Browsing by Author "Wittmann, Christoph"
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- ItemA bio-based route to the carbon-5 chemical glutaric acid and to bionylon-6,5 using metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum(Cambridge : Royal Society of Chemistry, 2018) Rohles, Christina Maria; Gläser, Lars; Kohlstedt, Michael; Gießelmann, Gideon; Pearson, Samuel; del Campo, Aránzazu; Becker, Judith; Wittmann, ChristophIn the present work, we established the bio-based production of glutarate, a carbon-5 dicarboxylic acid with recognized value for commercial plastics and other applications, using metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum. The mutant C. glutamicum AVA-2 served as a starting point for strain development, because it secreted small amounts of glutarate as a consequence of its engineered 5-aminovalerate pathway. Starting from AVA-2, we overexpressed 5-aminovalerate transaminase (gabT) and glutarate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (gabD) under the control of the constitutive tuf promoter to convert 5-aminovalerate further to glutarate. The created strain GTA-1 formed glutarate as a major product, but still secreted 5-aminovalerate as well. This bottleneck was tackled at the level of 5-aminovalerate re-import. The advanced strain GTA-4 overexpressed the newly discovered 5-aminovalerate importer NCgl0464 and formed glutarate from glucose in a yield of 0.27 mol mol−1. In a fed-batch process, GTA-4 produced more than 90 g L−1 glutarate from glucose and molasses based sugars in a yield of up to 0.70 mol mol−1 and a maximum productivity of 1.8 g L−1 h−1, while 5-aminovalerate was no longer secreted. The bio-based glutaric acid was purified to >99.9% purity. Interfacial polymerization and melt polymerization with hexamethylenediamine yielded bionylon-6,5, a polyamide with a unique structure.
- ItemLimited life cycle andcost assessment for the bioconversion of lignin‐derived aromatics into adipic acid(New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley, 2020) van Duuren, Jozef B.J.H.; de Wild, Paul J.; Starck, Sören; Bradtmöller, Christian; Selzer, Mirjam; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Kohlstedt, Michael; Poblete‐Castr, Ignacio; Stolzenberger, Jessica; Barton, Nadja; Fritz, Michel; Scholl, Stephan; Venus, Joachim; Wittmann, ChristophLignin is an abundant and heterogeneous waste byproduct of the cellulosic industry, which has the potential of being transformed into valuable biochemicals via microbial fermentation. In this study, we applied a fast-pyrolysis process using softwood lignin resulting in a two-phase bio-oil containing monomeric and oligomeric aromatics without syringol. We demonstrated that an additional hydrodeoxygenation step within the process leads to an enhanced thermochemical conversion of guaiacol into catechol and phenol. After steam bath distillation, Pseudomonas putida KT2440-BN6 achieved a percent yield of cis, cis-muconic acid of up to 95 mol% from catechol derived from the aqueous phase. We next established a downstream process for purifying cis, cis-muconic acid (39.9 g/L) produced in a 42.5 L fermenter using glucose and benzoate as carbon substrates. On the basis of the obtained values for each unit operation of the empirical processes, we next performed a limited life cycle and cost analysis of an integrated biotechnological and chemical process for producing adipic acid and then compared it with the conventional petrochemical route. The simulated scenarios estimate that by attaining a mixture of catechol, phenol, cresol, and guaiacol (1:0.34:0.18:0, mol ratio), a titer of 62.5 (g/L) cis, cis-muconic acid in the bioreactor, and a controlled cooling of pyrolysis gases to concentrate monomeric aromatics in the aqueous phase, the bio-based route results in a reduction of CO2-eq emission by 58% and energy demand by 23% with a contribution margin for the aqueous phase of up to 88.05 euro/ton. We conclude that the bio-based production of adipic acid from softwood lignins brings environmental benefits over the petrochemical procedure and is cost-effective at an industrial scale. Further research is essential to achieve the proposed cis, cis-muconic acid yield from true lignin-derived aromatics using whole-cell biocatalysts. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.