Browsing by Author "Winter, Andreas"
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- ItemControlled growth of transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using Knudsen-type effusion cells for the precursors(Bristol : IOP Publishing, 2019) George, Antony; Neumann, Christof; Kaiser, David; Mupparapu, Rajeshkumar; Lehnert, Tibor; Hübner, Uwe; Tang, Zian; Winter, Andreas; Kaiser, Ute; Staude, Isabelle; Turchanin, AndreyControlling the flow rate of precursors is essential for the growth of high quality monolayer single crystals of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) by chemical vapor deposition. Thus, introduction of an excess amount of the precursors affects reproducibility of the growth process and results in the formation of TMD multilayers and other unwanted deposits. Here we present a simple method for controlling the precursor flow rates using the Knudsen-type effusion cells. This method results in a highly reproducible growth of large area and high density TMD monolayers. The size of the grown crystals can be adjusted between 10 and 200 μm. We characterized the grown MoS2 and WS2 monolayers by optical, atomic force and transmission electron microscopies as well as by x-ray photoelectron, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies, and by electrical transport measurements showing their high optical and electronic quality based on the single crystalline nature.
- ItemEnergy transfer and formation of long-lived 3MLCT states in multimetallic complexes with extended highly conjugated bis-terpyridyl ligands(Cambridge : RSC Publ., 2015) Wächtler, Maria; Kübel, Joachim; Barthelmes, Kevin; Winter, Andreas; Schmiedel, Alexander; Pascher, Torbjörn; Lambert, Christoph; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Dietzek, BenjaminMultimetallic complexes with extended and highly conjugated bis-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridyl bridging ligands, which present building blocks for coordination polymers, are investigated with respect to their ability to act as light-harvesting antennae. The investigated species combine Ru(II)- with Os(II)- and Fe(II)-terpyridyl chromophores, the latter acting as energy sinks. Due to the extended conjugated system the ligands are able to prolong the lifetime of the 3MLCT states compared to unsubstituted terpyridyl species by delocalization and energetic stabilization of the 3MLCT states. This concept is applied for the first time to Fe(II) terpyridyl species and results in an exceptionally long lifetime of 23 ps for the Fe(II) 3MLCT state. While partial energy (>80%) transfer is observed between the Ru(II) and Fe(II) centers with a time-constant of 15 ps, excitation energy is transferred completely from the Ru(II) to the Os(II) center within the first 200 fs after excitation.
- ItemPhotophysical Study on the Rigid Pt(II) Complex [Pt(naphen)(Cl)] (Hnaphen = Naphtho[1,2-b][1,10]Phenanthroline and Derivatives(Basel : MDPI, 2022) Krause, Maren; Maisuls, Iván; Buss, Stefan; Strassert, Cristian A.; Winter, Andreas; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Nair, Shruthi S.; Dietzek-Ivanšić, Benjamin; Klein, AxelThe electrochemistry and photophysics of the Pt(II) complexes [Pt(naphen)(X)] (Hnaphen = naphtho[1,2-b][1,10]phenanthroline, X = Cl or C≡CPh) containing the rigid tridentate C^N^N-coordinating pericyclic naphen ligand was studied alongside the complexes of the tetrahydro-derivative [Pt(thnaphen)(X)] (Hthnaphen = 5,6,8,9-tetrahydro-naphtho[1,2-b][1,10]phenanthroline) and the N^C^N-coordinated complex [Pt(bdq)(Cl)] (Hbdq = benzo[1,2-h:5,4-h’]diquinoline. The cyclic voltammetry showed reversible reductions for the C^N^N complexes, with markedly fewer negative potentials (around −1.6 V vs. ferrocene) for the complexes containing the naphen ligand compared with the thnaphen derivatives (around −1.9 V). With irreversible oxidations at around +0.3 V for all of the complexes, the naphen made a difference in the electrochemical gap of about 0.3 eV (1.9 vs. 2.2 eV) compared with thnaphen. The bdq complex was completely different, with an irreversible reduction at around −2 V caused by the N^C^N coordination pattern, which lacked a good electron acceptor such as the phenanthroline unit in the C^N^N ligand naphen. Long-wavelength UV-Vis absorption bands were found around 520 to 530 nm for the C^N^N complexes with the C≡CPh coligand and were red-shifted when compared with the Cl derivatives. The N^C^N-coordinated bdq complex was markedly blue-shifted (493 nm). The steady-state photoluminescence spectra showed poorly structured emission bands peaking at around 630 nm for the two naphen complexes and 570 nm for the thnaphen derivatives. The bdq complex showed a pronounced vibrational structure and an emission maximum at 586 nm. Assuming mixed 3LC/3MLCT excited states, the vibronic progression for the N^C^N bdq complex indicated a higher LC character than assumed for the C^N^N-coordinated naphen and thnaphen complexes. The blue-shift was a result of the different N^C^N vs. C^N^N coordination. The photoluminescence lifetimes and quantum yields ΦL massively increased from solutions at 298 K (0.06 to 0.24) to glassy frozen matrices at 77 K (0.80 to 0.95). The nanosecond time-resolved study on [Pt(naphen)(Cl)] showed a phosphorescence emission signal originating from the mixed 3LC/3MLCT with an emission lifetime of around 3 µs.