opening new possibilities for diverse applications involving cell manipulation with high throughput. The device is made of patterned SU-8 photoresist that is lithographically defined on the wafer scale with a new proposed methodology. The blood cells are initially focused and subsequently separated by an acoustic radiation force (ARF) applied through standing SAWs (SSAWs). By means of flow cytometric analysis, the PLT concentration factor was found to be 7.7, and it was proven that the PLTs maintain their initial state. A substantially higher cell throughput and considerably lower applied powers than comparable devices from literature were achieved. In addition, fully coupled 3D numerical simulations based on SAW wave field measurements were carried out to anticipate the coupling of the wave field into the fluid, and to obtain the resulting pressure field. A comparison to the acoustically simpler case of PDMS channel walls is given. The simulated results show an ideal match to the experimental observations and offer the first insights into the acoustic behavior of SU-8 as channel wall material. The proposed device is compatible with current (Lab-on-a-Chip) microfabrication techniques allowing for mass-scale, reproducible chip manufacturing which is crucial to push the technology from lab-based to real-world applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.
- ItemA Holistic Solution to Icing by Acoustic Waves: De-Icing, Active Anti-Icing, Sensing with Piezoelectric Crystals, and Synergy with Thin Film Passive Anti-Icing Solutions(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2023) del Moral, Jaime; Montes, Laura; Rico‐Gavira, Victor Joaquin; López‐Santos, Carmen; Jacob, Stefan; Oliva‐Ramirez, Manuel; Gil‐Rostra, Jorge; Fakhfouri, Armaghan; Pandey, Shilpi; Gonzalez del Val, Miguel; Mora, Julio; García‐Gallego, Paloma; Ibáñez‐Ibáñez, Pablo Francisco; Rodríguez‐Valverde, Miguel Angel; Winkler, Andreas; Borrás, Ana; González‐Elipe, Agustin RodriguezIcing has become a hot topic both in academia and in the industry given its implications in transport, wind turbines, photovoltaics, and telecommunications. Recently proposed de-icing solutions involving the propagation of acoustic waves (AWs) at suitable substrates may open the path for a sustainable alternative to standard de-icing or anti-icing procedures. Herein, the fundamental interactions are unraveled that contribute to the de-icing and/or hinder the icing on AW-activated substrates. The response toward icing of a reliable model system consisting of a piezoelectric plate activated by extended electrodes is characterized at a laboratory scale and in an icing wind tunnel under realistic conditions. Experiments show that surface modification with anti-icing functionalities provides a synergistic response when activated with AWs. A thoughtful analysis of the resonance frequency dependence on experimental variables such as temperature, ice formation, or wind velocity demonstrates the application of AW devices for real-time monitoring of icing processes.
- ItemPatterning and control of the nanostructure in plasma thin films with acoustic waves: mechanical vs. electrical polarization effects(Cambridge : RSC Publ., 2021) García-Valenzuela, Aurelio; Fakhfouri, Armaghan; Oliva-Ramírez, Manuel; Rico-Gavira, Victor; Rojas, Teresa Cristina; Alvarez, Rafael; Menzel, Siegfried B.; Palmero, Alberto; Winkler, Andreas; González-Elipe, Agustín R.Nanostructuration and 2D patterning of thin films are common strategies to fabricate biomimetic surfaces and components for microfluidic, microelectronic or photonic applications. This work presents the fundamentals of a surface nanotechnology procedure for laterally tailoring the nanostructure and crystalline structure of thin films that are plasma deposited onto acoustically excited piezoelectric substrates. Using magnetron sputtering as plasma technique and TiO2 as case example, it is demonstrated that the deposited films depict a sub-millimetre 2D pattern that, characterized by large lateral differences in nanostructure, density (up to 50%), thickness, and physical properties between porous and dense zones, reproduces the wave features distribution of the generated acoustic waves (AW). Simulation modelling of the AW propagation and deposition experiments carried out without plasma and under alternative experimental conditions reveal that patterning is not driven by the collision of ad-species with mechanically excited lattice atoms of the substrate, but emerges from their interaction with plasma sheath ions locally accelerated by the AW-induced electrical polarization field developed at the substrate surface and growing film. The possibilities of the AW activation as a general approach for the tailored control of nanostructure, pattern size, and properties of thin films are demonstrated through the systematic variation of deposition conditions and the adjustment of AW operating parameters.
- ItemSurface acoustic wave nebulization improves compound selectivity of low-temperature plasma ionization for mass spectrometry(London : Nature Publishing Group, 2021) Kiontke, Andreas; Roudini, Mehrzad; Billig, Susan; Fakhfouri, Armaghan; Winkler, Andreas; Birkemeyer, ClaudiaMass spectrometry coupled to low-temperature plasma ionization (LTPI) allows for immediate and easy analysis of compounds from the surface of a sample at ambient conditions. The efficiency of this process, however, strongly depends on the successful desorption of the analyte from the surface to the gas phase. Whilst conventional sample heating can improve analyte desorption, heating is not desirable with respect to the stability of thermally labile analytes. In this study using aromatic amines as model compounds, we demonstrate that (1) surface acoustic wave nebulization (SAWN) can significantly improve compound desorption for LTPI without heating the sample. Furthermore, (2) SAWN-assisted LTPI shows a response enhancement up to a factor of 8 for polar compounds such as aminophenols and phenylenediamines suggesting a paradigm shift in the ionization mechanism. Additional assets of the new technique demonstrated here are (3) a reduced analyte selectivity (the interquartile range of the response decreased by a factor of 7)—a significant benefit in non-targeted analysis of complex samples—and (4) the possibility for automated online monitoring using an autosampler. Finally, (5) the small size of the microfluidic SAWN-chip enables the implementation of the method into miniaturized, mobile LTPI probes.
- ItemTowards Green 3D-Microfabrication of Bio-MEMS Devices Using ADEX Dry Film Photoresists(Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer, 2022) Roos, Michael M.; Winkler, Andreas; Nilsen, Madeleine; Menzel, Siegfried B.; Strehle, SteffenCurrent trends in miniaturized diagnostics indicate an increasing demand for large quantities of mobile devices for health monitoring and point-of-care diagnostics. This comes along with a need for rapid but preferably also green microfabrication. Dry film photoresists (DFPs) promise low-cost and greener microfabrication and can partly or fully replace conventional silicon-technologies being associated with high-energy demands and the intense use of toxic and climate-active chemicals. Due to their mechanical stability and superior film thickness homogeneity, DFPs outperform conventional spin-on photoresists, such as SU-8, especially when three-dimensional architectures are required for micro-analytical devices (e.g. microfluidics). In this study, we utilize the commercial epoxy-based DFP ADEX to demonstrate various application scenarios ranging from the direct modification of microcantilever beams via the assembly of microfluidic channels to lamination-free patterning of DFPs, which employs the DFP directly as a substrate material. Finally, kinked, bottom-up grown silicon nanowires were integrated in this manner as prospective ion-sensitive field-effect transistors in a bio-probe architecture directly on ADEX substrates. Hence, we have developed the required set of microfabrication protocols for such an assembly comprising metal thin film deposition, direct burn-in of lithography alignment markers, and polymer patterning on top of the DFP.